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Secretaries of StateDaniel Webster, appointed March 5, 1841, resigned May 8, 1843; Hugh S. Legaré, appointed May 9, 1843, died June 20, 1843; Abel P. Upshur, appointed June 24, 1843, died February 28, 1844; John Nelson, acting, February 29, 1844; John C. Calhoun, appointed March 6, 1844, resigned March 1, 1845.

Secretaries of the TreasuryThomas Ewing, appointed March 5, 1841, resigned ; Walter Forward, appointed September 13, 1841, resigned; George M. Bibb, appointed June 15, 1814, resigned March 3, 1845.

Secretaries of War-John Bell, appointed March 5, 1841, resigned ; John C. Spencer, appointed October 12, 1811, transferred to Treasury Department; James M. Porter, appointed March 8, 1843, rejected by the Senate; William Wilkins, appointed February 15, 1844, resigned March 3, 1845.

Secretaries of the Navy-George E. Badger, appointed March 5, 1841, resigned; Abel P. Upshur, appointed September 13, 1841, transferred to Department of State; David Henshaw, appointed July 24, 1843, rejected by the Senate; Thomas W. Gilmer, appointed February 15, 1814, died February 28, 1844; John Y. Mason, appointed March 14, 1844, resigned March 3, 1845.

Postmasters-General_Francis Granger, appointed March 6, 1841, resigned; Charles A. Wickliffe, appointed September 13, 1811, resigned March 3, 1845.

TENTH ADMINISTRATION-1845 to 1849.-FOUR YEARS.

President-JAMES Knox Polk, Tennessee.
Vice-President—GEORGE M. DALLAS, Pennsylvania.

Secretary of StateJames Buchanan, of Pennsylvania, appointed March 5, 1845.

Secretary of the Treasury-Robert J. Walker, of Mississippi, appointed March 5, 1845.

Secretary of War-William L. Marcy, of New York, appointed March 5, 1813.

Secretary of the Navy-George Bancroft, of Massachusetts, appointed March, 1845; John Y. Mason, of Virginia, appointed 1846.

Postmaster-General - Cave Johnson, of Tennessee, appointed March 5, 1815.

ELEVENTH ADMINISTRATION—1849 to 1853.–Forr YEARS.

PresidentZACHARY Taylor, Louisiana. Died July 9, 1850. Vice-President- MILLARD FILLMORE, New York. President—MILLARD FILLMORE, New York. Succeeded Zachary Taylor, on his death, July 9, 1850.

Secretaries of State—John M. Clayton, of Delaware, appointed March 7, 1849, resigned July 10, 1850; Daniel Webster, of Massachusetts, appointed July 20, 1850, died October 24, 1852; Edward Everett, of Massachusetts, appointed November, 1852.

Secretaries of the Treasury-William M. Meredith, of Pennsylvania, appointed March 7, 1849, resigned July 10, 1850; Thomas Corwin, of Ohio, appointed July 20, 1850.

Secretaries of War—George W. Crawford, of Georgia, appointed March 7, 1849, resigned July 10, 1850; Charles M. Conrad, of Louisiana, appointed August 15, 1850.

Secretaries of the Navy-William B. Preston, of Virginia, appointed March 7, 1849, resigned July 10, 1850 ; William A. Graham, of North Carolina, appointed July 20, 1850, resigned 1852; John P. Kennedy, of Maryland, appointed 1852.

Secretaries of the Interior_Thomas Ewing, of Ohio, appointed March 7, 1849, resigned July 10, 1850; Alexander H. H. Stuart, of Virginia, appointed September 12, 1850.

Postmasters-General—Jacob Collamer, of Vermont, appointed March 7, 1849, resigned July 10, 1850; Nathan K. Hall, of New York, appointed July 20, 1850, resigned 1852; Samuel D. Hubbard, of Connecticut, appointed 1852.

Attorneys-GeneralReverdy Johnson, of Maryland, appointed March 7, 1849, resigned July 10, 1850; John J. Crittenden, of Kentucky, appointed July 20, 1850.

TWELFTH ADMINISTRATION-1853 to 1857.-Four YEARS.

President—FRANKLIN PIERCE, New Hampshire.

Vice-President-WILLIAM R. King, Alabama. Died April 18, 1853.

Secretary of State—William L. Marcy, of New York, appointed March 7, 1853.

Secretary of the Treasury_James Guthrie, of Kentucky, appointed March 7, 1853.

Secretary of War–Jefferson Davis, of Mississippi, appointed March 7, 1853.

Secretary of the Navy-James C. Dobbin, of North Carolina, appointed March 7, 1853.

Secretary of the Interior—Robert McClelland, of Michigan, appointed March 7, 1853.

Postmaster-General-James Campbell, of Pennsylvania, appointed March 7, 1853.

Attorney-General—Caleb Cushing, of Massachusetts, appointed March 7, 1853.

THIRTEENTH ADMINISTRATION_1857 to 1861.-Four YEARS.

President-JAMES BUCHANAN, Pennsylvania.
Vice-PresidentJohn C. BRECKINRIDGE, Kentucky.

Secretary of StateLewis Cass, of Michigan, appointed March, 1857.

Secretary of the TreasuryHowell Cobb, of Georgia, appointed March, 1857.

Secretary of War—John B. Floyd, of Virginia, appointed March, 1857.

Secretary of the NavyIsaac Toucey, of Connecticut, appointed March, 1857.

Secretary of the Interior-Jacob Thompson, of Mississippi, appointed March, 1857.

Postmaster-General-Aaron V. Brown, of Tennessee, appointed March, 1857.

Attorney-GeneralJeremiah S. Black, of Pennsylvania, appointed March, 1857.

PRESIDENTIAL ELECTORS.

The election of the President and of the Vice-President, by Colleges of Electors, chosen in each State, was first proposed in the Convention for the formation of the Constitution, by James Wilson, a delegate from Pennsyl. vania. It was adopted after a prolonged discussion, and was regulated by an Act of Congress, of March 1, 1792. The Electors must be chosen within thirty-four days preceding the first Wednesday of December of the year in which an election of President and Vice-President takes place. They must be equal in number to all the Senators and Representatives in Congress, but no Senator or person holding an office of trust or profit under the United States can be appointed an Elector. The Electors were at first chosen in four different modes, viz. :—by joint ballot of the State Legislature, by a concurrent vote of the two branches of the State Legislature, by the people of the State, voting by general ticket, and by the people, voting in districts. This latter mode was evidently that which gave the fairest expression to public opinion, by approaching nearest to a direct vote. But those States which adopted it were placed at the disadvantage of being exposed to a division of their strength, and neutralization of their vote; while the Electors chosen by either of the other methods voted in a body on one side or the other, thus making the voice of the State decisively felt. This consideration induced the leading States of Massachusetts and of Virginia, which originally adopted the district system, to abandon it in 1800.

The Electors meet at the capitals of their respective States, on the first Wednesday of December, and vote by distinct ballots for President and Vice-President, one of whom shall not be an inhabitant of the same State with themselves. They make lists of the number of votes given, and of the persons voted for, which they transmit sealed, by a special messenger, to the President of the Senate, at Washington.

The Senate and the House of Representatives having met in convention, on a day fixed, the President of the Senate opens all the certificates, and the votes are counted. The person having the greatest number of votes for President is duly elected, if such a number be a majority of the whole number of Electors appointed. If no person have such majority, then from the persons having the highest number, not exceeding three, in the list of those voted for as President, the House of Representatives shall choose, immediately and by ballot, the President. If the House of Representatives shall not choose a President, when. ever the right of choice devolves upon them, before the fourth of March next following, then the Vice-President shall act as President, as in the case of the death or other constitutional disability of the President.

Should the offices of President and Vice-President both become vacant, it then becomes the duty of the Secretary of State to communicate information thereof to the Executive of each State, and to cause the same to be published

in at least one newspaper in every State, giving two months' previous notice that Electors of President shall be chosen or appointed in the several States, within thirty-four days next preceding the first Wednesday in December ensuing, when the choice of President must proceed as usual.

FIRST PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION.

George Washington was unanimously elected President, receiving 69 votes. John Adams was elected Vice-President, receiving 34 votes; while John Jay had 9 votes, Robert H. Harrison 6, John Rutledge 6, John Hancock 4, George Clinton 3, Samuel Huntington 2, James Armstrong 1, Edward Telfair 1, and Benjamin Lincoln 1. The Electors were:

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CONNECTICUT.
Samuel Huntington,

Erastus Wolcott.
1. Oliver Wolcott,
3. Richard Law,

5. Matthew Griswold. 2. Thaddeus Burr, 4. Jedediah Huntington,

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DELAWARE.
Gunning Bedford,

George Mitchell. 1. John Baning.

MARYLAND.
John Rogers,

Philip Thomas. 1. George Plater,

3. William Tilghman, 5. Alexander C. Hanson, 2. Robert Smith,

4. William Richardson, 6. William Mathews.

VIRGINIA.

Patrick Henry, 1. John Pride, 2. Edward Stevens, 3. Zachariah Johnston,

W. Tikhugh.

4. Anthony Walke,
5. James Wood,
6. David Stuart,

7. John Harvie,
8. John Roane.

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