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REARING AND TRAINING OF COLTS. young horses, unaccustomed to travel, is chafed and scalded by the friction of the girth; the part, washed and cleaned with a little soap and water, and then washed with a little salt and water, will immediately cure and toughen the skin.".


During the first summer, the foals may be allowed to run with their dams until September or October, if the weather continue open and mild. They should then be weaned and kept in fold-yards, or paddocks, containing open sheds, with low racks and mangers for receiving their food; which ought, at first, to be the sweetest hay that can be procured. Where rowen can be commanded, it will furnish a succulent and invigorating article; but, both with hay and rowen, bran or oats should be given in due proportions, which indeed can only be ascertained by experience. When, however, oats form a part of the food, it has been recommended to bruise or crush them previously in a mill; which necessary precaution will prevent the distention of the lower jaw veins, which would otherwise attract the blood and humors down into the eyes, and thus occasion blindness. Further ; by feeding young colts with oats, in conjunction with other articles, their limbs become better knit than when they are fed only with bran and hay; while they will also be enabled to endure greater severity of weather, and to acquire the vigor requisite to their future improvement. It may, indeed, be assumed as an axiom, that there is no greater error in breeding any animals, than that too common one of stinting them during the early period of their growth. It is then that they require the greatest nourishment; and if it be withheld, they will be injured in their constitution, and consequently in their value, to a far greater extent than any saving that can be effected in their food; but to no animal does this remark apply more strongly than to the horse.

It is a common practice, on wcaning foals, to put them into warm stables during the following winter; from a notion that they are not, at that early age, able to support the cold of an open shed. Whether this may be judicious with regard to the more tender breeds of blood cattle, it is not our present object to enquire; but with respect to the cart species, it is unquestionably wrong. These, from the nature of their future employment, must necessarily be exposed to every vicissitude of weather; and they cannot be too early inured to a certain degree of hardship. They should, indeed, be carefully kept from lying out, in the wet, at night'; but during the day, they cannot be too much abroad; and dry hovels are far to be preferred to warm stables for their nightly shelter. It has been even found that young colts, which had shown symptoms of disease while kepl with all the care usually bestowed on hunters, have recovered when removed to a paddock, and that weaned foals have thriven better when only sheltered in a rick yard than when housed,

Colts, thus treated, will have acquired sufficient strength and hardihood before the second winter, to be enabled to brave the inclemency of the season, without any other food than hay, or any other covering than that with which nature has provided them. The largest dray horses are thus reared in the Lincolnshire marshes, in England: yet if they can be allowed the shelter of a straw-yard, with the addition, to their hay, of unthrash


ed oat-straw, or some of the succulent roots, but especially carrots, it will be of material benefit; but they should be daily turned out into a field, as exercise is not merely conducive to their general health and growth, but particularly requisite in strengthening the sinews of their limbs, and giving firmness to their feet. This, indeed, is attended with additional trouble ; for, in severe seasons, or when the pasture is quite bare, it becomes necessary to feed them in the pasture to which they are turned.

The following summer the colts should be allowed the range of the best pastures, though they are too frequently turned on the worst; and in autumn they should be taken in, for the purpose of being broke to labor.

The process of training horses for the saddle is one of considerable nicety: for those intended for the plough, it is much more simple; but for both, the chief and best means are, gentleness and patience.The horse is an animal of much observation; capable of great attachment, and of equally strong resentment; if treated with kindness he becomes docile ; but severity generally fails of its object, and renders him intractable. There is certainly much difference in their natural temper, some requiring much more care and time to reduce them to obedience than others; but even the most restive may be rendered manageable by mild usage.

From the moment of its being weaned, the foal should he accustomed to the halter, and to be wisped over and occasionally tied up; but this should be done by the same person who feeds it, and that care should never be entrusted to lads, who will probably teaze the animal and teach it tricks, or to any hasty, ill-tempered man, who would be likely to illtreat it. The cost will thus early become accustomed to be handled, and will consequently occasion much less trouble, than if he had been previously neglected. After being a day or two in the stable, a bridle should be put on; but with a small bit at first, instead of the large one usually employed by horse breakers, and which by the horse's champing on it with impatience, sometimes occasions the mouth to become callous. He should then be led about, and accustomed to obey the rein in turning and stopping, which he will very soon learn; and, after a few days he should be completely harnassed, and put into a team among steady cattle. Care should, however, be taken, neither to whip him nor to force him to draw, but leave him quietly to walk with the other horses, and in a very short time he will imitate them and begin to pull. It may then be as well to let some one mount him, even if he should not be intended to be commonly ridden, as it will render him the more docile; but this had better be done while he is in the team, as the other horses will prevent him from plunging. Let no violence be used; for such is his power of observation, that while he will readily learn every thing that he is taught, he will also recollect many things that might be wished forgotten : thus, if flogged for starting at any particular object, he will only start the more on meeting it again, for he will remember the chastisement it occasioned; and if hurt in shoeing, or on any other occasion, he will never forget the pain it occasioned, and will never suffer a repetition of the same without impatience.

Castration is commonly performed when the colt is twelve or eighteen months old: some defer it longer, thinking that the later the operation is performed, the more strength and spirit he will have acquired; but it is attended with greater danger at that period ;- and it is much to be doubted whether it may not even be prejudicial to his temper. It is, besides, to be observed, that the severity of the operation occasions a check to his BREEDING, REARING, &c. OF SHEEP. growth, which is more felt and of more consequence at an advanced period, than when he is quite young. It is also worthy of consideration, in à pecuniary view that the older the animal is the greater will be the loss, in case he should die; and therefore perhaps the most prudent time will be, during the summer the foal is sucking. Fears are sometimes entertained of performing the operation in hot weather, fest inflammation take place; but extreme heat may be avoided, and there is even less danger from that than from cold, and the exercise of running with the mare will promote the suppuration, which will also be assisted by the warmth of her milk. At a more advanced age, the colt should be guarded from wet, and not allowed to drink cold water till the suppuration is complete.



Among the various animals given by the benevolent hand of Providence, for the benefit of mankind, there is none, perhaps, of greater utility than the sheep: which not only supplies us with food and clothing, but also affords conštant employment to numerous indigent families, in the various branches of the woollen manufacture ; and thus contributes, in 110 small proportion, to the productive labor, and commercial prosperity, and opulence of a people.

In a wild, or natural state, the sheep is a vigorous animal, lively, and capable of supporting fatigue ; when domesticated, indeed, it loses these properties, but amply compensates for the absence of them, by the superior advantages, arising from the rearing of this sort of cattle. In fact, sheep constitute a material part of a farmer's live stock and profits; and as particular attention has of late years been bestowed on the improvement of the respective breeds, we shall first present the reader with an introductory view of them; which will, we trust, convey an adequate idea of the principal varieties, together with their specific characters, and the peculiar advantages they respectively possess. The general management of these animals will afterwards form a subject of discussion,

The sheep is an inhabitant of every part of the globe, from Iceland to the regions of the torrid zone. According to Linnaeus, they are, the hornless, horned, black-faced, Spanish, many-horned, African, Guinea, broad-tailed, fat-rumped, Bucharian, long-tailed, Cape, bearded, and morvant; to which some add the Siberian sheep, cultivated in Asia, Barbary, and Corsica, and the Cretan sheep, which inhabits the Grecian islands, Hungary, and Austria.

The principal countries, in which special attention has been paid to sheep, are Spain, parts of Germany, France, Great Britain, and the United States. The present article will relate principally to the different breeds of sheep raised in Great Britain, as these embrace the principal varieties to be found in the countries already alluded to.

The following synopsis will give the reader not only a knowledge of the different breeds of sheep in Great Britain, but many interesting particulars concerning them.

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Heath large horns

black faces and legs coarse long wool

white faces and legs long wool
Norfolk large horns black faces and legs fine short wool
Wiltshire horned

white faces and legs sh’t & moderately fine wool
Dorsetshire small horns


fine short wool Dishley polled


long wool
Lincolnshire ditto


Romney Marsh ditto


ditto, good quality Tees Water ditto


long wool Dartmoor Natts ditto


ditto South-down ditto

gray faces and legs

very fine short wool Cannock Heath ditto

short fine wool Herefordshire ditto

white faces and legs very fine short wool Shropshire Morf polled and horned speckled faces and legs short fine wool Herdwick polled


short wool Cheviot ditto

white faces and legs fine short wool Dunfaced ditto

dun faces and legs

ditto Shetland ditto

colors various

fine cottony wool Pure Merino horned

white faces and legs short and very fine wool

ditto crossed breed

4 1-2

weight of Years old
wethers per when killed.
14 4 1-2
15 2 1-2
18 3 1-2

18 31-2
22 2

24 2 1-2
28 2
22 2 1-2
18 2

14 4 1-2
15 4 1-2
10 4 1-2
16 4 1-2
7 4 1-2
8 41-2
10 6


gray faced

2 1-2

Half Merino { partake postele bracidus description of the



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LINTON, SHORT, OR FOREST SHEEP. 1. The HEATH, LINTON, Short, or Forest SHEEP depicted above, are names indiscriminately given to the several varieties of the same breed, which is found in the north-western counties of England, and thence forward to the western highlands of Scotland.

The specific characters of this race are, large spiral horns; faces black or mottled, and legs black; eyes wild and fierce; carcass short and firm; wool long, open, coarse and shaggy; fleece averaging about three pounds and a half at four years and a half. They are of a hardy constitution, admirably calculated for elevated, heathy, and exposed districts; and, judging from this aptitude to support the hardships of constant exposure in a wild pasturage country, as well as from the form of the horns, which is characteristic of the animal in its unimproved state, it may be not improbably inferred, that they are directly descended from the parent stock of the kingdom. The true black-faced breed is said to be distinguished by a lock of white wool on the forehead, termed the snow-lock,

The other horned breeds of English sheep are

II. The Exmoor and the DARTMOOR, which derive their names from the districts in the northern and western parts of Devonshire, where they are chiefly found. They are long-woolled, with white legs and faces, and are delicately formed about the head and neck; they make very finely flavoured mutton; and arrive when fatted, at two and a half to three years old, to fourteen and sixteen pounds weight per quarter.

III. The NorFOLK BREED is indigenous in the counties of Norfolk and Suffolk. The horns are large and spiral ; bodies long ; loins narrow, with a high back and thin chine; the legs long, black, or gray; of a roving, wild disposition, and not easily confined within any but strong inclosures. The wool is short, weighing about two pounds per fleece, and the flesh is well flavored, and of a fine grain, but only fit for consumption in cold weather.

IV. The WILTSHIRE BREED are distinguished by large spiral horns bending downwards, close to the head ; they are perfectly white in their faces and legs; have long Roman noses, with large open nostrils ; are wide and heavy in their hind quarters, and light in the fore quarter and offal, but with little or no wool on their bellies. The quality of the fleece is that of clothing wool of moderate fineness, averaging about two

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