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which the collar rests; but on the contrary tapers off: they have a great breadth before, and are equally weighty in their hind quarters; the tail not set on high; a great distance from the point of the rump to the hip bone; the twist full, broad, and soft; the thigh of the fore legs to the pastern joint tapering and full, not thin, but thin below the joint; the horn pushes aside a little, and then turns up thin and tapering; remarkably well feeling; mellow on the rump, ribs, and hip bone. The quality of the meat not hard, but fine as well as fat; little coarse flesh about them, the offal and bone being small in proportion to their weight; whilst their disposition to fatten is equal or nearly so, to that of any other breed in the island. They are, however, ill calculated for the dairy; their constitutional disposition to accumulate flesh being in opposition to the qualities of good milking cows, an observation which will equally apply to every breed, when similarly constituted. A breed of cattle, equally adapted to the shambles, the dairy, and the plough, is indeed not to be met with; and experience teaches that these properties are inconsistent with each other. The Hereford cattle are by many good judges considered to approach the nearest to that perfect state of any of the large breeds; they arrive early at maturity, and are fit for labor; but it is as fatting stock that they excel, and it is a different variety of the same breed that is preferred for the dairy. There is, indeed a more extraordinary disproportion between the weight of Herefordshire cows, and that of the oxen bred from them, than is to be found in any other of the superior breeds; they are comparatively small, extremely delicate and light fleshed, and it is said that they are not unfrequently the mothers of oxen, nearly three times their own weight.
On comparison with the Devon and Sussex, the Hereford breed will probably not be found equally active and hardy in the yoke; but it is generally considered to exceed them in the quality of fattening; and when compared with any other breed, it may fairly rank at least among the very best in the country.
V. The SHORT HORNED CATTLE, under which denomination are indiscriminately included the Dutch, Holderness, and Teeswater breeds, are supposed to have acquired the appellation of Dutch, from a cross with some large bulls that were imported, near a century ago, from Holland into Yorkshire, (Eng.) in the east and north ridings of which county the two latter had been long established. It has, however, been doubted whether any advantage was derived from this intermixture ; for the increase thus obtained in size was thought to have been counterbalanced, by a more than proportionate increase of offal. But, fortunately, the error was not universal ; for some intelligent breeders aware, even at that day, of the superiority of symmetry to bulk, preserved the breed, of which they were already in possession, in its native purity; and it is from some of that stock, so maintained, that the present improved short horned cattle, now generally distinguished as the Durham, or Yorkshire breed, are descended.
This breed was introduced about forty years ago, by Messieurs Colling, of Darlington, and has rapidly risen in the public estimation. The cattle are very large, and are beautifully mottled with red or black upon a white ground; their backs level; throat clean; neck fine; carcass full and round; quarters long ; hips and rumps even and wide; they stand rather high on their legs; handle very kindly; are light in their bone, in proportion to their size; and have a very fine coat, and thin
hide. They differ from the other breeds, not only in the shortness of their horns, but as being wider and thicker in their form, and consequently feeding to greater weight; in affording the greatest quantity of tallow when fatted ; and in having very thin hides, with much less hair upon them than any other kind except the Alderneys. They also possess the valuable properties of fattening kindly at an early age, and of yielding large quantities of milk; but the quality of the latter is not so rich as that of some other species.
Of this breed, Mr. Charles Colling, of Ketton, sold a bull-Comet-by public auction, in the year 1810, for the extraordinary sum of one thousand guineas ; and the history of the celebrated Durham ol, the property of the same gentleman, is too remarkable not to merit attention.
He was bred in the year 1796, and at five years old was not only covered thick with fat upon all the principal points, but his whole carcass appeared to be loaded with it, and he was then thought so wonderful an animal, that he was purchased in February, 1801, for £140, to be exhibited as a show ; his live weight being then 226 stone, of 14 pounds. In the following May he was again sold for £250, to Mr. John Day, who, two months afterwards refused for him two thousand guineas! He was exhibited in the principal parts of the kingdom until April, 1807, when he was killed, in consequence of having accidentally dislocated his hip in the previous February, and although he must have lost considerably in weight during his illness, besides the disadvantages of six years' travelling in a caravan, yet his carcass weighed 187 stone 12 pounds; and Mr. Day stated his live weight at ten years old, to have been 270 stone,
Uncommon as this animal then was, he has, however, been since exceeded in size by a Yorkshire ox, bred by Mr. Dunhill, of Newton, near Doncaster, the carcass of which weighed, when killed, 264 stone 12 pounds; and he was supposed to have lost near forty stone while being exhibited in London.
Still more recently, another beast of uncommon size, fed by Lord Yarborough, has been exhibited under the title of the Lincolnshire Ox:" but, though bred in that county, from a favourite cow belonging to Mr. Goulton, he was got by a descendant of Comet, out of Countess, also of the Durham breed. This extraordinary animal measured five feet six inches in height at the shoulders, eleven feet ten inches from the nose to the setting of the tail, eleven feet one inch in girth, and three feet three inches across the hips, shoulders, and middle of the back; the lowest point of his breast was only fourteen inches from the ground, and he stood one foot ten inches between the fore legs; the girth of the fore leg was nine inches.
The variety of this breed known as the YORKSHIRE POLLED Cattle, only differs from those already described, in being without horns; they are in considerable estimation among the London cow-keepers, as milk ers, and at the same time maintain their flesh in a state nearly fit for the shambles.
It may not be improper in this place to give some account of several remarkable oxen raised in the United States,- the land in which, it is a current opinion on the other side of the water, animals of every descrip tion are wont to degenerate.
The first ox we notice has been exhibiting for several years in different parts of the country. He is called “Mammouth Ox Columbus." He was bred in the town of Greenland, State of New Hampshire. By comNEAT CATTLE. petent judges he is supposed to weigh alive nearly 4,000 pounds. His dimensions are as follows:
feet. inches. Length from the nose to the rump,
11 00 Height,
5 10 Girth around the body,
11 Shoulder to brisket,
4 6 Horns from tip to tip,
3 3 In the spring of 1819, two oxen of extraordinary weight and dimensions, were slaughtered in Baltimore. The one of these was called "Columbus," the other “the Delaware ox." Their weight and dimensions, ascertained with great care and exactness, follow: COLUMBUS.
Weight. Alive, 2962 Alive,
Fore Quarter. 1 Sirloin,
11 Middle Rib; four Ribs, 2 Rump,
12 Chuck ; three Ribs, 3 Edge bone,
13 Shoulder, or Leg of Mutton 4 Buttock,
piece, 5 Mouse Buttock,
14 Brisket, 6 Veiny Piece,
15 Clod, 7 Thick Flank,
16 Neck, or Sticking piece, 8 Thick Flank,
17 Shin, 9 Leg,
18 Cheek. 10 Fore Rib; five Ribs,
The above drawing represents the form and attitude of the ox Columbus. The plain horizontal line, describes his length from the root of the horn to the tip of the rump. The plain perpendicular line, his height on the shoulders. The dotted lines, point out the manner of cutting up beef, as practiced by victuallers; and the figures, in their centres, refer to the proper technical name of each piece. For this diagram we are indebted to the American Farmer. It is given in this place as a pattern, which may be useful as a guide to housekeepers, in many parts of our land.
VI. The LONG HORNED CATTLE are descended from a breed which had long been established in the Craven district, in Yorkshire, (Eng. ;) some cows of which race, and a Lancashire long horned bull, of the kind delineated above, were brought, early in the last century, by a Mr. Webster, to Canley, in Warwickshire, where they produced a stock that soon became remarkable for its beauty.
Of this Carley stock, the late Mr. Robert Bakewell, of Dishley, in Leicestershire, procured some cows, which he crossed with a Northum berland bull, and thus reared that celebrated race now so well known as the Dishley breed. They were long and fine in the horn, had small heads, clean throats, straight broad backs, wide quarters, and were light in their bellies and offal ; and, probably from the effect of domestication and gentle treatment, remarkably docile ; they grew fat upon a smaller proportion of food than the parent stock; but gave less milk than some
other breeds; and the chief improvements effected seem to have been, in their aptitude to fatten early on the most valuable points, and in the superior quality of the flesh.
The modern improvements made in the long horned, cattle, since the first attempts of Bakewell
, are considered to consist chiefly in the coarser parts having been reduced, and the more valuable enlarged. The present breed is finer boned and finer in the neck, throat, and breast; the back is straight, wide, and well covered with flesh; the rump is also wide, and particularly fleshy on the points, and about the root of the tail. Even when only in store order, the flank feels thick and fleshy, and in every part the animal handles loose and mellow.
These, indeed, were always the distinguishing points of these cattle; but they were not thought attainable except they were fed on the richest pasture. This, however, has proved to be an error; for not only are they now found on land of no extraordinary quality, but it even appears. to be generally admitted that well bred cattle will do better on ordinary food than those of an inferior kind; it was indeed asserted by Bakewell, that this breed kept themselves in good condition on less food than any other of equal weight; an opinion that seems to have been fully justified by the large prices that have been repeatedly given for the stock.*
* At a sale of Mr. Fowler's stock (of this breed) at Little Rollright, in Oxfordshire, in 1791, fifteen head of oxen, five bulls and ten cows, were sold for various sums, amounting to £2464, or upon an average, at £163 each. The finest bull, named Sultan, only two years old, produced two hundred and ten guineas; and Washington, another of the same age, was sold for two hundred and five guineas; while Brindled Beauty, a cow, brought the sum of two hundred and siaty guineas; but at a subsequent sale of stock belonging to Mr. Paget, in 1793, Shakspeare, a bull bred by Mr. Fowler from a grandson of Mr. Bakewell's famous bull, Twopenny, and a cow of the Canley blood, was disposed of for four hundred guineas.
At a still later period, Mr. Princep, of Croxhall, in Derbyshire, is said to have refused £2000 for twenty long horned dairy cows, and 1500 guineas for the use of his best bull to thirty cows.
Large as these prices were, they have, however, been exceeded by those actually obtained for short horned cattle. At the sale already alluded to, of Mr. Charles Colling's stock, at Ketton, in the county of Durham, in 1810, seventeen cows and eleven bulls produced £4918; being an average of £175 10s. each. Of these, two cows, Countess and Lilly, both got by Comet, were sold, the one for four hundred, and the other for four hundred and ten guineas. Petrarch, a bull, by Favorite, the sire of Comet, brought three hundred aud sixty-five guineas, and Comet himself one thousand.
Still more recently, however, in February, 1827, at a great sale of stock, the property of Mr. Rennie, of Phantassie, in East Lothian, (which amounted to the large sum of £13,582), the highest price obtained for a bull of this breed was £115 10s., and for a cow £63; but, as not more than half the stock on the farm was supposed to have been sold, it is probable that some of the best cattle were reserved. Many other instances might however be adduced to prove not that the rela: tive value of the short-horned cattle has declined—but that extravagant prices are not now so generally given for superior stock as formerly.