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Here have I written the very words of the letter, as I did translate them out of Italian into English, as near as I could word for word, which I can do no less than signify unto your Highness, forsomuch as there be some things concerning the General Council and Mr. Raynold Pole, whereof I thought it my duty to give notice unto your Grace. And thus I beseech the mighty Lord of lords to strengthen and preserve your Grace ever, and to resist and suppress all your Highness's adversaries with your rebel and untrue subjects. At Knoll, the 18th day of November. [1536.]

Your Grace's most humble
chaplain and beadsman,

To the King's Highness.

T. Cantuarien.


well's Cor

ence. Original.


My very singular good Lord, in my most hearty wise I Chapter commend me unto your lordship. And whereas your House, Westmin. lordship was so good lord unto James Arnold my servant, ster; Crum- this bearer, as to direct (besides the King's gracious letters) respond- your favourable letters unto Sir John Champenes, knight, then Lord Mayor of London, and to his brethren, in the preferment of my said servant to the room and office of the swordbearer of London k, when it should chance next to be void; by means whereof there was a record in writing made of their grant unto my said servant: and forsomuch as I now understand that the swordbearer is in danger of

"Italy and other places. First therefore the truce was agreed upon for a certain time; when that was expired, it was continued for another; "till at last a peace was made. Now the Pope's design in reconciling "these princes, was to persuade them to join their forces against his "mortal enemy the King of England, and against the Lutherans." Sleidan, b. xi. This peace, or rather truce for ten years between Charles and Francis, was concluded in June 1538. Sleidan, b. xii.]

[The rising in Lincolnshire had been put down, but the formidable rebellion in Yorkshire under Aske, was still raging in Nov. 1536. See Lord Herbert, Life of Hen. VIII, and State Papers, vol. i. p. 511, &c.] * [See Letter CLII.]

death, and not like to escape: these shall be to beseech your lordship, in case need so require, to direct your favourable letters unto the mayor and aldermen that now be, putting them in remembrance of their former grant made by reason of the King's Grace's letters and your lordship's unto my said servant; so that he may, without further molestation or suit, enjoy that room, if it chance to be now void. And surely, my lord, I am more desirous to seek his preferment, because he hath sustained no small pains in journeys beyond the seas with me, with the Bishop of Harforth m, Mr. Eliot ", and with Mr. Hethe, in the King's affairs; beseeching your lordship therefore the rather to be his good lord in this behalf. Thus, my lord, right heartily fare you well. At Forde, the ivth day of January.

Your own ever assured,
Thomas Cantuarien.

To the Right Honourable and my singular good lord, my Lord Privy Seal.


My very especial and singular good Lord, these shall be MSS.


to signify unto your good lordship, that I have sent unto House, you by Richard Nevell my servant, the bringer hereof, xxli. Westminfor your fee" of this year, desiring your good lordship, in all Crumwell's


spondence. [Cranmer had been associated with the Earl of Wiltshire and Original. others in an embassy to the Pope in 1530, when he presented to his Holiness his book on the King's divorce. In 1532 he was ambassador in Germany to the Emperor Charles V. See Letters I. II. III.]


[Edward Fox, Bishop of Hereford, was one of the chief diplomatists of this reign. He was employed at Rome on the divorce cause as early as 1527, and in December, 1535, he was at the head of the embassy to the protestant princes at Smalcald. On the latter occasion he incurred the suspicion of duplicity, being charged with representing Henry VIII.'s inclination to Lutheranism to be greater than was the fact. Seckendorf, Comment. de Luth. lib. iii. §. xxxix. Strype, Memorials, vol. i. p. 89. 226. 230. Letter LXXXIX.]

n [See Letter CLII.]

[See Letters LXXXIX. CLII.]

P [Crumwell afterwards held office under Cranmer, and seems in

such affairs and business as I have to you at this time, as well for Mortlake 9 as other things, that you give credence unto him, which knoweth my whole mind herein. And so Almighty God preserve your good lordship. From Forde, the xvth day of January.

Your own ever assured,

To my especial and singular good

lord, my Lord Privy Seal.

T. Cantuarien.







My very singular good Lord, in my most hearty manner Chapter I commend me unto your lordship. And whereas I reWestmin- ceived a letter from you, wherein you will me to send Sir well's Hugh Payner unto you after his appearance, whom ye are informed that I acited to appear before me, your lordship Original. shall understand, that the said Sir Hugh Payne was Curate of Hadley in the county of Suffolke, of my peculiar jurisdic tion; and for his erroneous and seditious preaching there he was detected to me: upon which detection I sent for him; and in the mean space, while he stood in examination, I commanded him, before Doctor Revet, Parson of Hadley, that he should not preach within my diocese or peculiars; which my commandment he disobediently contemning, did both preach at Hadley and also at London in my peculiars there. And in his examination had before me concerning those things wherein he was detected, he was proved openly perjured. And that he there erroneously preached, a taste of his teaching your lordship shall perceive. He taught openly in the

consequence to have been entitled to a fee. See Letters CCXLIII. CCXLV. CCLVII. But there are great objections to the supposition, that the fee here mentioned was due on that account.]

[The Archiepiscopal possessions at Mortlake were assured to Crumwell by an Act of Parliament passed in 1536, entitled "An Act "concerning an exchange of lands between the King's Highness, the "Archbishop of Canterbury, and Thomas Crumwell, Esq. the King's "chief Secretary." Stat. 28. Hen. VIII. cap. 50. A still more extensive exchange was effected in Nov. 1537. See Letters CLXXXIV. CXCIII.]

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pulpit there, that one Paternoster, said by the injunction of a priest, was worth a million Paternosters said of a man's mere voluntary mind: by this you may soon savour what judgment this man is of, and how sincerely he would instruct the people. At the last, he seeing these things proved against him, submitted himself to my correction. And whereas I might by justice have pronounced him perjured, and farther have proceeded against him for his erroneous preaching, I enjoined to him but certain penance, and not so much as he deserved; which he did receive, and swear by the holy Evangelists to accomplish the same. And therein again he was forsworn and did it not, but fled into the said county of Suffolk again, and became a parish priest and a preacher at Stoke Nayland, where he is (as I am informed) as well liked as he was at Hadley. I hearing that he was there, caused him to be cited to appear before me; which thing he did not; whereupon I did excommunicate him, and so now for his contumacy he standeth excommunicate. And if he come unto me, I will send him unto your lordship; but in the mean space these my letters are to desire your lordship that you will put with me your helping hand to see him punished; for although many of the Observants were wolves in sheep's skins, yet in my opinion he ought to give place to none of them in dissimulation, hypocrisy, flattery, and all other qualities of the wolfish pharisees.

Furthermore I send unto your lordship herewithal a letter directed to me by a monk of Christ's Church in Canterbury, named Dan John Walkeham, concerning certain detections. Upon which letter this day I have examined Dan Stephen Gyles and Dan John Stone, monks; and I have sent for Dan Thomas Becket to examine him to-morrow. And as for John Stone, I have committed him to ward: beseeching your lordship that I may know with expedition the King's Grace's pleasure concerning the ordering of these persons t.

Over this I have received letters directed both unto your [See Letters CXIX. CXLV. CLXXIII.]

See Letter CLXXVIII.]

lordship and to me from Turney " of Calice; and because our letters concern divers matters, I have sent you mine also, thinking it good that your lordship know the contents thereof. Thus, my lord, right heartily fare you well. At Forde, the 28th day of January. [1537.]

Your own ever assured,

To the Right Honourable and my
singular good lord, my Lord Privy

T. Cantuarien.





My very singular good Lord, in my most hearty manner Chapter I commend me unto your lordship. And where you reWestmin- quire me to advertise you what farther knowledge I have Crumwell's concerning the misdemeanour of such monks of Christ's Corre- Church as of late were detected unto you, as yet I know no spondence. Original. more than I wrote to you of, saving that the observation of Todd, Life the King's Injunctions is not regarded; for when any of the of CranConvent will move to have any of the said Injunctions observed, by and by the Prior saith that he hath a dispensation for it; insomuch that, amongs other things, on St. Blase day y last past, the Prior commanded that the relics should be set forth as they were wont to be, and thereof sent word to the Convent unto the Chapter House, that it was the King's pleasure so to be done, which is contrary to the Injunctions given. But forasmuch as I was uncertain

mer, vol. i. P. 172.

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[Henry Turney was involved in the troubles at Calais which followed Damplip's preaching, and, together with several others, was sent to England on a charge of heresy. They were in prison at the death of Crumwell in July 1540, when they were dismissed by the Lord Chancellor Audley, by virtue of the King's general pardon. See Letters CLV, CLIX, CCXXV, &c; Foxe, vol. ii. p. 562; Stat. 32 Hen. VIII. cap. 49.] xSee Letter CLXXVII.]

y The 3rd of February.]

z [Item, That they shall not show no relics or feigned miracles for increase of lucre, but that they exhort pilgrims and strangers to give that to the poor, that they thought to offer to their images or relics. Injunctions to Monasteries, Burn. Ref. vol. i. b. iii. No. 2. See also Injunctions to the Clergy, Ibid. No. 7.]

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