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“party. And that it was high time so to do; because of CHAP. “ late times they were grown in their numbers. And be“ sides these remedies, that Casimire might be prepared anno 1577. “ and ready against all chances.” The whole letter, whereof this is but a short and defective account, may be read in the Appendix.

Numb. VII. As for Spain, whose king was one of the formidablest of the king of the queen's back-friends, sir John Smith, who was now re- of treasure. turned home from his embassy there, brought this intelligence, that that king, notwithstanding all his mighty treasure, was in want. Which was no unwelcome news to this as well as other countries : as tending to weaken all his ambitious projects. Which news the lord treasurer communicated to the earl of Shrewsbury in a letter dated in August, “ That sir John Smith, now come from Spain, reported, " that the king there had great lack of treasure, whatsoever “ had been said to the contrary. I wish he had plenty of

treasure,” added this lord, “ so we were sure he had

plenty of good-will towards us:” meaning how little of that he had for the queen and kingdom. She was also at this time alarmed by reports brought of Reports


conveying secret endeavours from France and the Low Countries, to convey away the Scottish queen this summer: nay, and Scotch that she was escaped and gone. The earl of Shrewsbury, alarms the who had the keeping of her, had brought her of late to his court. house at Chatsworth. Where he received a letter, writ in the month of September, from the lord treasurer, that gave him notice of these rumours, and of the apprehensions the queen was in, arising hereupon. And withal gave him advice (though, as he added, he little doubted thereof) to be 477 more watchful, however careful and diligent he had hitherto been; and that the queen herself intended to give him warning of this danger. The substance of which letter, giving account of the particulars of the flying talk at court, was as follows:



“ That at his coming to court he found such alarms by “ news directly written from France, and from the Low



Lord trea

surer warns the earl of


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“ Countries, of the queen of Scots escape, either already

“ made, or very shortly to be attempted. But that he surely Anno 1577.“ knowing his lordship’s circumspection in keeping of her,

“ and leaving all things in that country about him very

quiet, and free from such dangers, he was bold to make “ small account of the news, although her majesty and the “ council were therewith perplexed. And that although “ time did try these enough, for any thing already done, to “ be false, yet the noise thereof, (as the lord treasurer pro

ceeded,) and the doubt her majesty hath of secret, hidden Shrewsbury “ practices, to be wrought rather by corruption of some of Epist

. Sa- yours (viz. the earl's servants] whom you shall trust, lop.. in Off. “ than by open force, moved her majesty to warn your

lordship, as she said she would write to your lordship, “ that you continue, or rather increase your vigilancy, if it

might be ; that you be not circumvented herein.” And then adding his thoughts, “ That as he had carried his “ charge (the Scottish queen) to Chatsworth, so he thought “ that a very meet house for good preservation thereof;

having no town of resort, where any ambushes of re“ ceators (receivers) might lie.

“ That in his opinion, surely, although he knew many “ were desirous that his charge should be at liberty, yet he “ himself knew no reasonable cause to move him to think, " that she should aventure herself to be conveyed away “ by stealth, both for the sundry dangers that might light

upon her; but especially, for that being at liberty, if her “ friends should attempt any thing by force for her against “ this realm, she might provoke the queen's majesty, and “ the states of the realm, to work matters to bar her of that “ interest which she supposed she had.

“ But yet, my good lord, as he concluded, even for the “ preservation of the honour which you have gotten by so

circumspect looking to her, in all this long time of prac“ tice, I know you will be as watchful to prevent all at

tempts, as others will be to assail your charge. Thus your lordship seeth how curious I am.

All which pro “ceedeth of good-will to your lordship and to your honour."



Thus he wrote from the court at Deptford, my lord ad- CHAP. miral's house, the 7th of September, 1577. Subscribing himself, “ Your lordship’s most assured,

“ W. Burghley."

Anno 1577.

Irish pobi

Now to look over to the queen's kingdom of Ireland. The cesse

rigorously Many persons of quality there were burdened with an ex

exacted, cess of the tax, called the cesse, laid upon them. Which provoke the made disturbance in that country: and the lord deputy, sir

lity. They Henry Sydney, or some of his officers, seemed to have too come over

to complain. great hand therein. Insomuch that some lords came over to make complaint. This payment was an exaction of victuals at a certain rate or price, for the maintenance of the lord deputy's household, and the garrison soldiers. The rigorous 478 demanding whereof in some countries, and some that were more civilized, as in Leinster, made divers of the Irish lords refuse to pay it; as the viscount Baltinglass, and some Camd. Eliz. barons and others of the nobility and gentry; and clamoured P. 219. much against this usage of them: and asserting, that it was not to be demanded but by authority of parliament. However, by the judges of that kingdom, it appeared to be an ancient privilege of the crown, and a royal prerogative. The lords that came over to make their complaint were heard by their counsel, but committed to prison, as endeavouring to abridge the queen of her ancient rights in that kingdom. But yet she was displeased with the rigorous demand of the cesse; and liked not that her officers there should rather be wolves than shepherds; and commanded the lord deputy to use a moderation herein.

Now by a letter of the lord treasurer to the earl of Shrews- The modebury, we have some further light let into this affair. The rate deterlords that were thus grieved had sent over one Skurlock thereof by and two others, to make their complaints. But upon this council. the lord deputy shewed his anger against these lords and others by some severe proceedings against them. This dealing of the lord deputy's came before the queen and council, being heard fully, and gravely considered: as the said lord

BOOK treasurer wrote to the master of the rolls there: and that Il.

they had made distinction thereof, noting herein wherein Anno 1577. the complainants, both here and there offended, not ignoJuly 15.

rantly, but wilfully; and wherein the complaints deserved favourable remedy, in respect of the excess of the cesse, as it appeared unto them, the queen's council. And therefore for the offence committed, both they here, and their authors there, had deserved exemplary punishment. And that for the remedy of the burden of the cesse, they hoped the lord deputy either had or would devise means, to the reasonable satisfaction of the parties grieved. And they of the council had also, at that present time, collected in writing some devices to ease the same: which, as things only projected, they sent unto the lord deputy.

The lord treasurer gave the master of the rolls in Ireland this account of that affair, and the sense the court had of the ill management of the queen's prerogative, in another letter, half a year after, using these words: “ So plenteous

are the affairs of that country (Ireland] to the worst, as “ I should be more sorry for them, if I did not hope that “ either malice or lightness did not increase the evil thereof. “ The matter stirred up against the queen's prerogative for “ her relief to victual her army hath been duly corrected. “ And the parties deserve the more correction, for that in “ evil handling they hindered a needful matter; which was " to have had the excess of the cesse remedied: which for “ my part I think needful; but not in such a strenable sort “ as it was sought." This was dated from Hampton Court, Jan. 18, 1577.



479 The queen's ambassador at the council at Frankford: and

why. Sent to the princes of Germany. New books of religion there set forth. The archbishop of York about to visit the church of Durham, is refused. The proceedings thereupon. The bishop of Durham's account of his visitation of his diocese, by order from the queen ; and especially of the disorders in that church. His letter to the lord treasurer about it: slandered and hated. His vindication of himself for some words of his against archbishop Grindal, and the exercises. Bishop Barnes' pedigree. Cox bishop of Ely's thoughts upon archbishop Grindal's suspension. The queen's letter to the bishop of Lincoln to forbid prophesyings. The bishop of Chichester's troubles. Caldwell, parson of Winwich, his ser

Dr. Goodman, dean of Westminster, concerning the statutes of that collegiate church. AND now for the affairs of religion abroad, as well as here Anno 1577. at home, this


I find these occurrences. There was a great and long desired design among all pro- The queen testants now in hand, in order to unite them in a profession

ambassador of the same faith and doctrine. In order to which a coun- to the council was held this year at Frankford, for the drawing up a ford, met common confession of all the reformed churches. To this about a con

fession. council, to assist at it, the queen sent her ambassador, shewing her concurrence in this useful affair. The province of drawing up the form was committed to Zacharias Ursinus, the learned professor of Heydelberg, who had formerly been an hearer of Melancthon and Peter Martyr. What the issue was, and what particular esteem the queen obtained for this with the protestants of Germany and Switzerland, will appear from a letter of Ralph Gualter, chief minister of Zuric, to the bishop of Ely, written in the beginning of March

“ That they were in expectation every hour of prince “ John Casimire's letter (he was brother to Frederick, elec" tor palatine, and deserved well of religion) unto their

sends her

cilat Frank.

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