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BOOK lying together, commonly called Asshers. Whereof fifty

acres were set thinly with beeches, oaks, thorns, holly: and Anno 1579. three hundred and fifty acres waste ground, of heaths and

furzes. This he was to have and enjoy fifty years; if he, or any of his seven sons, should live so long : yielding and paying unto her majesty and heirs the yearly rent of 101. And to deliver at the town of Southampton twenty ton of saltpetre, good, perfect, and well refined, for the sum of 401. for every ton. And to deliver to her majesty twenty ton, before the feast of John Baptist, 1580. And to deliver yearly the same quantity at the said feast ...... If at any time the queen may have any quantity of saltpetre, of like goodness, delivered at the city of London upon a less price than 401. the ton; then Cornelius, or his assigns, to deliver all the saltpetre he shall make at the same price ...... If he make defect in delivering yearly the same quantity, then the lease to be void.

And for the more probability of its taking effect, sir Edw. cess he had Horsey, governor of the Isle of Wight, wrote to the lord dertaking. treasurer, about May 25, this year, that Cornelius had

made a good quantity of saltpetre; which he saw himself in the vessels a-boiling about twenty days past; and was then come to perfection. And that five or six days past, one of the officers of the forest brought him some of the same stuff, which was not then refined; but by this, he thought, it might be, and more made. That Cornelius promised it would take good effect: and that otherwise it would be his utter undoing: for his charge was great. He went then for a time to Dorsetshire, to another work he had there, for making of alum: such a genius this man had towards such works.

Cornelius, in June, 1580, writes to the lord treasurer to this import: “ That whatsoever good might happen to the

“ commonwealth, by his service, must needs be imputed to 616“ his lordship. For as at the first his great care and

“ zealous good-will to further such a service for his coun

try, was such as did much encourage him to attempt so chargeable and hard a thing; which the multitude



thought impossible to be done; so if his wisdom had not CHAP. “ been the only means, whereby his great faults (in failing “ in his terms had been borne withal, it had been long ago Anno 1579. “overthrown, to his utter shame and undoing. And that “ sir Edw. Horsey had lent him money to go on.

That he “had with much ado brought to work this point; that he “found, that the earth which had been housed but since “ Christmas last, yielded such quantities of stuff, as assured “bim of treble increase in continuance. That at first he lost “all that he had ever bestowed in one whole year, by reason “of unseasonable weather. He requested the supply of “ 1001. without which he was unable to finish this great “work : whereupon, he said, he had bestowed 10001.” What success this business further had, I know not.

For the same end and purpose, viz. the safety of the land, Lane's defortification was also necessary. One Rafe Lane, a project- fortificaing gentleman of these times, (especially in martial affairs,) tions. offers to the lord treasurer devices for fortification: now especially for the seaports, when some invasion was this year expected. What he would undertake, and what satisfaction he would give, to assure the queen to make good what he offered, let his letter to that lord speak, as follows:

Knowing how grateful a thing it hath been to all princes His letter to in any necessity, to have in time special service offered unto the lord

treasurer. "them: and how lamentable ruins by hostile invasion or at“tempts may befall to a whole kingdom, for want of a timely “ provision, (in appearance though small.) Forasmuch as I “ understand, by no vulgar report, her majesty is likely this year to be attempted in more places than one; I have " therefore presumed at this present, for her majesty's ser“vice, and for the safety of the whole estate, against any " foreign force whatsoever, to put your lordship (as my most

special good lord) in remembrance of such a mean, as shall, “ with the favour of the Almighty, to the end aforesaid, be " of great force, of small charge ; and in very short time to “ be accomplished and finished.

"Sir, my plat briefly doth concern an ordinance and for" tification of all the harbours that her majesty hath, either

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“ in England or Ireland. The same to be for three months tenable, against any power or battery royal, either by sea

land ...... The work of the said fortification to be both “ begun and also to be accomplished, ready for the said de“ fence, within the space of one month after the first spade “ shall be put in the ground: and that without further set

tling and seasoning ...... And because neither her majesty “ shall adventure any charge, nor your lordship any speech “ or commendation of any my sufficiency, without some

apparent proof and ocular testimony beforehand; I am, (having warrant for the same,) in any convenient place of

ground, wheresoever to be assigned unto me, to make a “ demonstration of my aforesaid offer; by rearing the first “ turf, and laying forth the first ground-plot, both spacious “ and massive, ready afterwards, and easy to be finished and

perfected by every common labourer, even with common “ direction, for the defence above-mentioned.

“ The time of this my trial shall be seven days. The “ charges 201. to be laid out upon eighty labourers. The “ time for finishing and perfecting the same for defence one “ month. The charge of the whole; the first 201. three “ times triplicated; and four times doubled. The first proof “ whereof, viz. of the first seven days, shall be at my charge: “ being no less desirous to do her majesty some effectual, “ important service, than glad, that her majesty should not “ altogether be ignorant, both of my dutiful devotion any

way to serve her majesty, and of some sufficiency (more “ than looked for at my hands) in some effectual sort to per“ form the same."

I end this year with the names, titles, and offices of those

that were now of her majesty's privy-council. The lords 1. Sir Thomas Bromley, kt. lord chancellor of England.

2. Lord Burghley, lord treasurer of England. queen's

and others of the

3. Earl of Shrewsbury.

4. Earl of Lincoln, lord admiral.
5. Earl of Sussex, lord chamberlain of the household.
6. Earl of Arundel.
7. Earl of Warwick, master of the ordnance.

Anno 1579.


Anno 1579.

8. Earl of Bedford. 9. Earl of Leicester, master of the horse. 10. Lord of Hunsdon. 11. Sir Francis Knolles, treasurer of the household. 12. Sir James Crofte, comptroller of the household. 13. Sir Christopher Hatton, vice-chamberlain. 14. Sir Henry Sidney, kt. of the order, lord president, &c. 15. Sir Francis Walsingham, and 16. Mr. Thomas Wylson, esq. principal secretaries. 17. Sir Raufe Sadler, chancellor of the duchy. 18. Sir Walter Mildmay, chancellor of the exchequer.


618 The French king's brother departs. The queen's concern

thereat. The French ambassador and prince of Condé in private communication with the queen, about assisting of the king of Navar. What it was, the

What it was, the queen tells the lord treasurer. His thoughts of Condês message. The queen's message by Randolph to Scotland, in favour of earl Morton, and for removing D’Aubigny from the king. Her notable declaration to those states assembled, by Randolph. Il counsellors about the king : their names and characters. That nation's ingratitude to the queen. Some account of earl Morton. D'Aubigny professes himself a protestant. The lord president of the north, his letter concerning these Scotch matters. A popish rebel

lion, and invasion in Ireland. It was not before this year, 1580, that monsieur departed Anno 1580. home out of England, re infecta, to the nation's great satis-Duke d’Anfaction. He took shipping for Flanders; and minded to out of England at Flushing; where the Estates were to meet him, land. Thence intending for Antwerp. Whither he went to assist those of the Low Countries against the Spaniard. He was very honourably attended with many of the nobility: and there went over with him the earl of Leicester, the lord Hunsdon, the lord Charles Howard, the lord Thomas How.


BOOK ard, the lord Windsor, lord Sheffield, lord Willoughby, and

a number of young gentlemen beside. As soon as he came Anno 1580. to Antwerp, all of the English nation returned back. And

upon report of a great scarcity both of victuals and all things else in Flanders at this time, the earl of Leicester carried over with him fifty beeves and five hundred muttons, for the pro

vision, during their being there.. The parting The departure was mournful between her highness and sorrowful.

monsieur : she loath to let him go, and he as troubled to depart; and promised to return in March. But how his causes in the Low Countries would permit him was uncertain. He took shipping at Sandwich. But in the way betwixt Canterbury and Sandwich, a French gentleman, called La Fine, lost a portmanteau, full of jewels, esteemed in value to be 6000 crowns: which caused the gentleman to stay in England, in hopes to hear some good tidings of them. The lord Howard went away the night before, to see the ships in readiness. And being aboard, in the night-time, by the forgetfulness of a bow, the ship was set on fire in the gun-room. And before it was espied, it had almost got to the powder, By great chance, a man of that lord's laid himself flat in the flame, and tumbled in it: and so stayed the fire from the

powder, till water came; otherwise it had blown up the ship, 619 and all that were aboard. That party was scorched, both

face and hands; and his girdle burnt. It was one of the greatest ships.

All this was the news at court, sent to the earl of Shrewsaccompanies bim to

bury by his son, Francis Talbot. As also that the queen Canterbury herself accompanied monsieur as far as Canterbury. And

that she was minded to go to Greenwich or St. James's; though Greenwich was not now altogether free of the plague. At her return she meant to lodge at no place in which she had lodged as she went, (to prevent, as it seems, the reviving the thoughts of monsieur.] Neither would she come at Whitehall; because the place should not give cause of remembrance of him to her, with whom she so unwillingly parted. Where we cannot but observe, that such was her majesty's presence of mind, and care of her subjects' wel

The queen

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