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Privy Counseller in England, and had a Seat in the English Parliament above the Barons. He was the richest Subject the King had, and left above 40,000 l. in Money, besides Jewels, and as much Land in England to his two Daughters, as at this Day would bring 30,000 l. per Arnum : But had no Issue Male to enjoy his Irish Estate, which therefore defcended to his Kinsman, Sir Peirce Butler, with the Title of Earl of Ormond. Charles, Archduke of Austria, was

Charles of Austria now fifteen Years of Age ; upon which takes upo: himself

the Government of his Grandfather, Maximilian, and Flanders. his Aunt, Margaret, surrendered up 1515 the Government of the Low Countries into his Hands, which were presently notified to all Christian Princes. The Lady Margaret at first had the Charge of educating the young Duke; but at seven Years of Age the Care of his further Education was partly committed to Adrian Florentius, a Man of low Extraction, yet had raised himself by his Virtue. His Preceptor could not get him to apply to Learning, because his İnclination was altogether bent upon Arms, which he early imbibed from William de Croy, one of his first Governors, who indulged his Humour by causing hiin frequently to read the Feats thereof in the old Histories of France, Spain, &c. in their respective Languages.

Some apprehended, on the Death of Lewis the XIIth, the new King Affairs of France, would have defifted from his Preten- Spain, and Italy.

1515 fions in Italy, and have been contented

with being brought againft him in Par- now his Title and Eftate is for. liament, when he retired into feited to the Crown.

The Right France ; and soon after he was at- Honourable Charles, Earl of Artainted by Act of Parliament: ran, Brother to the faid Duke ; Though we are credibly inform- the Right Honourable Somerset ed, that his Majesty's personal Hamilton Butler, Viscount IkeRegard for him was such, that rine ; and the Right Honourable he was determined to pardon Thomas Butler, Lord of Cahir, him, if he had staid and sub- are all descended from this illufó mitted to the Trial : Whereas tricus Family.

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with his Kingdom in the Condition he found it; but they soon found themselves mistaken, for Francis having added the Title of Duke of Milan to that of King of France, he also instantly made great Preparations, in order to enable himself to carry on his intended War, so that the Eyes of Europe were again turned towards Italy: But before Francis put his Design in Execution, as the Offices of Chancellor and Constable were vacant, he disposed of the First to Anthony du Prat, and of the other to Cbarles, Duke of Bourbon ; and la Palisse was honoured with the Staff of Marshal of France.

Ferdinand of Spain was greatly alarmed at the fe Transactions, tho' Francis offered to renew the Truce that had been made between France and Spain ; yet Ferdinand, in his Conference with the Swiss Ambassador, declared, that the only way to make France defist from her Attempts in Italy, was to attack the French in their own Country; and therefore was ready to join all his Forces with the Saviss for that Purpose. The Swiss listened to these Proposals, and readily agreed: The Emperor also promised to carry on the War against the Venetians with greater Vigour than he had hitherto done.

Whilst these Schemes were upon the Carpet, Francis ordered his Troops to file off towards the Alps, and the Swiss, resolved to oppose this Expeditions seized the only two Passes thro' which it was judged the French could enter the Milanese: But Ferdinand, instead of keeping his Word with the Swiss, after he was affured Francis was set out on his Expedition, immediately disbanded his Forces, and left the whole Burthen of defending Milan to the Swiss. Francis made use of this lucky Opportunity, and marched his Army by a Route little thought of and unguarded, and soon came within Sight of Milan, which he found poffeffed by the Swiss; to whom he offered a Sum of Money, if they would deliver up the


Place and return home, which they at first seemed to agree to; but, having received a Supply of 15000 Men, and being instigated by the Car

The French beat dinal of Sion, (the constant Enemy of the Swiss. France) they actually attacked Francis's Army, who lay encamped at Marignano, little expecting such a Visit. However, the French engaged the Swiss, and defeated them, who lost above 10,000 Men. Here Francis commanded his Army in Person, having under him Lautrec, now become a very experienced General, and at this Battle gained great Reputation ; the King too acted in this Engagement like an experienced Captain, whofe Resolution was far greater than the Danger he was exposed to. The new Constable of France and the famous Peter Navarro were also in this Engagement and behaved bravely; the latter had entered into the French Service, having left the Spaniards, because, after he was taken at the Battle of Ravenna, they let him lie a long time in Prison for want of paying his Ransom.

This Victory was of exceeding Service to Francis, for the Residue of the pennyless Swiss made the best of their way home, the City of Milan capitulated, and the French King soon got Possession of the Dutchy.

Whilst the French were thus busied, the indolent Emperor got to Inspruck, seated at ease, without troubling his Head either for or against the Swiss ; and old King Ferdinand only looked on, not giving the Swiss any sort of Aslistance, each Party seeming to have forgot, that they had so much as promised so to do.

Maximilian Sforza, Duke of Milan, who had shut himself up in his Castle, finding his Case defperate, surrendered it by Capitulation. The Duke was no sooner in the French King's Hands, than he was sent into France, where he was allowed a Pension for Life; Such was the Fate of the Son of Ludovic the Moor. ¿

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His Majesty entered Milan in great The King of France's

State, environed by the greatest part publice Entry into Milan.

of his Cavalry, and attended by four

of the chiefest Senators of Venice, among whom was Andrew Gritti. Success did not attend Francis the Ift. at Milan only; for, whilst he was thus employed, Ottavian Fregafa brought the Genoefe under his Dominion, and, instead of Doge, ftiled hinself Governor for the King.

As foon as Francis had accomplished his Enterprizes, the Venetian Army, under the Command of Alviano, their Captain General proposed to befiege Breffa; but, just as he was going to put his Project in Execution, he was fiezed with a Fever, and con

strained to leave his Army, and in Alviano dies much lamented,

the Month of Otober died, before he

was 60 Years of Age. His Death was a great Concern to the People of Venice, and much more to the Soldiers, who kept his Body 25 Days, carrying it about as they marched with great Solemnity, and then it was brought to Venice, and, by a publick Decree, was honourably buried in St. Stephen's Church, where his Tomb is at this Day to be seen : And, as he had esteemed the Service of his Country above Riches, he left his Widow and Children very poor ; but that was made up to them by Order of the Senate, who provided for them in a generous Manner.

After Alviano's Death, George Eme, Bressia taken by the Proveditor, took upon himself the the Venetians.

Command of the Army, which with the Affistance of the French at last took Brefia, and the Venetians were so well fatisfied with the Services they had met with from Lautrec, that they made him feveral handsome Presents, his Master at the same time presenting him with the Order of St. Michael.

Pope 'Leo, being in hopes Francis would never have been able to have entered Italy, joined in the

League League against him, but fo privately that Francis knew nothing of it till he came to Verceil. In the mean time the Pope was under great Perplexities, for hę had sent an Army into Lombardy, with a Design to support the Duke of Milan: But, when he heard Francis had surmounted all Difficulties, he sent Orders to Lorenzo de Medici, who commanded his Army, not to commit Hoftilities against the French, and to let the King know, that his Army was there only to guard Parma and Placentia ; for, as the Fate of Milan was not then decided, he did not dare to make too many Advances, left the Allies might take Umbrage, who would have it in their power to be revenged of him, if the French had been vanquished.

Tho' Leo's Behaviour tó Francis, was such, that he deserved no Favour from hin, he obtained, among other Advantages, the Abolition of the Pragmatick Sanction, which his Predeceffors had hitherto in vain demanded, and in return, the Pope agreed to an Interview with the King of France at Bologna.

The Pope entered that City the 8th of December, and the King made his Entryfween Leo and two Days after. He was received, on the Confines of the Country of Reggio, by the Cardinals Fiesque and Medicis, Legates Apostolick, who introduced him, according to the Manner of Kings, into the Pope's Presence, in the publick Consistory, where his Majesty offered his Obedience to the holy See, his great Chancellor, in a Speech, delivering his Master's Sentiments, which were extreamly well received by his Holiness. The Audience being over, they spent three Days together in one Palace, Thewing to each other manifest Tokens of the strongest Amity, and confirmed, by repeated Promises, the Obligations and Contracts before debated, besides consulting on many Things touching the Kingdom of Naples, the King having now Thoughts of attacking it; which Enterprize the Pope promised to favour at a seasonable

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