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the butter as little as possible, lest it become tough and gluey. The beating of butter up by the hand is an indelicate practice ; and, as it is hurtful to the quality of the butter to pour cold water on it during this operation, the butter, if too soft to receive the impression of the mould, may be put into small vessels, and these be permitted to float in a trough of cold water beneath the table, without wetting the butter, which will soon become sufficiently firm. Or, when butter is first made, after as much of the milk has been got out as possible, it may be thinly spread on a marble slab, and the remaining moisture be absorbed by patting it with clean dry towels.

Dr. Anderson observes that wooden vessels are most proper for containing salted butter. Oak is said to be the best kind of wood. Iron hoops should not be used, as the rust of them will sink through the wood and injure the butter. It is difficult to season new vessels, and therefore it is best to use old ones as long as they will last. Unslacked lime, salt and water well boiled, hot water, and wood ashes, are recommend ed for scouring them. The vessels having been repeatedly scrubbed, with some or all of these, should afterwards be thrown into cold water to remain three or four days, or till wanted. They should then be scrubbed as before, and well rinsed with cold water, and before the butter is put in, every part of the inside should be well rubbed with salt.

Dr. Anderson's famous recipe for preserving butter has been often published, but it may not be amiss to give it again, as things of the greatest utility are a long time in making their way to general adoption. “ Best common salt, two parts; saltpetre, one part; sugar, one partbeat them up together, so that they may be completely blended. To every pound or sixteen ounces of butter add one ounce of the composition. Mix it well in the mass, and close it up for use." Butter prepared in this manner will keep for years, and cannot be distinguished from that recently salted. It should however be remarked, that butter thus eured does not taste well till it has stood a fortnight or three weeks. Dr. Anderson remarks, that he has found by experience, that the above mentioned composition not only preserves the butter more effectually from any taint of rancidity, but makes it also look better, taste sweeter, richer and more marrowy, than if it had been cured with common salt alone.

A writer in the New England Farmer proposes an alteration, which he considers an improvement in the above recipe of Dr. Anderson, namely, that the sugar made use of should be loaf sugar, and that the salt should be well dried before weighing it.

When butter is put into firkins, or other vessels for preservation, it should be so closely packed and crowded, that no air can come in contact with it. The butter should be carefully covered with a piece of fine cloth, previously dipped in melted sweet butter. When more is put into the tub, take up the cloth; and after that is well crowded in, and levelled, put on the cloth again, so nicely as to shut out the air. When the tub is filled in this manner, pour a little melted butter over the surface to fill up every vacuity, before the top is put on.

" For keeping butter sweet that is salted in the usual way," says the Farmer's Guide, “it should be salted with an ounce and a half more of the strongest and best sal:, finely powdered, to each pound, and so thoroughly mixed that every part may be equally salt; made into rolls, and


then put into a cask of pure strong brine; and for keeping the rolls completely immersed in this liquid, there should be a cover, suitable to the dimensions of the inside of the cask, to be laid on the rolls, and sunk beneath the surface of the brine by a weight, which may be a block of wood, fastened to the cover, that will sink only to a given depth. The brine does not penetrate the butter so as to give out any additional saltness. For clarifying the brine, it should occasionally be scalded, the scum taken off, and more salt added if necessary. Butter made in May is observed to be best for keeping.


The goodness of cheese, as well as of butter, depends much on the .quality of the milk : though the season, and particular process adopted in making it, also, have a very considerable influence upon it in this respect-more, perhaps, than the material of which it is prepared. We shall, therefore, briefly notice these circumstances; and, as different modes of making cheese are practised in different countries or places, we shall then concisely state those which are more particularly deserving of notice.

The best season for this purpose is from the commencement of May till the close of September; or, under favorable circumstances, till the middle of October; during which interval cows are, or can in general, be pastured. In many large dairies, indeed, cheese is often manufactured all the year round; but the winter cheeses are much inferior in quality to those made during the summer months; though there is no doubt but that good cheese may be made throughout the year, provided the cows be well fed in the winter.

With regard to the rennet, as no good cheese can be made without it, great attention is necessary in preparing it for coagulating the milk. Strictly speaking, rennet is the coagulated lacteous matter, or substance, found in the stomach or maws of calves that have been fed only with milk, and which was formerly used in coagulating milk; though it is, in a more extensive sense, applied to the bait, vell, maw, or stomach, as it is variously termed, which possesses the same properties; and which is now invariably used for that purpose.

Dairy women usually preserve the maw, and the curd contained in it, after salting them, and then, by steeping this bag and curd, make a rennet, to turn their milk for making cheese. But a more simple method, and which is equally good in every respect, is to throw away the curd, and, after steeping it in pickle, stretch out the maw upon a slender bow inserted into it, which will soon be very dry, and keep well for a long time. Take an inch or two of the maw thus dried, and steep it over night in a few spoonsfull of warm water, which water serves füll as well as if the curd had been preserved for turning the milk. It is said, that one inch will serve for the milk of five cows.

An ingenious writer, who has made strict inquiry into this subject, recommends the following method of preparing a rennet, which he has found to be better than any other : Throw away the natural curd, which is apt to taint and give the bag a bad smell; then make an artifi


cial curd, or rather butter, of new cream, of sufficient quantity to fill the bag. Add three new laid eggs well beaten, one nutmeg grated fine, or any other good spice; mix them well together, with three teacups full of fine salt; fill the rennet bag with this substance, tie up the mouth, lay it under a strong brine for three days, turning it over daily. Then hang it up in a cool and dry place for six weeks, and it will be fit for use. When it is used, take with a spoon out of the bag a sufficient quantity of this artificial butyrous curd for the cheese you propose to make, dissolve it in a small quantity of warm water, and then use it in the same manner 'as other rennet is, mixed with the milk for its coagulation."

In the Bath papers, Mr. Hazard gives the following recipe for making rennet: “When the raw skin is well

prepared and fit for the purpose, three pints of soft water, clean and sweet, should be mixed with salt, wherein should be put sweet briar, rose leaves and flowers, cinnamon, mace, cloves, and almost every sort of spice ; and if these are put into two quarts of water, they must boil gently, till the liquor is reduced to three pints, and care should be taken that this liquor is not smoked. It should be strained clear from the spices, &c. and when found to be not warmer than milk from the cow, it should be poured upon the cawl or maw; a lemon might be sliced into it, where it may remain a day or two; after which it should be strained again and put into a bottle, where if well corked, it will keep good for twelve months. It will smell like a perfume, and a small quantity of it will turn the milk, and give the cheese a pleasing flavor." He adds, “If the maw be salted and dried for a week or two near the fire, it will do for the purpose again, almost as well as before."

Another recipe is as follows: after the maw has been well cleansed, and salted, and dried upon sticks or splints, take boiled water, two quarts, made into a brine that will bear an egg. Let it be blood warm, and put in the maw either cut or whole: let it steep twenty-four hours, and it will be fit for use. Abont a tea-cup full will turn the milk of ten cows. It should be kept in glass bottles well corked.

The Massachusetts Agricultural Repository gives still another recipe for making rennet, which is as follows. The rennet is prepared by taking some whey and salting it till it will bear an egg; it is then suffered to stand over night, and in the morning it is skimmed and racked off clear; to this is added an equal quantity of water brine, strong as the whey, and into this mixture, some sweet brier, thyme, or other sweet herbs, also a little black pepper and salt petre; the herbs are kept in the brine three or four days, after which it is decanted clear froin them. Into six quarts of this liquor four large calves' bags, or more properly called calves' stomachs are put. No

part of the preparation is heated, and frequently the calves' bags are only steeped in cold salt and water.

But whatever kind of rennet the dairy-woman may choose to prepare, it should be remembered, that this animal acid is extremely apt to be come rancid and putrescent, and that great care is necessary to apply a sufficient quantity of salt to preserve it in its best state. The rank and disagreeable taste too frequently found, is often caused by the rennets having been badly preserved.

In respect to the process of making cheese, the Massachusetts Agricultural Repository gives the following directions,

The milk is universally set for cheese as soon as it comes from the MAKING AND PRESERVATION OF CHEESE. cow. The management of the curd depends on the kind of cheese ; thin cheese requires the least labor and attention.

Breaking the curd is done with the hand and dish. The finer the curd is broken the better, particularly in thick cheeses. The best color of this kind of cheese is that of beeswax, which is produced by annotta, rubbed into the milk after it is warmed. The dairy-woman is to judge of the quality by the color of the milk, as it differs much in strength. Turning the milk differs in different dairies; no two dairy-women conduct exactly alike.

Setting the milk too hot inclines the cheese to heave, and cooling it with cold water produces a similar effect. The degree of heat varies according to the weather. The curd, when formed, is broken with what is called a tripple cheese knife. The use of this is to keep the fat in the cheese ; it is drawn the depth of the curd two or three times across the tub, to give the whey an opportunity of running off clear; after a few minutes, the knife is more freely used, and the curd is cut into small pieces like chequers, and is broken fine in the whey with the hand and a wooden dish. The curd being allowed about half an hour to settle, the whey is laded off with the dish, after it is pretty well separated from the curd.

It is almost an invariable practice to scald the curd. The mass is first broken very fine, and then the scalding whey is added to it, and stirred a few minutes; some make use of hot water in preference to whey, and in both cases heated according to the nature of the curd; if it is soft, the whey or water is used nearly boiling ; but if hard, it is only used a little hotter than the hand. After the curd is thoroughly mixed with the hot stuff, it is suffered to stand a few minutes to settle, and is then separated, as at the first operation. After the scalding liquor is separated, a vat, or what is often called a cheese hoop, is laid across the cheese ladder over the tub, and the curd is crumbled into it with the hands, and pressed into the vat, to squeeze out the whey. The vat being filled as full and as firmly as the hand alone can fill it, and rounded up in the middle, a cheese cloth is spread over it, and the curd is turned out of the hoop into the cloth; the vat is then washed, and the inverted mass of curd with the cloth under it, is returned into the vat and put into the press; after standing two or three hours in the press, the vat is taken out, and the cloth is taken off, washed, and put round the cheese and replaced in the vat and in the press. In about seven or eight hours it is taken out of the press and salted, the cheese is placed on a board, and a handful of salt rubbed all over it, and the edges are pared off if necessary; another handful of salt is strewed on the upper side, and as much left as will stick to it; afterwards, it is turned into the bare vat without a cloth, and an equal quantity of salt is added to it, and the cheese is returned into the press. Here it continues one night; and the next morning it is turned in the vat, and continues till the succeeding morning, and the curd is taken out and placed on the dairy shelf; here they are turned every day, or every other day, as the weather may be. If' it is hot and dry, the windows and door are kept shut; but, if wet or moist, the door and windows are kept open night and day.

Cleaning the Cheese.The cheeses having remained about ten days after leaving the presa, are to be washed and scraped in the following manner ; a large tub of cold sweet whey is placed on the floor, the


cheeses are immersed in it, where they continue one hour, or longer, if necessary to soften the rind. They are then taken out and scraped with a common case knife, with great care, so as not to injure the tender rind, till every part of the cheese is smooth; they are after the last operation rinsed in the whey and wiped clean, with a coarse cloth, and placed in an airy situation to dry, after which they are placed in the cheese room.

The floor of the cheese room is generally prepared by rubbing it with bean or potatoe tops, or any succulent herb, till it appears of

a black wet color; on this floor the cheeses are placed, and turned twice a week, their edges are wiped hard with a cloth once a week, and the floor is cleansed and rubbed with fresh herbs once a fortnight. They must not lie too long or they will stick to the floor. This preparation of the floor gives the cheese a blue coat, which is considered of great consequence.

Skippers in Cheese.--Wrap the cheese in thin brown paper, so thin the moisture may strike through soon-dig a hole in good sweet earth about two feet deep, in which the cheese must be buried about 36 hours, and the skippers will be found all on the outside of the cheese; brush them off immediately, and you will find your cheese sound and good.

To prevent Cheese having a rancid nauseous flavor.-Put about one table-spoonful of salt to each gallon of milk, when taken from the cows in the evening, for the cheese to be made the next day: put the salt at the bottom of the vessel that is to receive the milk ; it will increase the curd, and prevent the milk from growing sour or putrid the hottest nights in the summer.




Although the native country of the horse cannot with certainty be traced, it seems probable that he was first domesticated in Egypt, but the precise period it is difficult to settle. 1920 years before the birth of Christ, when Abraham, having left Haran, in obedience to the divine command, was driven into Egypt by the famine, which raged in Canaan, (Gen. xii. 16.) Pharaoh offered him sheep and oxen, and asses and camels. Horses would doubtless have been added, had they then existed, or had they been subdued in Egypt.

When fifty years afterwards, Abraham journied to Mount Moriah, to offer up his only son, he rode upon an ass; which, with all his wealth and power, he would scarcely have done had the horse been known. Gen. xxii. 3.

Thirty years later, when Jacob returned to Isaac with Rachael and Leah, an account is given, Gen. xxii. 14. of the number of oxen, sheep, camels, goats, and asses, which he sent to appease the anger of Esau, but not one horse is mentioned.

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