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my Friends, God hath been pleafed to crown my Labours with Succefs, in many important Affairs, for the Good of the State; but there is not any thing you ought to rejoice with me more in, than the happy Accomplishment of this Impreffion, and the Explanation of the Bible in four Languages.


The Cardinal of England did not lefs discover the Greatness of his Mind, in applying his large Revenues for the Advancement of Piety and Learning. It is true, that, instead of erecting, he deftroyed feveral Religious Houfes, (the Reafon for which will be accounted for hereafter) but this was fo far from being inconfiftent with the great and magnificent Things he had in View, that it prepared the Way towards the Accomplishment of them: And as to the Republick of Letters, it may be affirmed, without derogating from the Glory of Ximenes, that Cardinal Wolfey was no less a Friend to it; his Foundations were larger, and his Endowments, had they been preferved upon his Plan, more noble and opulent; to which we may fubjoin, he had formed a Defign, as to the Charge and Difficulty of executing it, not inferior to that of Ximenes, in his Edition of the Old and New Testament, which was, to cause all the Manufcripts in the Vatican to be transcribed for the Service of his Country.

While the Thoughts of thefe great Men were taken up in promoting the Intereft of Learning and Religion, they did not neglect the Services of their refpective Masters, or the Affairs of State. They were indefatigable both in fuper-intending the civil Economy, and in taking Care there was no want of military Preparations. It was a standing Maxim with them both, that no Prince could be confiderable, except he was either in Action, or had made vifible Preparations for Action.

Ximenes's Humility did not exempt him from the
Charge of Ambition, nor his pious Works from that
of Avarice. The Wars, which he advifed his Ma-


fter to prosecute, and in fome of which he perfo nally commanded, as we have before related, gave occafion of Cenfure to his Enemies, who reproached him as acting unfuitable to his Character, which, they judged, fhould have inclined him more to pacifick Measures than to War. "Nothing, cried they

could be more abominable, than to fee a Priest, "an Archbishop, and a Cardinal embrue his Hands ❝in human Blood."

The Cardinal of England was alfo cenfured on all those Accounts, except that of having a military Command; and though thefe Calumnies were encouraged by the great Men in both Courts, to whom the Power, of which the Cardinals were poffeffed, had rendered them invidious; yet the two Kings, their Masters, were so fenfible of their Integrity and Zeal for the publick Service, that the whole Defign, projected to bring them into Difgrace, was impracticable; till Wolfey, indeed, at last was removed; but not fo much by the Weight of all his Enemies in Conjunction, which he had long withflood, as by the Artifice and Infinuation of a fingle Woman.*

Ximenes punished with Rigour wherever he could difcover the Authors of Violence and Injuftice, and fuch especially, who, in Breach of the Trust repofed in them, had embezzled the publick Moneys, and the like Inftances of Justice may provoke particular Perfons, who feel, in one Degree or other, the Effect of it; yet in general they recommend Magiftrates to Efteem among thinking Men, for fuch neceffarily love Order and Juftice.

Cardinal Wolfey appears, upon the Comparison, to have had an equal Regard to his Mafter's Honour and the Good of the State, it being allowed on all Hands, that, in his judicial Inquiries and Proceedings, he acted with a becoming Severity, of which we shall immediately give several Inftances; and this leads us to attend the Affairs of England.


* Anna Bullein.

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The different Bufinefs the Cardinal was Affairs of employed in, relating to his Offices as well England. 1516. fpiritual as temporal, one would think might have fo taken up his Time, that he could not have had Leifure to have attended any other Matters; yet fuch was his extreme Application to the Affairs of the Government, that this Year was no fooner opened, but he bestowed Part of his Time in reforming the Abufes which had crept into the different Offices, concerning the Revenue and Adminiftration of Justice, in the Courts where he did not immediately prefide. First, he began with inquiring into the State of the Exchequer, and finding it much exhaufted thro' the King's Liberality, and the Call of publick Affairs, it put him upon bringing to a ftrict Account the different Perfons intrufted with the Receipt of the Publick Revenue. By the Accounts he found feveral great Perfons were indebted to his Majefty in large Sums, the Getting-in of which, thro' the Negligence or Treachery of the Officers, had been neglected. Among thofe Debtors, the Duke of Suffolk appeared to be one: The Debt being demanded, and he then unable to answer it, he thought proper to retire into the Country, where, by living frugal, he hoped to enable himfelf, out of the Income of his Eftate, in Time, to pay it off.* Others immediately paid into the Treafury what they refpectively owed; and, where Satisfaction was not fo be had by fair Means, Profecutions were commenced, in order to compel Payment, which had fo good an Effect that Money became more plenty, and enabled his Majefty to answer the Exigencies of the Publick, without burthening his Subjects at that Juncture. After Wolfey had reformed thefe Neglects, he next Sf 2 profaving of many good antient Families, as well as of many fine Gentlemen.

* We wish this prudent Step was brought into common Prac tice; because it might be the

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proceeded to enquire into publick Mifdemeanours, fuch as Perjury, Rapes, Oppreffions of the Poor, Riots, and other enormous Crimes; and those as were accufed of any of these Crimes were profecuted without refpect of Perfons; and fuch as were found guilty were publickly punished, or feverely fined: Infomuch that it was observed, Perjury in particular foon became much less frequent. In fhort, the Cardinal, for exerting himself in bringing notorious Offenders to Juftice, was then much applauded (as Lord Herbert and other Authors own) both by the King and the People: And, for the more speedy punishing the Crimes we have last mentioned, a Court was erected, where the Lords of the Council, and many of the Nobility fat. The Court of Requeft was by the Cardinal's Means inftituted; and he ordained, as Godwin affirms, many other Things in the Civil Government of the Kingdom, that were very acceptable to the People, and are in Ufe even at this Day, by which he ma nifefted his Wisdom and Love of his Country.

Erafmus upon this Occafion remarks, "That the "Cardinal proceeded in fuch a Way, as to bid fair "to render Britain a more glorious Nation, than it "ever was before; for he fo throughly purged the "Realm of Malefactors and evil Doers of every fort, "that is was not more free from Poifons and wild

Beafts, than from noxious Men. That, by his "Authority, he cut in funder many perplexed Law"Suits, no lefs happily than Alexander did the Gordian Knott; and that with much Wisdom he.compofed the Differences amongst great Men."

Whilft Cardinal Wolfey was thus worthily employed at home, his Holinefs was refolved not to be behind hand in diftinguishing this great Prelate. He conferred on him the Title of his Legate à Latere; for the Execution of which Office the King, by his Letters Patent, confented.


Wolfey made Legate à Latere.

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Cavendish gives us an Account of a Difpute that arose between the Archbishops Warham and Wolfey, with refpect to the latter's caufing his Croffes to be borne before him in the Province of Canterbury; which our Readers may fee, p. 9, &c. in the Note.

When Archbishop Wolfey was made a Cardinal, another Matter arose between these two Prelates, the Cardinal infifting on taking Place of his Grace of Canterbury, which gave rife to an Enquiry how far the Cardinal could juftify this Demand. A learned Gentleman,* in a Letter to Dr. Fiddes, remarks, "That, “eyen from our own Hiftorians, it appears ArchbiShops formerly took Place of Cardinals." And we find, that Cardinals, tho' Legates, yielded the Precedency to Bishops, which was obferved in the Council of Vienne: But this was afterwards altered; for, when Kemp, Archbishop of York, was made Cardinal, he claimed in the Houfe of Lords the Precedence of Chicele, Archbishop of Canterbury; and the latter, refufing to comply with the Demand, it was referred to the Pope, who determined it in Favour of Kemp, Upon which Occafion the Pope writ the Archbishop a Letter to the Effect following, "That the Degree in "the Church next the Papacy were the Cardinals : "That they were thofe venerable Priefts mention❝ed by Mofes, in the 17th Chapter of Deuteronomy: "That they were afterwards inftituted by St. Peter, "and were to be accounted Members of the Pope's


Body:-And that the whole Church did turn upon "them as upon its Hinges. Seeing therefore, that it "hath obtained, by the Cuftoms and Conftitutions of


Controverfy between the Bishops of Can. terbury and York,

particular Churches, that, in the fame Province, a "Priest should take Place of a Deacon, a Bishop of

a Prieft, and an Archbishop of a Bishop: So much "more, by the Laws of the Catholick Church, ought the Cardinals to preside over all Bishops and "Arch

John Anftis, Efqi

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