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United States, that they should in all cases suppress domestic violence, which may proceed from the State Legislature itself, or from disputes between the two branches where such exist.

Mr. DAYTON mentioned the conduct of Rhode Island, as showing the necessity of giving latitude to the power of the United States on this subject.

On the question,——

New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, aye--3; New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Connecticut, Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, no-8.

On a question for striking out "domestic violence," and inserting "insurrections," it passed in the negative,

New Jersey, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, aye-5; New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Connecticut, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland, no-6.

Mr. DICKINSON moved to insert the words, "or Executive," after the words, "application of its Legislature." The occasion itself, he remarked, might hinder the Legislature from meeting.

On this question,—

New Hampshire, Connecticut, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, aye-8; Massachusetts, Virginia, no-2; Maryland, divided.

Mr. L. MARTIN moved to subjoin to the last amendment the words, "in the recess of the Legislature." On which question, Maryland only, aye.

On the question on the last clause, as amended,— New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Connecticut, New

Jersey, Pennsylvania, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, aye—9; Delaware, Maryland, no-2,346

Article 19, was then taken up.

Mr. GOUVERNEUR MORRIS suggested, that the Legislature should be left at liberty to call a Convention whenever they pleased.

The Article was agreed to, nem. con.

Article 20 was then taken up. The words "or affirmation," were added, after "oath."

Mr. PINCKNEY moved to add to the Article: "but no religious test shall ever be required as a qualification to any office or public trust under the authority of the United States."

Mr. SHERMAN thought it unnecessary, the prevailing liberality being a sufficient security against such tests.

Mr. GOUVERNEUR MORRIS and General PINCKNEY approved the motion.

The motion was agreed to, nem. con., and then the whole article,-North Carolina only, no; and Maryland, divided.

Article 21, being then taken up: "The ratifications of the Conventions of States shall be sufficient for organizing this Constitution."

Mr. WILSON proposed to fill the blank with seven," that being a majority of the whole number, and sufficient for the commencement of the plan.

Mr. CARROLL moved to postpone the Article, in order to take up the Report of the Committee of eleven (see the twenty-eighth of August); and on the question,-

New Jersey, Delaware, Maryland, aye-3; New

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Hampshire, Massachusetts, Connecticut, Pennsylvania, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, no-8.

Mr. GOUVERNEUR MORRIS thought the blank ought to be filled in a two-fold way, so as to provide for the event of the ratifying States being contiguous, which would render a smaller number sufficient; and the event of their being dispersed, which would require a greater number for the introduction of the Government.

Mr. SHERMAN observed that the States being now confederated by articles which require unanimity in changes, he thought the ratification, in this case, of ten States at least ought to be made necessary.

Mr. RANDOLPH was for filling the blank with "nine," that being a respectable majority of the whole, and being a number made familiar by the constitution of the existing Congress.

Mr. WILSON mentioned "eight," as preferable.

Mr. DICKINSON asked, whether the concurrence of Congress is to be essential to the establishment of the system-whether the refusing States in the Confederacy could be deserted-and whether Congress could concur in contravening the system under which they acted?

Mr. MADISON remarked, that if the blank should be filled with "seven," "eight," or "nine," the Constitution as it stands might be put in force over the whole body of the people, though less than a majority of them should ratify it.

Mr. WILSON. As the Constitution stands, the States only which ratify can be bound. We must, he said, in this case, go to the original powers of

society. The house on fire must be extinguished, without a scrupulous regard to ordinary rights.

Mr. BUTLER was in favor of "nine." He revolted at the idea that one or two States should restrain the rest from consulting their safety.

Mr. CARROLL moved to fill the blank with, "the thirteen;" unanimity being necessary to dissolve the existing Confederacy, which had been unanimously established.

Mr. KING thought this amendment necessary; otherwise, as the Constitution now stands, it will operate on the whole, though ratified by a part only. Adjourned.


In Convention,-Mr. KING moved to add, to the end of Article 21, the words, "between the said States;" so as to confine the operation of the Government to the States ratifying it.

On the question, nine States voted in the affirmative; Maryland, no; Delaware, absent.

Mr. MADISON proposed to fill the blank in the Article with, "any seven or more States entitled to thirty-three members at least in the House of Representatives according to the allotment made in the third Section of Article 4." This, he said, would require the concurrence of a majority of both the States and the people.

Mr. SHERMAN doubted the propriety of authorizing less than all the States to execute the Constitution, considering the nature of the existing Confederation.

Perhaps all the States may concur, and on that supposition it is needless to hold out a breach of faith.

Mr. CLYMER and Mr. CARROLL moved to postpone the consideration of Article 21, in order to take up the Reports of Committees not yet acted on. On this question the States were equally divided,— New Hampshire, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland, Georgia, aye-5; Massachusetts, New Jersey, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, no-5; Connecticut, divided.

Mr. GOUVERNEUR MORRIS moved to strike out, "conventions of the," after "ratifications;" leaving the States to pursue their own modes of ratification.

Mr. CARROLL mentioned the mode of altering the Constitution of Maryland pointed out therein, and that no other mode could be pursued in that State.

Mr. KING thought that striking out "conventions," as the requisite mode, was equivalent to giving up the business altogether. Conventions alone, which will avoid all the obstacles from the complicated formation of the Legislatures, will succeed; and if not positively required by the plan, its enemies will oppose that mode.

Mr. GOUVERNEUR MORRIS said, he meant to facilitate the adoption of the plan, by leaving the modes approved by the several State Constitutions to be followed.

Mr. MADISON Considered it best to require Conventions; among other reasons for this, that the powers given to the General Government being taken from the State Governments, the Legislatures would be more disinclined than Conventions composed in part at least of other men; and if disinclined, they could

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