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dom of Granada to his Empire, as before obferved; (which the Enemies of the Chriftian Faith had ufurped almost Eight hundred Years) Naples, and the great Di£ coveries in the Weft-Indies, with the Conqueft of Navarre, the Principality of Oran, and many other Places of Importance upon the Coast of Africa ftill added to his Grandeur. He kept always the upper Hand of his Enemies, and cloaked his Ambition and Covetoufnefs of other Princes Kingdoms and States under Pretence of Zeal to Religion, and an holy Af fection to the Common-wealth.

By this Monarch's Death a Pope and Three great Kings, in about feven Years, went to their laft Account, Julius the IId, Henry the VIIth, Lewis. the XIIth, and Ferdinand. The fecond and fourth were not unlike in Temper, each having every thing as far as he could for his own Benefit. Henry, during his Life, made Ferdinand his Dupe to carry the Points he had then depending, whilft Ferdinand thought he was made ufe of in Matters that were greatly for his own Intereft; and He at laft perceiving the Ufe Henry made of him, in return made the fame Ufe of his Son, Henry the VIIIth, as his Father had made of him. But when the great Wolfey came to be first Minister, he quickly discovered all old Ferdinand's Drifts, other Measures were taken, and young Henry, by purfuing his Primier's Advice, foon turned the Tables upon his Father-in-law. Witness the Treaty, in the Year 1514, between Henry and Lewis, concluded without the Privity either of him or Maximilian; and Henry at last learned to take as little Notice of the Spanish Ambaffador as King Ferdinand and Julius the IId had before of his, when they thought they had served their own Turns, by obtaining the Retreat of Lewis the XIIth out of Italy in the Year 1512.

Though Ferdinand was counted as faving as Henry the VIIth, yet the Cafe was vaftly different at their Death, the firft leaving his Succeffor, though he had


no Indies to be fupplied from, an almost immenfe Sum in ready Money: Whereas the other, who had the Indies at command, died fo poor as to leave scarce fufficient to bury him: But then it may be observed, that Henry the VIIth kept himself fingle, after the Death of his Queen; whereas Ferdinand married an artful Wife in his old Age, who was a Woman of great Activity, and very likely was the Means of exhaufting both his Wealth and his Strength.

After the Death of Ferdinand the whole Kingdom of Spain came of courfe to Jobanna his eldeft Daughter; but, by Reason of her Defect of Understanding, Charles of Auftria, her eldeft Son, then in the Low Countries, was proclaimed King of Spain. Whereupon Adrian, then upon the Spot, produced to the Council Letters Patent, whereby he was conftituted Regent in his Master's Abfence: But Ximenes refused to acknowledge him as fuch on Pretence, that Charles had no Authority to appoint a Regent, before he was received as King. However, to prevent Difturbances on that Head, it was foon agreed, that the Affairs of the Government thould be conducted by Ximenes and Adrian, as Joint-regents, and all Difpatches to be figned by both Parties: But, notwithstanding this Agreement, Ximenes left Adrian only the bare Title of Joint-regent, for he discharged all the Functions of a fole Governor.

Charles of Auftria Spain. proclaimed King of

When King Charles heard what had been tranfacting in Spain, he wrote to the Council of Caftile, affuring them, that he would come over with all Speed; to Cardinal Ximenes, recommending to him the Care of the Government; to Queen Germane, comforting and affuring her of all Honour and Refpect; and to Prince Ferdinand, affuring him, that he would be both a Brother and a Father to him. But there were not wanting Perfons, who endeavoured to fet Charles against Ximenes, in which they fucceeded; though Charles

did not for the prefent think proper to fhew his Displeasure. On the other Hand, though the Queen his Mother, was distracted, feveral Persons reforted to her, and inculcated fo much Ill into her against the King, her Son, that she would never call him any thing but Prince.

Rebellion in Upon the Death of King Ferdinand, Sicily. d'Hugo de Moncada was Viceroy of Sicily, and refided at Palermo, where the two Earls of Camcrofa and Golifano had fo far incenfed the Rabble against the Viceroy, that they took Arms and befieged him in his Palace, from whence with much Difficulty he escaped to Mefina. In the mean time they broke into his Palace, plundered it, and fet feveral Prifoners at Liberty. King Charles, upon hearing this News, fent the Earl of Monteleon, his Viceroy over to that Island, with a Body of Troops. These Forces, with the Affiftance of fome of the Prime Nobility, foon broke the Band of the Mutineers, and, after taking several Prifoners, fome were immediately executed, and others were imprisoned, infomuch that, before the Year expired, the Peace of the Island was reftored.

The Oppofition of The next Difficulty King Charles had John d'Albert to encounter, on his fucceeding to the Crown of Spain, was this, John d'Albert, the deprived King of Navarre, got a Body of Troops together, confifting of 1000 Foot and fome Horse, and put at their Head the famous Marfhal Peter de Navarro, who he had prevailed with to enter into his Service. Thefe Forces marched into that Kingdom, and King John's Affairs at first seemed to bear a favourable Afpect, which gave great Uneafinefs to Cardinal Ximenes, the Kingdom being then in a defenceless Condition. However, no time was loft in raifing Forces, in order to oppofe King John's Projects, and the Troops were no fooner raifed, but they marched to meet the Enemy, under the Com


mand of Colonel Ferdinand de Villalva, who foor came up with King John's little Army, engaged, and totally defeated them, and took General Peter Navarro Prifoner, who was fent into Spain, where he was clofly confined for fome Years, and at laft, through the great Vexation, and vaft Mortification of his afpiring Spirit, as it was faid, murdered himself in Prifon and thus ended the Life of this gallant Soldier.



Peter Navarro

taken Prifoner, and dies mife rable.

King John and his Queen, upon

receiving the News of this Defeat of The deprived King his Army, died, as fome thought, off Navarre dies of Grief. Grief, which put an End to the Troubles in thofe Parts much fooner than was expected.

But this was not all the Fatigue the Cardinal met with, there was not wanting many discontented Perfons in Spain, who proceeded fo far as to take Arms against him, yet he found Means to quel thofe Diforders, and preserve his Command till the Arrival of his Royal Master into Spain, tho' it happened not this Year.

As Ximenes and Wolfey were now two of the greatest Minifters in Europe, we shall here endeavour to draw a fort of Parallel between them; Ximenes, in refpect to his Birth, had the Advantage of the Cardinal of England. In their firft Effays towards making their way into the World, they were under the fame Difadvantages, and, after they appeared more openly upon the Stage of it, met with the like ignominious Treatment, though different as to the Duration and other Circumftances of it; but thofe early Rebuffs produced in the Sequel a Train of Events very favourable to them both, fo difficult it is to make a Judgment of what may happen to us in future Time from any prefent Appearances.

The Merit of thefe two great Men could not be obfcured, even under Circumftances of Difgrace; they

A Parallel between the Car

dinals Ximenes and Wolfey.

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ftill found generous Patrons, who did not think, as Perfons of little Merit in high Stations fometimes do, That the Misfortunes of Men afford a reasonable Pretence why they fhould not be encouraged or preferred: But yet their Manner, as to their Conduct of Life, was fomewhat different. Ximenes, after running through a Scene of Actions on the Stage of publick Affairs, which gave him a Diftafte of the World, made him chufe to retire to a Cloifter,

The Temper of Cardinal Wolfey feems to be very different, for his Fatigues and Disappointments rather inclined him to the civil Life and Conversation, though, as to the exterior and devotional Part of Religion, he always fhewed great Regard; he alfo was zealous in reforming fcandalous Abufes among the Monaftick Orders, and the regular Clergy of all DiftinЄtions, as will be hereafter more fully feen.

The great Revenues of Ximenes were employed in Works of Piety and Charity, and in answering the End for which the Donation of them was originally made to the Church. The Poor, whom he called his Lords and Proprietors, received one Moiety, the other was appropriated, neceffary Deductions being made for the Expences of his Family, towards founding Monafteries and Colleges, and endowing them after a proper and liberal Manner. Among the reft he had one excellent Defign, which he lived to execute, and whereof the Learned World at this Day every where reaps the Benefit; in order to adjust and correct as exact an Edition as might be made of the Holy Scriptures, in Latin, Greek, Hebrew, and Chaldee, he bought up, at a vast Charge, all the Ma, nufcript Bibles he could any where hear of; a Copy of which, when finished, being prefented to him, with Eyes and Hands lift up to Heaven, he faid, My God, I return thee immortal Thanks for granting my Defires of good Succefs to fee this Work compleated. Then, turning to his Domefticks, he adds, It is true,


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