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“ for one year bear his [improbitatem] stubbornness; but CHAP. " that afterwards, unless he conformed himself to the cus“ toms of the university, he should pronounce sentence ac- Anno 1576. “cording to the statute. He desired therefore his lord“ ship's advice by letter or message. For that he could not "contain others in their duty and in order, if, as he said, “ every one might live freely according to their own plea“ sure: nor certainly would the laws of the university have “any force, unless rebels and stubborn persons were re“ strained by punishment prescribed.”

One Gauton, formerly of a trade, now curate of a church Gauton, a in Norwich, is called before Freake, the bishop of Norwich, minister in for his principles and practices dissonant from the esta-convented blished discipline of the church; and who had also confuted bishop. Part in his sermon what the bishop's chaplain had preached a of a Regislittle before. Being summoned before the bishop in his house, he began to take notice to Gauton of his taking upon him to confute what his chaplain had preached; and that he admonished his parishioners to beware of such false doctrine. To whom Gauton briskly answered, (as he related the matter himself,) " Was it not meet for me so to do, "since he preached such false doctrine? As, that we had “ natural motions to draw us unto God : and, that albeit

none came to Christ but such whom the Father draweth, “yet all come not whom God doth draw; but that it is in “ man whether he will be drawn or no." The bishop told him, that he did this but the Sunday next after his chaplain had preached; and that he had in the mean time explained what he had asserted before, to the satisfaction of all. The other replied, Nay, he had made it worse than at first. The bishop asked him, Wherein ? Gauton said, for that in his last sermon he said, that hearing was (believing]; and that Paul saith, Faith cometh by hearing. But hearing is a natural gift. And so we have faith by nature: and consequently are saved by nature; as that minister inferred from the chaplain's argument. Hereupon the bishop said, he would call him to dispute with him upon this point. The other answered, that he was well enough able to confute his false 448


Anno 1576.

nor obsery



BOOK doctrine.

But the bishop said, that was not the matter he II.

was sent for: for that he had other matters against him.

Then the bishop charged him, that he wore not the surnot wearing plice, nor observed the orders of the queen's book, neither the surplice, in prayers nor administration of the sacrament.

He aning the

swered, that indeed he wore not the surplice; but otherwise he was not to be charged for not observing the order of the book : and added very confidently, that he had long since heard at the court, that he, the bishop himself, liked not so greatly of the surplice; and that therefore he doubted that worldly dignity and vain glory led him to do against his own conscience; and wished him to look if it were not

Whereunto the bishop replied, that there was no cause why any should think so of him: for he ware the surplice, or the apparel, that was as ill, in his account: or that if he were now to say service, or to minister the sacraments, he would wear it. To which the other very pertly answered, that he was the more sorry.

By the dean and commissary he was asked, whether, by serving his cure in Norwich, he acknowledged himself subject to the jurisdiction of the bishop. He answered, that he did not acknowledge himself subject to such jurisdiction as the bishop did use and claim. And when they willed him to beware what he answered in denying authority; he answered, he was not afraid to deny the unfaithful authority of bishops, archdeacons, chancellors, commissaries, and such like.

This man, so very impudent and malapert with the bishop, and with his officers, after divers other articles alleged against him, was suspended. And when the bishop told him he would suspend him, and he should go again to his former occupation; he said, he thanked God he had an occupation, and so, he said, had Paul and our Saviour too.

The dean sat a little before at St. George's about such ecclesiastical matters; but now, about the examination of

Gawton, he sat in the bishop's chamber : against which he The inso- excepted, crying out, This your dealing with me in huggerlence of the puritans.

mugger, and in corners, will not further your cause, but


hinder it, and further ours. For all men may see that you CHAP. fear the light. The dean answered, he was so used at St. George's the other day, that he durst not for his life sit Anno 1576. there any more. But that Gawton might without peril of his life come to the bishop's chamber. One Harvy, a noncomplier, and a disowner of the bishop's jurisdiction, was at that time suspended. But Gawton took his part, and said, that Harvy was able by the word of God to prove his calling lawful. And further he then said, both to the bishop and the dean, that they had no authority on their side: but, in a confident way of challenge, bade them both take unto them whom they would in England; “ We are here not

past half a dozen in this city, and (if you dare) confer “ with us by learning. And if we be not able to prove that “ we hold by the word of God, we will not only yield, but

we will also yield our lives.” But the bishop only said 449 to this, that it was uncharitably spoken; they sought not their lives.

I might here subjoin the other articles exhibited at this Other artitime against him before the bishop; with his answers: as, him.

cles against that he observed not the orders prescribed by the book. To which he answered, that he did not think himself by law bound precisely to every part of it. Item, That he did not read the service appointed, nor the chapters, gospels, and epistles, nor the collects; nor married, and ministered the sacraments according to the book. He answered to this, that by reason of preaching he omitted some of them, as by law he might. That he observed the rest, except in baptism the cross and vows. Item, That he preached without renewing his licence, since the day appointed in the bishop's canons. To which he said, he was a minister of the word of God; and therefore that was sufficient authority to preach the word in his own parish without their licence.

One Harvey also, a minister in the city of Norwich, Harvey sus(mentioned before,) was summoned before the bishop of pended his

ministry. that diocese, May the 13th, for some puritan principles, and particularly for preaching against the government of this church by the hierarchy of bishops, and their dignity, and


ter to the

BOOK ecclesiastical officers. The sufficiency of his calling also to

the ministry was called into question; and, at a court held Anno 1576. at St. George's church, where the court then sat, suspended

from his ministry by sentence pronounced by the dean of Norwich. At which Gawton beforesaid was present, and much displeased at the proceedings with him, carrying himself rudely there, and saying afterwards, when his own business was in hand, that the dean behaved himself not like a judge, but very intemperately, like a tyrant against Mr. Harvey: and that he was able, by the word of God, to

prove his calling lawful. His bold let- But now what more particularly were this man's prinbishop. Part ciples, and how affected he stood to this church's constituof a Regis; tion, may be judged by a confident ruffling letter that he ter, p. 365.

sent some days after to the bishop, (for him I take to be
R. H. subscribed, the writer,) pretending therein to render
a further account of his behaviour before him in the court
where he sat as a judge: His protestation, he said, always
remembered ; meaning the denial of his lawful authority in
the church, by warrant of the gospel. He first wished him
peace and truth, if he pertained to God. And then began,
“ That he might see, if he shut not his eyes, how the man
of sin, he of Rome, he meant, did pervert and corrupt
“ the doctrine of Christ; so that not one free spot of it did
“ remain. And that in like manner touching the regiment
“ of the church and discipline, whereas our Saviour, Lord
“ and only King of his church, sate in the seat of judgment,
“ &c. that man plucked him out of his throne, and placed
“ himself there. These things he hoped the bishop knew.
“ That then we had to consider, that when Christ reigned,
“ his officers were bishops and pastors, elders and deacons.
“ In the scriptures of God we found it so. Now when the

“ pope had removed this government, he placed new gover450“ nors of another kind of name and office, that is to say,

“ cardinals, archbishops, lords bishops, deans, chancellors, “ commissaries, with the rest of that ungracious guard. “ Thus doctrine and government being both thrown down, “ it pleased the Lord, in his time, to bestow upon us some



“ benefit. For he had, by means of our good prince, purged CHAP. “ the doctrine of Christ from devilish error; being ready “ also to have restored to us true discipline, if our own mi- Anno 1576. “serable unthankfulness and lazy slackness had not hin“ dered. But you, (meaning the bishop,) and such as you “ be, whet the edge of your wooden sword, viz. your coun“terfeit authority, to stand in the way to shut the gate of paradise, and to keep us from the tree of life. “ But to come to the government of the church, he [the bishop) saw, that it was not at all altered; and he knew, " that where the pope's officers, whom he created, did bear “ rule, there he bore rule himself. So that you see, added "he, in this state of the church, the reins of government be “ not in the hands of Christ, but in the hands of Antichrist. “ And that whereas they shrouded themselves under the

shadow of the prince, saying, that she created them and " their authority, &c. but he could discourse of that gene“ration better than so: he knew it of a truth, that the arch“ bishop begat them, and the bishop of Rome begat him, “ and the Devil begat him. So now, in respect of their of“ fices, they saw who was their grandsire, and who their great grandsire. “ But, as he proceeded, that whereas they said, that though the prince did not create them, yet she allowed of "them; he answered, that forasmuch as Christ was the

only lawgiver in his church, and the only ordainer of of“ ficers therein, if any king or prince in the world ordain “or allow other officers than Christ hath already ordained “or allowed, we will, said he, rather lay down our necks

on the block, than consent thereto. Wherefore do not use to object unto us so oft the name of our prince. For

you use it as a cloak to cover your cursed enterprises. “ — That they sought out of her authority to scratch " poison, i. e. the hinderance of the gospel of Christ. He " bade them remember what they had done. Have you

not thrust out some, whom God had placed over his

people; even such as preached the lively word faithfully " and sincerely? Have you not plucked out those preachers,


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