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II.

Anno 1577.

with the

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BOOK that usurping, ambitious prince, so near them, and likewise

from France.

And in order to their better success, they thought it adEndeavours visable to labour to bring over the prince of Orange, the prince of chief defender of those poor people, to quit the reformed yield in re- religion. Dr. Wylson, the queen's ambassador now at Brusligion. sels, sent this intelligence thence concerning that prince:

“ That he was sought unto by all means to yield in reli

gion. And that one Dr. Longolius, alias Leoninus, of Lo“ vain, was a principal instrument from don John to work

Wherein if any appearance were of yielding, the prince should have what he would. Yea, that don John “ offered him a blank, and would come to him in person to “ S. Gertrudenburgh; with further promise, that his son “ should be sent out of Spain; and by order taken should “ succeed his father in all his government whatsoever.” And therefore the said ambassador advised (in his said letter) the lord treasurer Burghley, (to whom that letter was wrote,) that he wished he [that prince] were cherished, so far as conveniently might be. Whereof he doubted not his lordship would ever have good consideration. And one reason, no doubt, was to keep Spain, that enemy of England, at a distance.

About this time, or not long after, in the month of May, there was a Discourse sent out of the Low Countries unto secretary Walsingham, dated May 4. And so it is endorsed

by that secretary's own hand: which therefore is of the more Foreign weight. It will give a sight of these foreign matters, as matters

reaching unto this kingdom, and the welfare of it: coming, reaching this king- as it seems, from one of that secretary's secret corresponddom.

ents. Advising, how monsieur, the French king's brother, was going with an army thither, pretending to assist that people, and to work them deliverance, by driving don John out of the country; but how jealous they might justly be of

him; and that the issue of his success there would be no 474 more, than to subject them to France, and so to render that

kingdom more formidable to its neighbours. So that the queen was concerned to look about her, and to use all the.

p. 472.

means she could to discourage this enterprise: and rather CHAP.

VI. to assist duke Casimire, that was coming thither with his forces: and secretly to enter into a war, to prevent the Anno 1577. States falling either into the hands of France, or further to be oppressed by Spain. The discourse is as followeth :

“ They are about to play such a tragedy in this country, Intelligence “ touching matters of the state and religion, as if her ma-singham. "jesty do not bear therein such a part as she ought, she is Titus, B. 2. “like out of hand to see that she would not.

“ The duke of Alanson prepareth great forces in France; “ which will be in a readiness before midsummer. He doth “ openly confess, that he doth nothing without his brother's “ will and consent: without the which, men of judgment “ had never any great hope of him. Hereby the end of his "departure from the king is known. And indeed it could “no longer be hidden from those that are acquainted with “Bussi's voyage to Paris, and his conference had with the “duke of Guise, the Spanish ambassador, and such like.

“ His demands of the States are very small, and in effect " of no weight. He promiseth to drive don John out of the “ country at his own cost and charges. After which time, “ if they do resolve to change their lord, he prayeth to be preferred before “He giveth it out, that he will give an example or pattern in these countries of the manner how he meaneth to carry himself in two enterprises which he intendeth against

two kingdoms, which he nameth to be Naples and Sicily. “ But it is feared the kingdoms he meaneth are nearer unto “ France. He must needs shoot at one of these two marks. “ The first, and which is most feared, under colour of assist“ ing the States, to oppress them : which is gathered by “three sound reasons. First, by his former dealings to“ wards those of the religion. Secondly, by the interest " that the crown of France hath in the example of the dis“ solving or reforming of this state. And thirdly, by the

amity and sincere intelligence which the king his brother “ and he have with the Spaniard; having lately procured a “ truce between the Turk and him, for the better further

any other.

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II.

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ance of his affairs in these parts. By this first mark the

tyranny of the Spaniards shall be established in these Anno 1577.6 countries, to their prejudice, that know the inconveni.

“ ences likely to follow of the same; and that have opposed
" themselves thereunto.

“ The other mark is, to be pricked forward with desire
“ of greatness, by joining these countries, or a great part of
“ the same, to the crown of France; which in outward shew
“ he seemeth to pretend : and being come with great forces,

“ and having great intelligence in the said country, to lay Duke Casi- “ wait for duke Casimire's person, to despatch him out of

way;

the better afterwards to deal with these of the religion, who have none else whereto to trust unto in Ger“ many, but him. And finally, that having possessed him“ self of the countries, France may be able on every side to

overtop England, whilst they do practise new troubles in “ Scotland.

Having these two strings to his bow, he doth so earnestly press the States here in his negotiation; as whether

“it be to their liking or disliking, he is fully resolved to
475“ come. The poor men, having the wolf, as the common say-

“ ing is, by the ears, cannot resolve, whether it should be
« less hurtful and dangerous for them to have open enmity
“ by refusing him, or to have him in continual jealousy, by
“ accepting him to them.

“ To meet with these two inconveniences, the queen is to

use two remedies. The one is, the war earnestly followed. “ The other is, to procure a peace. But that would hinder

greatly her majesty's affairs. For that by such means the

Spaniard should be put again in authority, if not as great “ as heretofore, yet likely to come to it by the only accident “ of the prince of Orange's death, if he should happen to “ die. Besides, her majesty should greatly discourage such

as are devoted to her here, by procuring unto them a

very hurtful and dangerous peace. And further, there is “ small likelihood here of acceptation of peace, the change “ of the lord, or alteration of the state, being intended, if “ not already resolved on.

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VI.

as he

“There remaineth, that the queen should take in hand a CHAP. “ secret war, by strengthening duke Casimire in such sort,

may be able secretly in her name to make head Anno 1577. " against the king and his brother, as long as he shall be “ here: and to send him over into France, if need should “ require, to divert the course of the enterprises. For it “ will be more profitable and necessary, that in case this “state be driven to change masters, they should rather “ choose a new one, than by yielding themselves unto “ France, to make the same so strong, that they may be “ able to bridle their neighbours.

“ For which purpose it were requisite her majesty did not only secretly strengthen the said duke Casimire with " the 2000 corselets already required, but also with as “ many more at her own charges. To the end, that having “ armed him to withstand all enterprises against her, he

may do her some worthy service in these troublesome “ times. And upon this so apt occasion, as if her majesty “ do not make her benefit of it now, she is not like to have " the like again.” This advice, as it seems, took effect.

For of this intelligence, as well as other occurrences of the lord the Low Countries, the secretary Walsingham informed the treasurer's lord treasurer, now at Buxton Well, being retired thither thereof.

Titus, B. 2. for his health. And in August he gave the earl of Sussex this short account: viz. That the said secretary had advertised him of the occurrences in the Low Countries: the issue whereof he much feared. Both for that don John had secretly foreseen his power to pursue his attempts; and that he knew the weakness of the States to withstand him long, by reason of their divisions, by lack of conductors. Yet, as he added, that seeing he seemed to mean ill, he hoped God would weaken his power, and infatuate his Italian or Spanish practices. And so thanked God for these diversions of our deserved troubles : reckoning, that these heats abroad would divert the disturbances that threatened this land by those foreign enemies of our welfare.

These apprehensions, and the spite of our neighbours The lord (however secret and close) against us, stirred up that grave letter of

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JI.

counsel to

the queen

BOOK counsellor, sir Nicolas Bacon, lord keeper, to write a large and

earnest letter to her majesty, Nov. 20; and being one of the Anno 1577. last manifestations of his wisdom, dying just about a quar

ter of a year after, viz. 20th of Feb. 1578, must needs be in this pre- acceptable; therein giving his sage counsel to the queen in sent junc- this juncture. Being to this purport; “ That, that which, 476“ if time and her affairs would have suffered, he meant to

“ have done by present speech, he was driven by absence to “ do by letter: not doubting nevertheless, that though his pen “ and speech were not present, yet by her majesty's great “ wisdom, considered together with the advice of her grave “ and wise counsellors, all things should be sufficiently fore“ seen and provided for. And he trusted, she would take “ his writing (though not needful) in good part, &c. Where“ in he shewed her three great enemies, France, Spain, and “ Rome, mighty and potent princes. And her danger sought

by them very great. The fear whereof was so great in “ him, that he could not be quiet in himself without re“ membering her of the same: and that it was better for “ him to offend by fearing too much, than by hoping too “ much. That as these three great enemies had three easy

and means to annoy her; so she had three ready re66 medies to withstand them, if taken in time. The means “ that France had, was by Scotland; Spain by the Low “ Countries; Rome by his musters here in England. Now “ the helps, according to his understanding, were these. To “ withstand France, who had his way by Scotland, was to “ assure Scotland to England: a thing that was not hard “ to do. The remedy for the better framing of the Low “ Countries was, that her majesty should send some man of “ credit, both to confer with the prince of Orange, and to “ understand what was thought there to be the best re“ medies to defend them, and to meet with all dangers that “ might grow that way.

“ The remedy to be had here in England against Rome, “ was her majesty's good countenance and credit to her

good subjects, that were enemies to the usurped authority “ of Rome; and earnest, severe handling of the contrary

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