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to be called for; fince that Council meddled neither with the Reformation of the Church, nor with the Extirpation of Herefy: Yet, that they might feem to do fomething, they fell upon reforming * the Kalendar, which was become very faulty; and for that Purpose the Pope caufed Memorandums to be drawn up, and wrote to all the Chriftian Princes, inviting them to fend their Aftronomers to Rome, or at leaft to order them to examine what had been propofed on the faid Subject: And we find, in the Collection of the publick Ats, the Brief addreffed to Henry the VIIIth, wherein the Pope fays, "He had adjourned the next Seffions "to December, in order to give the Mathematicians Time to fend in their Opinions."

THE EMPEROR, before the laft Year was expired, accepted and ratified the Treaty of Noyon, because it was to bring him a round Sum of Money; and for the fame Reason he concluded a Truce with the Venetians: ; and with joint Confent they submitted to leave all their Matters in Difference to Arbitration. On the 15th of January he made a new Agreement with them, whereby it was fettled, that the Truce fhould be enlarged for five Years. This being done, the Emperor actually received the Money provided by the Treaty of Noyon; and restored the City of Verona to them upon this further Condition, that they fhould, during the Truce, pay him yearly 20,000 Crowns.

There is another Reafon affigned for Maximilian's agreeing with the Venetians, which was, as Lord Herbert afferts, "The Emperor could not truft Car"dinal Wolfey, in refpect to obtaining Money from

his Mafter; " which we think is highly to the Cardinal's Honour, confidering what fort of a Part Maximilian had hitherto acted. A third Reafon his LordVOL. II. Z z ship Regulation of the Kalendar has been of infinite Service to Europe in general.

How much foever the Church might want Reforming, or Hereticks extirpating, it is certain the

fairs of

Italy.

1517.

fhip affigns is this, "He was quite tired with War." Indeed, for very good Caufe, the Princes of Europe were quite tired with fupporting him with Money; and therefore, if he had carried the War on further, in all Probability it must have been folely at his own Expence, which his Revenues would by no means enable him to do. The Affairs between the Emperor and the Venetians being thus concluded, Italy had an immediate Profpect of enjoying Peace, which, however, was interrupted for a Time, through the following Occafion. The Duke of Urbino, having been deprived by the Pope of his Dutchy laft Year, thought this a proper Time to affert his Right, and recover it by Force of Arms; but did not hold his Poffeffion long, before he was attacked by the united Forces of the Pope and the King of France, which foon fo far reduced him, that he gladly accepted of the Propofals made to him, and figned an Agreement, whereby his Dominions were ceded to the Pope, and he retired to Mantua, where we fhall for the prefent leave him.

The War with the Duke of Urbino furnished the Pope with a Pretence to fend to the different Princes of Europe for Succours; particularly he wrote a Letter to Henry the VIIIth, defiring his Affiftance against his Enemies and thofe of the Church, dated at Rome, June 20th; he alfo fent circular Letters to the Bifhops of England, commanding them to raife an entire Tenth upon their Clergy, in order to help him to fupport the War of Urbino; and likewife a Bull, appointing Cardinal Wolfey his Collector, empowering him therein to excommunicate all that refufed to pay, and even deprive them of their Benefices.

Whilft the Pope was thus employed, he difcovered a Plot formed againft his Life; but he had the good Fortune to get into his Poffeffion the principal Actors, amongit whom was his great Favourite, Hadrian,

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Hadrian, Bishop of Bath, his former Collector in England; but the Particulars of this Confpiracy we shall refer for a while.

Tofum up the Affairs of Italy, in refpect to the War that had been carried on there, fince the Treaty of Cambray, by the Venetians, great was the Joy of the whole Nobility and Commonalty of Venice, * for that,

Zz 2

*As this Republick has made a great Figure in Europe, we fhall here fay fomething concern. ing thofe People. We are told, that they had not their Beginning from Italy, but came from the Venetians of Gaul, who dwelt on the Coafts of the Occean Sea; but this Opinion was grounded upon the Name only, because those who poffeffed the Adriatick Gulph were, like their Neighbours, very much addicted to Sea-business, as the British Subjects (Heaven be praifed!) are at this Day. Titus Livius, on the other fide, affirms, "That the Venetians are descend"ed from Paphlagonia; and "that, their Captain being dead

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at Troy, they came with Antenor into Italy." Cato thinks the Venetians are defcended from the Trojan Race. Cornelius Nepos imagines, that the Venetians were fo named in Italy of the Henetians, who inhabited the Town of Cromna, near Paphlagonia. Others have written, that this Nation was a Neighbour to the Cappadocians, and made War upon the Cimmerians, and afterwards came into the Adriatick Sea. But fome think, they poffeffed a little Town near to Amaftra, and that they paffed feveral Tracts of Land to meet

with the Henetians. In short, moft Authors feem at last to agree, that they did come from Paphlagonia, which Xenodeus did not only maintain, but thought, that the City of Amifa was the fame which was afterwards called Henifa. However, thofe who fo think bring as a Proof, the induitrious Care both thefe Nations had to breed Horfes and Mules, according to the Teftimony of Homer, who fays, "And from the Henetians came ftrong Mules." Strabo maintains, that the best Mares came from the Venetians, both for Pace and Swiftnefs; fo that the Venetians will have it, that the Henetians came into Italy with Antenor, and were afterwards, by changing a Letter, called Venetians: And whatever they afterwards conquered or poffeffed they called it Venice, which is the pleafanteft Part of Italy. Some have confined this Country with the Rivers Po and Adda, the Lake of La Guarda, the Alpes, and the Adriatick Sea. Pliny comprehended in the East Side thereof Aquileia; but Strabo, on the contrary, cuts it off. This Nation is environed on the South Side by the calm Circuit of Sea, which makes it capable of receiving all manner of fo

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that, after fo long and dangerous a War, attended with fo many Calamities and Expences, they had recovered to their Dominions fo principal a Member, esteeming the Reward of the War far above the Burthen and Charges of it. Most of the Writers fay concerning this War, that the Venetians had expended, fince the League of Cambray, five Millions of Ducats, 500,000 whereof they levied on the Sale of Offices. Laftly, the Inhabitants of Verona rejoiced no lefs than the Venetians at this Change, as did alfo all the other Cities fubject to their Commonwealth, hoping now to be delivered from the many Afflictions which fo long and cruel a War had thrown upon them.

Arms being thus laid afide, the Venetians enjoyed three Years Peace, and, that their People might tafte the Fruits of it, they took off those Taxes that were impofed on them during the War.* They alfo ordered, that thofe, who had ferved the Commonwealth during that Period, and had not been paid their Wages, fhould be punctually paid. They likewise re-established the University of Padua, † which had been fhut up for above

reign Merchandizes. It is moreover watered with most pleasant Rivers, by which all that comes from the Sea are cafily tranfported into the different Provinces. It was faid, that the Election of their firft Doge was in the Year 697, fince which the Power of the Doge hath often varied; infomuch, that at laft it dwindled into an empty Title, void of any Authority. This Republick has four principal Councils: ift, The Nobility. 2d, The 120 Pregadi, chofen out of them, of which the Senate is compofed. 3d, The Doge and his 25 Affeffors, 4th, The Council of Ten.

*Glorious Example this!

The antient City of Padua is feated in the midst of a fpacious Plain, in a Province belonging to Venice, called Marca Trivigiana, having the Sea at 20 Miles diftant on the East and South Parts thereof; on the West a large Champion Country, and on the North the Mountains Euganei. It is of a triangular Form, invironed with double Walls and very deep Ditches; and the Venetians from time to time have greatly ftrengthened it, by almoft immenfe Walls and Bulwarks built according to modern Fortification.

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above eight Years. In fhort, every thing had now a good Afpect at Venice, and Peace and Plenty begun to flourish, which induced them to fend Ambaffadors to the Ottoman Porte, to Henry King of England, Charles King of Spain, and other Princes, in order

The Palace, or Hall of Juftice, in this City, is certainly, according to all Accounts, the fairest and most spacious of Christendom: 'Tis covered with Lead, and round about goes a ftately Corridor of Marble.

Near the Palace ftood the Schools for all Learning, which confifted of ten Colleges. This Pile of Building was the fecond Marvel not only of Padua, but of Europe: Within was a fquare Court; the Building two Stories high, fuftained with most fair Pillars; and in every Corner were the Arms of all fuch as have been Confuls or Protectors in that Univerfity; fome in Colours only, fome in Colours and Stone, with their Country, Name, and the Year fet up; all done at the Venetians Charge, to make famous this Nursery of Learning.

The Anatomick Theatre, erected in thofe Schools, ftands above, is moft neatly contrived, and very commodious both for the Profeffor and the Spectators.

This Univerfity was once as the Market-place of Learning, and approached the nearest to the Academy of Athens, in the Efteem of the Learned; and confequently to this Place, from all Parts of the World, thronged the moft eminent in all the Liberal Sciences, and no fmall Number of the Nobles, as Scholars, not enly from all Parts of Italy, and

its neighbouring Provinces, but from the fartheft Parts of the Chriftian World.

In the ten Colleges, were allowed honourable Penfions to many Scholars; to defcribe them would take up more room than can be spared here.

In the Palace of the Bishop thefe Things are worth a Sight; the most ample Diocese of Padua, drawn in a large Square by Marco Cornaro, once its Bishop, a Prelate worthy of eternal Memory; and a great Hall, where to the Life (as is believed) are drawn the Pictures of 112 Bifhops of this molt antient and noble City.

At prefent this famous Univerfity is ftripped of its former Luftre, (by the late Wars, and the Death of fo many learned Profeffors who had with high Reputation filled her Chairs) her Students being reduced from 12 or 13,000, their ordinary Number, to 430; and of the ten Colleges, or publick Schools, there is only one remaining, called the College of the Ox. See Monfieur Blainville's Travels in Italy, &c. p. 445

Between the Church del Santo, and that of San Giuftina, is fituated the Phyfick Garden filled with every Thing that is curious, and planted in the Year 1546, at the Coft of the Students in Phyfick and Philofophy, for the

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