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deemed good; but color in this respect is a matter of no moment; the breed alone should daim the farmer's attention. But cows even of the same, and of the best breeds, will not always yield the same quantity of milk; and of those which yield the most, it is not unfrequently deficient in richness. Trials, are, however, easily made, by keeping the cows on the same food, weighing the quantity consumed by each, and measuring their milk ; then keeping and churning it, a few times, sepa. rately : thus, reckoning the cost of the provender, and the produce of the milk of each, and comparing the result, it will be soon discovered which is the most profitable animal. Comparisons of this kind are not often made; for farmers usually purchase whatever stock they can most conveniently, or most cheaply, lay their hands on; and are then content to keep them so long as they turn out tolerably well. This, however, is the height of bad economy; for an indifferent cow will eat as much and require as much attendance as the best; and thus occasions a daily loss, that will soon exceed any probable saving in the original price; whereas the man who takes the pains to acquire a good stock, and has the sense to keep it, lays the sure foundation of a fortune.

Whatever breed may be selected, there is still a material distinction to be observed between the form of a cow, intended for the dairy, and that of one intended for fatting. While the latter should possess, as nearly as possible, all the most remarkable points, already described, of the best oxen, the milch cow should, on the contrary, be thin and hollow in the neck; narrow in the breast and point of the shoulder, and altogether light in the fore quarter; with little dewlap, and neither full fleshed along the chine, nor shewing, in any part, much indication of a disposition in any part to put on fat. The hide should be thin, the hair fine, and the tail small

. But especially the udder should be full and round, yet thin to the touch, and should be of equal size and substance throughout. If it shews more behind than before, it is deemed a sign of the milk falling off soon after calving, and if it feel coarse and lumpy, the bag will be found not to contain a large quantity: The teats should stand square, at equal distances, and should be neither very large nor very thick towards the udder, but nearly equal, yet ending in a point. Another very material consideration is the temper; for kindly cows will not only give less trouble than those of an opposite disposition, but they are generally marked to possess a greater quantity of milk; and from parting with it more readily, they are less subject to fall off in their milking.

As the nature of the grass, or other vegetables, has a very considerable influence both on the quality and on the quantity of milk which cows produce, the attention of the industrious farmer will, of course, be directed to this point; for, as instances have occurred, where six milch kine, fed on some pastures, have yielded as much milk as nine, or even a dozen will afford on an inferior ground, it is obviously his interest to have his cows well fed and in good

condition, rather than to keep up a particular number, without heeding whether they are properly supplied or not. Hence, it will be proper to suit the milch'cows to the nature and fertility of the soil; and on no account to purchase them from pastures superior to those destined for their reception.

The feeding of milch kine is divided into two branches, viz. pasturing and house-feeding.

In order to obtain an abundant supply of good milk, where the pasturing of cows is adopted, they ought uniformly to be well fed; for this


purpose, grass growing spontaneously on good, sound meadow land is, in general deemed the most proper cood. Another requisite is, that the grass be plentifully produced, and of that quality which is relished by the cattle. This property will generally be found in old natural pastures that have been properly managed.

Long, rank grass, growing in orchards or other places, in general feeds well, and produces a flush of milk, yet such milk will neither be so rich, nor carry so much cream in proportion, as the milk of those cows which are fed upon short fine grass; nor, of course, will their butter be so good.

Further, the quality and quantity of milk is materially affected by driv. ing them to a distance from one pasture to another; hence it will be proper to have the cow sheds in as central a part of the farm as possible. li is also of essential importance to have pastures inclosed, as the produce of milch kine will be greatly improved, or deteriorated, according to the attention or disregard bestowed on this point; for, when confined within proper inclosures they not only feed more leisurely but are also less liable to disturbance than when they wander into other fields.

In summer, milch cows need less care; but in winter, they should be stabled, or at least should have warın sheltered yards, furnished with open sheds, in which they can feed without exposure to the severities of the weather; a measure, of which the expense will be more than counterbalanced by the increased quantity of milk, which they will yield.

In the management of milch kine, it is essential that they be, at all times, as has been observed in the preceding page, kept in high bealth and good condition; for if they are suffered to fall in flesh during the winter, it will be impossible to expect an abundant supply of milk by bringing them into a high condition in the summer. Hence, if cows are lean when calving, no subsequent management can bring them to yield, for that season, any thing like the quantity they would have furnished, in case they had been well kept throughout the winter. During that inclement season, therefore, the most nutritious food shouid be provided for them, and the animals kept in warm stables; for beasts will so much when kept warm, as when they are shivering with cold; and if they are curried in the same manner, and kept cleanly as horses in a stable, the happiest consequences will ensue, both in regard to the milk they yield, and the rapid improvement of the cows themselves. Such is the practice pursued in Holland, where it is well known that the management of cows is carried to the highest perfection ; and if that be closely followed, if they be well supplied with the purest water, kept very clean, and laid dry, they will produce milk more copiously, and afford a quantity of rich manure that will amply repay the trouble and attention thus bestowed on them.

It has already been intimated that the best summer food for cows is good grass, spontaneously growing on sound meadows. The other additions to hay for winter food are those most commonly employed for fatting cattle: parsnips and carrots, which roots not only render the milk richer, but also communicate to the butter made from such milk, a fine color, equal to that produced by the most luxuriant grasses :--the mangel-wurzel, which, on the continent, is preferred to every other vegetable for seeding cattle in general:-potatoes, on which cows will thrive well, so that with one busbel of these roots, together with soft meadow-bay, they have been known to yield as large a quantity of sweet milk, or butter, as they usually afford when fed on the finest pastures; but alone, it has been proved by various


experiments that potatoes will not support a cow in milk; they may add to the flow of it when given to a cow with hay, but the chief dependence must be upon the latter ; carrots are far superior. Cabbages are likewise of eminent service in this respect, but they require to be given with a good portion of fine hay; and as well as turnips, the utility of which is too well known to require any particular detail here; they are apt to impart an unpleasant flavor to butter, unless great care be taken to remove all the decay. ed leaves. And even then if a cow be in any wise full fed on turnips, her milk, and the butter made from it will taste of it. To avoid this taste in the butter, the following receipe from Hunter's Georgical Essays may be found useful." Let the vessels in which the milk is put, be kept constantly clean and well scalded with boiling water before using. When the milk is brought into the dairy', to every eight quarts of milk, mix one quart of boiling water: then put up the milk into the pans to stand for cream."- Rowen grass, also, dried and reserved for winter's use, is an excellent food for milch cows; as are oil-cake, linseed-jelly, and grains. By the judicious use of these various articles, together with a due admixture of dry food, considerable nutriment is thrown into the system, while the regular secretions will be excited, and the quality of the milk very materially improved.

It is important, also, that due attention should be paid to the salting of cows, as well as other cattle. The advantages of salt, are

I. It restores the tone of the stomach when impaired by excess in other food, and corrects the crudity of moist vegetables and grasses in a green state.

II. It helps digestion, keeps the body cool, by which many disorders are prevented; and it destroys botts.

III. It renders inferior food palateable ; and is so much relished by cattle, that they seek it with eagerness in whatever state it may be found, and have been rendered so tame by its use, that if they stray from their pastures, they will return at the usual time for their accustomed allowance.

IV. When given to cows, it increases the quantity of their milk, and has a material effect in correcting the disagreeable taste it acquires from turpips:



Before speaking of the management of milk and cream, it will be proper to make a few observations on the Situation, and Buildings proper for a Dairy.

I. A dairy ought if possible to be so arranged, that its lattices may never front the south, south west, south east, or west ;--a northern aspect is the best ; but there should be openings on two sides of the building, in order to admit, when necessary, a free current of air.

II. The temperature of the milk-room, should be as nearly uniform as possible, that is from fifty to fifty-five degrees of Farenheit's thermometer. 'This may be effected by making use either of a well ventilated cellar, or, of a house constructed for the purpose, consisting of double walls, so thick as not to subject the interior to the changes of temperature abroad.

MAKING AND PRESERVING BUTTER, III. As great cleanliness is requisite, and at the same time coolness, the floor should be made of stones, bricks, or tiles, in order that it may be frequently washed, both to sweeten and to cool the air.

IV. If practicable, a small current of water should be so introduced as to run in a constant stream along the pavement. This will contribute much to preserve the air, pure, fresh, and cool. If a current of water cannot be obtained an ice-house should be attached to the dairy.

V. Cream which is put by for churning ought never to be kept in that apartment, which contains the milk; because acidity in cream is expected, and necessary before butter will come.

VI. If necessary at any time during the winter months to raise the tem perature of the milk room, hot water should be made use of, or a few hot bricks; but on no account whatever, should a chafing dish with burning coals be used, as it will certainly impart a bad taste to the milk.

We shall now proceed to speak of the management of milk and cream, and the making and preserving of butter.

In this country, it is the general practice to milk cows twice in the course of twenty-four hours, throughout the year; but in summer the proper periods are, at least three times every day, and at intervals as nearly equidistant as possible; viz. in the morning, at noon, and a little before the approach of night. For it is a fact, confirmed by the experience of those who have tried it, that cows, when milked thrice in the day will yield more milk in point of quantity, and as good, if not better qualiủy, than they will under the common mode of milking only on the morn. ing and evening.

With regard to the process of making butter we would observe:

I. The milk first drawn from a cow is always thinner, and inferior in quality to that afterwards obtained, and this richness increases progressively to the very last drop that can be drawn from the udder.

II. The portion of cream rising first to the surface, is richer in point of quality, and greater in quantity, than that which rises in the second equal space of time, and so of the rest; the cream continually decreasing, and growing worse than the preceding.

III. Thick milk produces a smaller proportion of cream than that which is thinner, though the cream of the former is of a richer quality. If thick milk, therefore, be diluted with water, it will afford more cream than it would have yielded in its pure state, though its quality will at the same time be inferior.

IV. Milk carried about in pails, or other vessels, agitated and partly cooled before it be poured into the milk pans, never throws up such good and plentiful cream as if it had been put into proper vessels im. mediately after it came from the cow.

From these fundamental facts, many very important corollaries serving to direct the practice, may be deduced, among which we can only notice the following:

I. It is evidently of much importance, that the cows should be always milked as near the dairy as possible, to prevent the necessity of carrying and cooling the milk before it be put into the dishes ; and as cows are much hurt by far driving, it must be a great advantage in a dairy farm to have the principal grass fields as near the dairy or homestead as possible. In this point of view, also, the practice of feeding cows in the MAKING AND PRESERVING BUTTER. house, rather than turning them out to pasture in the field, must appear to be obviously beneficial.

II. The practice of putting the milk of all the cows of a large dairy into one vessel, as it is milked, there to remain till the whole milking be finished, before any part is put into the milk pans, seems to be highly injudicious, not only on account of the loss sustained by the agitation and cooling; but also, and more especially, because it prevents the owner of the dairy from distinguishing the good from the bad cow's milk, 80 as to enlighten his judgment respecting the profit that he


derive from each. Without this precaution, he may have the whole of his dairy produce greatly debased by the milk of one bad cow, for years together, without being able to disover it. A better practice, therefore, would be, to have the milk drawn from each cow separately, put into the creaming. pans as soon as milked, without being ever mixed with any other; and if these pans were all made of such a size as to be able to contain the whole of one cow's milk, each in a separate, pan, the careful dairywoman would thus be able to remark, without any trouble, the quantity of milk afforded by each cow every day, as well as the peculiar qualities of the cow's milk. And if the same cow's milk were always to be placed on the same part of the shelf, having the cow's name written beneath, there never could be the smallest difficulty in ascertaining which of the cows it would be the owner's interest to dispose of, and which he ought to keep and breed from.

A small quantity of clear water, cold in summer, and warm in winter, put into the bottom of the milk-pan, is said to assist the rising of the


III. If it be intended to make butter of a very fine quality, it will be advisable, not only to reject entirely the milk of all those cows which yield cream of a bad quality, but also, in every case, to keep the milk that is first drawn from the cow, at each milking, entirely separate from that which is got last; as it is obvious, if this be not done, the quality of the butter must be greatly debased, without much augmenting its quantity. It is also obvious, that the quality of the butter will be improved in proportion to the smallness of the quantity of the last drawn milk which is used, as it increases in richness to the very last drop that can be drawn from the udder at that time; so that those who wish to be singularly nice, will do well to keep for their best butter a very small proportion only of the last-drawn milk.

With respect to the operation of churning, we would particularly remark, that it ought to be regularly continued, till the butter is come, or formed; nor, unless from absolute and irremediable necessity, should any assistant be allowed to churn; because, if the motion be, in summer, too quick, the butter will in consequence ferment and become ill-tasted; and, in winter, it will go back. The business of churning may, however, be much facilitated, by immersing the pump-churn (if such be employed) about one foot deep into a vessel of cold water, and continuing it there till the butter is made. Where other churns are made use of, the addition of one or two table-spoonsful of distilled vinegar, after the cream has been considerably agitated, will, it is said, produce butter in the course of an hour. After the butter is formed, the usual practice is to wash it in several waters till all the milk is removed ; but some advise the milk to be forced out of the cavities of the butter by means of a flat, wooden ladle, furnished with a short handle, at the same time agitating

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