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any half notes but those in the natural scale, and with no more than two octaves of strings from C to C, -I conjecture from another circumstance, which is, that not one of those tunes really ancient, has a single artificial half-note in it; and that in tunes where it was most convenient for the voice to use the middle note of the harp, and place the key in F, there the B-which if used, should be a B Ratis always omitted by passing over it with a third. The connoisseurs in modern music will say I have no taste, but I cannot help adding that I believe our ancestors in hearing a good song distinctly articulated, sung to one of those tunes, and accompanied by the harp, felt more real pleasure than is communicated by the generality of modern operas, exclusive of that arising from the scenery and dancing. Most tunes of late composition not having the natural harmony united with their melody, have recourse to the artificial harmony of a bass, and other accompanying parts. This support, in my opinion, the old tunes do not need, and are rather confused than aided by it. Whoever has heard James Oswald play them on his violincello, will be less inclined to dispute this with me. I have more than once seen tears of pleasure in the eyes of his auditors; and yet I think even bis playing thosu tunes would please more, if he gave them less modern ornament."
David Hume, who amongst many others much regretted Dr. Frank lin's departure for his native country, thus wrote on the occasion : “I am very sorry that you intend soon to leave our hemisphere. America has sent us many good things,--gold, silver, sugar, tobacco, indigo, &c., but you are the first philosopher, and indeed the first great man of letters for whom we are beholden to her. It is our own fault that we have not kept him ; whence it appears that we do not agree with Solomon, that wisdom is above gold; for we take care never to send back an ounce of the latter, which we once lay our fingers upon," Franklin replied.--"Your compliment of gold and wisdom is very obliging to me, but a little injurious to your country. The various value of every thing in every part of this world arises, you know, from the various proportions of the quantity to the demand. We are told that gold and silver in Solomon's time was so plentiful, as to be of no more value in his country than the stones in the streets. You have here at present just such a plenty of wisdom. Your people are, therefore, not be censured for desire ing no more among them than they have; and, if I have any, I should certainly carry it where, from its scarcity, it may probably come to a better market."
A few days before he sailed, Franklin's son was appointed governor of New Jersey, although the appointment was not publicly announced for some time. It is evident from this act that the ministry had now no prejudice against the father, on account of the part he had taken in the Pensylvanian controversy. This proof of confidence was displeasing to the proprietaries; but they endeavoured to console themselves by thinking that the son would henceforward be obliged to obey instructions, and that the father could not oppose in Pensylvania what was done in New Jersey. This hope was of short duration. Franklin continued as un tractable as ever, zealous in the people's cause, firm in its support, and active in every measure for establishing their rights on the basis of liberty and a just administration of the government.
On the immediate eve of quitting England, Franklin thus expressed himself by letter from Portsmouth to Lord Kames ;—“I am now waiting here only for a wind to waft me to America, but cannot leave this happy island and my friends in it without extreme regret, though I am going to a country and a people that I love. I am going from the old world to the new; and I fancy I feel like those, who are leaving this world for the next-grief at the parting-fear of the passage--hope of the future."
RETURN TO AMERICA IN 1762.
Having, as we have seen, accomplished the object of his mission in England, Franklin returned to America in 1762. But as the following account of his voyage home, and of the events of his life, until his next visit to England, is given by himself in a letter to Lord Kames, dated Craven Street, London, June 2nd, 1765, it will be unnecessary to introduce anything else for the purpose of preserving the continuity and interest of his career for some time.
“You require my history from the time I set sail for America. I left England about the end of August, 1762, in company with ten sail of mercbant ships, under convoy of a man of war. We had a pleasant passage to Madeira, where we were kindly received and entertained ; our nation being then in high honour with the Portuguese, on account of the protection we were then affording them against the united invasions of France and Spain. 'Tis a fertile island, and the different heights and situations among its mountains afford such different temperatures of air that all the fruits of northern and southern countries are produced
there ; corn, grapes, apples, peaches, oranges, lemons, plantains, bananas, &c
Here we furnished ourselves with fresh provisions, and refreshments of all kinds; and after a few days proceeded on our voyage, running southward, till we got into the trade winds, and then with them westward, till we drew near the coast of America. The weather was bo favourable, that there were few days in which we could not visit from ship to ship, dining with each other, and on board the man of war; which made he time pass agreeably, much more so than when one goes in a single hip; for this was like travelling in a moving village, with all one's heighbours about one.
"On the 1st of November I arrived safe and well at my own house .fter an absence of near six years,--found my wife and daughter well, he latter grown quite a woman, with many amiable accomplishments !cquired in my absence, and my friends as hearty and affectionate as ver; with whom my house was filled for many days, to congratulate mo in my return. I had been chosen yearly during my absence to repreent the city of Philadelphia in our Provincial Assembly; and on my ppearance in the House they voted me £3,000 sterling for ny serices in England, and their thanks delivered by the speaker. In Februry following, my son arrived with my new daughter; for with my conant and approbation, he married soon after I left England, a very agreeble West India lady, with whom he is very happy. I accompanied im into his government, where he met with the kindest reception from ae people of all ranks, and has lived with them ever since in the reatest harmony. A river only parts that province and ours, and his
esidence is within seventeen miles of me, so that we frequently see each other.
“ In the spring of 1763, I set out on a tour through all the northern colonies to inspect and regulate the post offices in the several provinces. In this journey I spent the summer, travelled 1600 miles, and did not get home till the beginning of November. The Assembly sitting through the following winter, and warm disputes arising between them and the governor, I became wholly engaged in public affairs : for besides my duty as an Assembly man, I had another trust to execute, that of being one of the commissioners appointed by law to dispose of the public money appropriated to the raising and paying an army to act against the Indians, and defend the frontiers. And then, in December, we had two insurrections of the back inhabitants of our province, by whom twenty poor Indians were murdered, that had from the first settlement
of the province lived amongst us, under the protection of our government. This gave me a great deal of employment ; for as the rioters threatened further mischief, and their actions seemed to be approved by au increasing party, I wrote a pamphlet, entitled 'a Narrative, &c.,' which I think I sent you, to strengthen the hands of our weak government, by rendering the proceedings of our rioters unpopular and odious. This had the desired effect; and afterwards when a great body of them with arms marched towards the capital, in defiance of the government, with an avowed resolution to put to death 140 Indian converts then under its protection, I formed an association, at the governor's request, for his and their protection, we having no militia. Nearly 1000 of thé citizens accordingly took arms: Governor Penn made my house his head-quarters, and did everything by my advice; so that for about forty-eight hours I was a very great man, as I had been once some years before, in a time of public danger : but the fighting face we put on, and the reasonings we used with the insurgents (for I went at the request of the governor and council, with three others, to meet and discourse with them), having turned them back and restored quiet to the city, I became a less man than ever,--for I had by these transactions made myself many enemies among the populace,--and the governor (with whose family our public disputes had long placed me in an unfriendly light, and the services I had lately rendered him not being of the kind that make a man acceptable), thinking it a favourable opportunity, joined the whole weight of the proprietary interest to get me out of the Assembly, which was accordingly effected at the last election, by a majority of about 25 in 4000 voters. The House, however, when they met in October approved of the resolutions taken while I was speaker, of petitioning the crown for a change of government, and requested me to return to England to prosecute that petition, which service I accordingly undertook.”
There being no money in the treasury, that could be immediately appropriated to defray the gent's expenses, the Assembly voted that these expenses should be provided for in the next bill that should be passed for raising money. Upon the strength of this pledge, the merchants in two hours, subscribed eleven hundred pounds as a loan to the public for this object. On the 7th of November, only twelve days after his appointment Franklin left Philadelphia accompanied by a cavalcade of three hundred citizens who attended him to Chester, where he was to go on board the vessel. “The affectionate leave taken of me
by so many dear friends at Chester," said he," was very endearing ; God bless them, and all Pensylvania.” He sailed the next day, but the ship was detained over night at Reedy Island in the Delaware. At that place he wrote a letter to his daughter from which the following is an extract:
My dear child, the natural prudence and goodness of heart God has blessed you with, make it less necessary for me to be particular in giving you advice. I shall therefore only say, that the more attentively dutiful and tender you are towards your good mamma, the more you will recommend yourself to me. But why should I mention me, when you have so much higher a promise in the commandments, that such conduct will recommend you to the favour of God. You know I have many enemies, all indeed on the public account, (for I cannot recollect that I have in a private capacity given just cause of offence to any one whatover), yet they are enemies and very bitter ones, and you must expect their enmity will extend in some degree to you, so that your slightest indiscretions will be magnified into crimes, in order the more sensibly to wound and afflict me. It is, therefore, the more necessary for you to be extremely circumspect in all your behaviour, that no advantage may be given to their malevolence.
“Go constantly to church, whoever preaches. The act of devotion in the Common Prayer Book is your principal business there, and if properly attended to, will do more towards amending the heart than ser. mons generally can do ; for they were composed by men of much greater piety and wisdom, than our common composers of sermons can pretend to be ; and therefore I wish you would never miss the prayer days; yet I do not mean you should despise sermons, even of the preachers you dislike; for the discourse is often much better than the man, as sweet and clear water comes through very dirty earth. I am the more particular on this head, as you seemed to express, a little before I came away, some inclination to leave our church, which I would not have
After a tempestuous voyage of thirty days, he landed at Portsmouth, and proceeded immediately to London. When the news of his safe arrival came back to Philadelphia, his friends celebrated the event by the ringing of bells and other demonstrations of joy