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we have already subscribed unto the declarations of the Paternoster and the Ave Maria, the Creed and the Ten also in the State Papers some interesting letters respecting it, addressed to Crumwell by Bishops Fox and Latymer, two of the Commissioners employed in its compilation. It appears from these, that there was great difficulty in coming to an agreenient. Latymer prays God, « that when it is done, it will be well and sufficiently done, so that “ we shall not need to have any more such doings; for verily for my “ part, I had lever be poor Parson of poor Kynton again, than to con“ tinue thus Bishop of Worcester; not for any thing that I have had to “ do therein or can do, but yet forsooth it is a troublous thing to agree “ upon a doctrine in things of such controversy, with judgments of “ such diversity, every man, I trust, meaning well, and yet not all “ meaning one way. But I doubt not but now in the end we shall

agree both one with another, and all with the truth, though some “ will then inarvel." And Bishop Fox also says, with reference probably to the heat of their debates, that they “ wanted much “ Crumwell's presence." Cranmer and Fox are represented to have taken the lead in the discussions; and the latter, when the book was completed, undertook to superintend the printing of it. “This “ day," says Latymer, “ we had finished, I trow, the rest of our book, “ if my Lord of Hereford had not been diseased; to whom surely we “owe great thanks for his great diligence in all our proceedings. Upon “ Monday I think it will be done altogether, and then my Lord of “ Canterbury will send it unto your Lordship with all speed: to whom “ also, if any thing be praiseworthy, bona pars laudis optimo jure de" betur."

When their determinations were thus concluded, an important question arose respecting the authority by which they should be issued. And accordingly Fox beseeches Crumwell “ to know the King's plea“ sure for the Prefaces which shall be put unto the said book, and “ whether his Highness will that the book shall go forth in his name, “ according to such device as I once moved unto your lordship, or in “ the name of the bishops.” State Papers, vol. i. pp. 556. 562. 563.

Fox's “ device" perhaps may have been, that the Commissioners should send a letter to the King, reporting their proceedings, and praying for his Majesty's sanction ; that the King should return a gracious answer, complying with their request; and that both these documents should be printed by way of Introduction to the new book. Such a letter from the Commissioners was actually prefixed to The Institution ; and a minute of an answer from the King is preserved in the Chapter House, Westminster, Theological Tracts, vol. ix. p. 73; though it does not seem to have been noticed by the historians. In this he informs the prelates, that although he had not had time to overlook their work, he trusted to them for its being according to Scripture; that he permitted it to be printed, and commanded all who had care of souls to read a portion of it every Sunday and holyday for three years, and to preach conformably thereto. But it would appear, that, cautiously as this reply was worded, Hen. VIII. did not choose to commit himself by its publication ; for The Institution came out with no other Preface than the abovenamed letter of the prelate's, and with no farther claim to royal authority, than was implied by its issuing from the press of the King's printer. It rested therefore on very different grounds from the Articles of Religion which preceded, and the Necessary Doctrine

Commandments, and there remaineth no more but certain notes of the Creed, unto the which we be agreed to subscribe on Monday next; which all, when they shall be subscribed, I pray you that I may know your mind and pleasure, whether I shall send them incontinently unto you, or leave them in my Lord of Herteforde’sk hands, to be delivered by him when he cometh next unto the Court: beseeching you, my lord, to be intercessor unto the King's Highness for us all, that we may have his Grace's license to depart for this time, until his Grace's further pleasure be known; for they die almost every where in London, Westminster, and in Lambeth they die at my gate even at the next house to mel. I would fain see the King's Highness at my departing, but I fear me that I shall not, by cause that I shall come from this smoky air; yet I would gladly know the King's pleasure herein.

Also, where you granted unto me license to visit my diocese this year, I beseech you that I may have your letters to Doctor Peterm to put that in my commission. .

Moreover I beseech your lordship not to forget to be a suitor for me unto the King's Highness concerning mine exchange", and specially for the remission of such debts as are yet behind unpaid, which I owe unto his Graceo. Thus, which followed it. For both of those Formularies of Faith were first approved in Convocation, and were then provided with a Preface by the King, and declared in the title page to be set forth by his authority. Thus it was not a distinction without a difference, that The Institution was called the Bishops', and the Necessury Doctrine the King's Book. This statement has been given at some length, because if correct, it will solve some difficulties in the subsequent letters, and because there are several conflicting accounts of the matter in our ecclesiastical writers. See Preface.]

k [It is clear from the preceding note, that Cranmer is speaking of Fox, Bishop of Hereford.]

1(Latymer gives a similar account: “Sir, we be here not without all peril, for beside two (that) hath died of my keeper's folks out of my

gate house, three be yet there with raw sores; and even now Master “ Nevell cometh and telleth me, that my under cook is fallen sick, and “ like to be of the plague."] m (See Letter clx. Strype, Cranm. p. 55.)

[The great exchange between Hen. VIII. and Cranmer, was concluded at the latter end of this year. See Letter cxcii. Strype, Cranm, p. 282 )

[See Letters Lxxix.CXCII.)

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my lord, right heartily fare you well. At Lambeth, the xxi. day of July. [1537.]

Over this, I pray you show unto me your advice, how I shall order in my said Visitation such persons as hath transgressed the King's Grace's Injunctions P.

Your own ever assured,

T. Cantuarien.

9 I beseech your lordship to send me word, whether I shall examine the Vicar of Croyden' in this presence of the bishops and other learned men of our assembly, or otherwise how I shall order him.



P (See in Strype, Memorials, vol. i. p. 321, an account of the Injunctions issued in 1536; and in Wilkins' Concilia, vol. iii. p. 813, or Burnet, Reformat. App. vol. 1. book iï. No. 7, a copy of the Injunctions them9 [The postscript is in Cranmer's own hand-writing.]

Among the loose papers in the Chapter House, Westminster, are some fragments of an examination of Roland Philipps, taken before the Archbishop on the 28th and 29th of July; As Roland Philipps was Vicar of Croydon in 1535, (see Valor. Eccles.) there can be little doubt of this being the examination to which Cranmer alludes. He seems to have been called to account for a sermon, in which he had indulged in reflections on the reformers. It may be collected, that he accused them of respersing their discourses with lies, detractions, and perverse judgments against other men, and of preaching themselves divers erroneous doctrines; such as the possibility of salvation without good works, and the consequent inutility of prayer, fasting, and alms. In most cases he declined naming individuals, but in others, as may be seen by the following extracts from bis examination, he did not scruple to fix his charges on some very distinguished friends of the reformation. Examinatio D. Rolundi Philipps coram Domino Archiepiscopo CanCLXXXV. To CRUMWELL. After hearty commendations unto your Lordship; this is mss. to advertise the same, that the bearer hereof, Mr. Tybbold,

tuarien. vicesimo octavo die mensis Julii anno supradicto. 3. Item, Interrogatur, Whom he knoweth fallen into this error, that " they trust to be saved by faith and baptism, and have left all good “ works, and how long it is, since the people fell into that error. Respondet, That he knoweth no special person that is in that error, but that “ is about eleven years ago, since the people came into that error.

Item, What good works the people have left. Respondet, That they “ have left prayer, fasting, and alms...

18. “ Item, Whom he knoweth to be of this opinion, that faith “ which justifieth, of necessity bringeth forth good works. And whether “ he be of the same opinion or no. Respondet, That Barons, Crome, “ Champion, and many other so have preached, and he is not of that opinion bimself.

Item, Whom he knoweth that doth exclude all bodily observ“ance as frivol and vain, all ceremonies of religion, and all vocal

19. "


', House, one that hath exercised his study in Almayn these two or Westminthree years past, brought from Capitos and Monsterus', Cruiwell's both letters and books to the King's Highness; and if bis Corre... Grace's pleasure be to reward them for their pains and good Originul.

spondence. hearts which they bear unto his said Grace, this man that brought the said letters, shall very conveniently do the King good service in that behalf: for he is going thitherward now again, and is a very honest man, and both loved and trusted of the learned men in those parties; with whom if it please your lordship to commune, he can well inform you of the state of that country. Wherefore not only in this, but also for his passport, I beseech you to be his good lord, so that he


favourable letters unto the ports for his passage and safe conduct. Thus our Lord have your lordship in his tuition. At Lambeth, the xxii. day of July. [1537.)

Your Lordship's assured,

T. Cantuarien. To my very singular good lord, my

Lord Privy Seal.

“ prayer, calling it lip labour. Respondet, The Bishop of Wurcester,

(Latymer,) and Doctor Crome have so done, for it followeth of their “ words, ' Adorabunt Patrem in spiritu.'”

20. “ Item, Whom he knoweth that in mass do use to clap their finger upon their lips and say never a word. Respondet, That he hath seen

many so do, but he can name none; but some great men in the Court “ do so, as he hath heard reported.”

With regard to his own opinions, he maintained, that men laad not been led into any error of faith by the erroneous instructions of the clergy; that the catholic Church shall never err in things necessary to salvation; and that all decisions of Councils were to be received and believed in things concerning our faith.]

[See Letter clxxxvI.]


(Sebastian Munster was so distinguished for his Hebrew and historical learning, that he was called the Ezra and the Strabo of the Ger

In 1529, he moved, at the invitation of Ecolampadius, from Heidelberg to Basle, where he lived in great repute till 1552. Gerdes, Hist. Evang. Renov. vol. ii. p. 330.]



p. 28.

Ex Archivis Libellum tuum *, amice Capito, Regiæ Majestati, cui tu Eccles. Tu. ricens. ex

inscripseras, ipse manu mea porrexi. Accepit, ut mihi sane Autogr. visus est, gratanter et libenter.

Submonui quoque ut laCranmerijn MSS. Scri- bores tuos respiceret. Annuit se visurum : nec multo post nii Eccles.

tempore Dominum Crumwellum, Privati Sigilli Custodem, Argentorat. rol. ii. qui ab intimis consiliis Regis est, quique in his conficiendis

quæ hactenus circa religionis et cleri reformationem facta et transacta sunt, plus unus omnibus fecit, Harfordensis y et ego, cum apud illum una essemus, una eum rogavimus, ut Regiam Majestatem iterum tui admoneret. Fecit, et tibi pro munere centum coronati deputantur, quos jussit et harum latorem secum delaturum.

Scire adhuc desideras, ecquid munus tuum gratum fuerit ? Age dicam, non quæ ipse scio vera esse, sed quæ ab aliis, qui in Aula nuperius quam ego fuerunt, accepi. Solet Rex, (ut est acerrimus et ad omnia vigilantissimus) libros hujusmodi sibi oblatos, præsertim quos ipse non sustinet legere, suorum alicui tradere legendos, a quo ipse postea discat, quid in illis contentum fuerit. Deinde resumptos eosdem alteri cuipiam, qui sit a priore diversissimi judicii obtrudit examinandos. Ita cum ab ipsis omnia expiscatus fuerit, et quid laudent, quidve vituperent, sciverit ac satis expenderit, tum demum et ipse suam de eisdem palam profert sententiam. Sic et cum libello tuo actum fuisse intelligo: quodque cum in illo multa valde approbaverit, fuerint etiam nonnulla, quæ nullo pacto concoquere neque comprobare potuerit. Suspicor ea esse, quæ de Missa adjunxeras. Habes quantum hactenus ego de libello illo potui vel præsens audire et cernere, vel absens ex aliorum relationibus excerpere atque colligere.


(This Letter is printed from a copy of the Zurich manuscript by Mr. Salomon Hess.

* Responsum de Missa, Matrimonio, et jure Magistratus in religione, 11 Martii 1537, Henrico VIII. inscriptum. A Capitone recognitum Ribelius excudit Argentorati 1540. V. Gesnerum in Biblioth. [Note of Mr. Salomon Hess.]

y Edvardus Foxus. [Sal. Hess.]

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