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which have carried them through the prodigious conflicts of the last generation.
Several causes have contributed to lessen the apparent importance of agricultural skill in the United States. But two only can here be noticed.
The first is the peculiar situation of Europe since the peace of '83, which has afforded opportunities for commercial enterprise, too tempting to be resisted. "American merchants received in the lapse of a very few years, the most astonishing accessions of wealth : and fortunes, ordinarily the fruit of a laborious life, and never the portion of many, were amassed with unparalleled rapidity, and by large numbers. Our domestic prosperity more than equalled the extension of our trade. It was then that the counting-houses of our merchants were filled with youth from the country, who forsook the slower but surer emoluments of agriculture, for the mushroom, but unsubstantial fortunes of commerce; nay, who preferred the meanest drudgery behind the counter of a retailer, to the manly and invigorating toil of the cultivator of his paternal acres. Unfortunately this spirit of migration was encouraged by too great a success in trade. Feelings of vulgar pride contracted in town, caused the manual labor of the farmer to be regarded as degrading. This unworthy sentiment spread its baleful influence; and when the compting-houses became overstocked, and afforded no longer a resource, it was no uncommon thing to see a young man, with no qualifications, but a little bad Latin, picked up at a miserable village school, forsake a large and comfortable farm, and apprentice himself to a poor country attorney."
The second cause of the late depressed state of agriculture in the United States, especially in New-England, has been owing to the constant emigration to the West. No sooner had the farmer reduced his land by successive crops, than he removed to a country, which offered him'an untouched surface, needing for some years no aid of composts
But it is occasion of gratitude, that, at length, the importance of a regular and more enlightened and more energetic system of farming is beginning to be felt in our country. Men of talents, wealth, and distinction, no longer think it beneath them to enrol their names on the list of practical farmers. By means of agricultural associations, and liberally patronized, and ably conducted papers, information on the subject, considered both as an art, and a science, is rapidly spreading abroada taste for farming is diffusing itself, and ere long, it is believed, that this species of employment will be as much prized and coveted, as once it was considered low and despicable.
To aid in advancing the interests of this important branch of national industry will be the object of the pages which we design to appropriate to this subject.
DIFFERENT BREEDS OF NEAT CATTLE IN GREAT BRITAIN AND THE UNITED
I. The Wild CATTLE-of a bull of which race the above is a portrait,—were the original stock of the kingdom of Great Britain before enclosures were known. They are said to be still found at Chartley Park, in Derbyshire, and perhaps, in one or two more; but it is believed that the only pure breed is that preserved, in a wild state, at Chillingham Castle in Northumberland, the seat of the Earl of Tankerville, whose steward, Mr. Bailey, thus describes them:
“Their color is invariably white; muzzle black; the whole of the inside of the ear, and about one-third of the outside, from the tip downwards, red; horns white with black tips, very fine and bent upwards. Some of the bulls have a thin upright mane, about an inch and a half or two inches long: the weight of the oxen is from thirty-five to fortyfive stone, of fourteen pounds; and that of the cows, from twenty-five to thirty-five stone the four quarters. The beef is finely marbled and of excellent flavor.
"The mode of killing them was, perhaps, the only modern remains of the grandeur of ancient hunting. On notice being given that a wild bull would be killed upon a certain day, the inhabitants of the neighborhood came in great numbers, both horse and foot; the horsemen rode off the bull from the rest of the herd until he stood at bay, when a marksman dismounted and shot. At some of these huntings, twenty or thirty shots have been fired before he was subdued: on such occasions the bleeding victim grew desperately furious from the smarting of his wounds, and the shouts of savage joy that were echoing on every side. From the number of accidents that happened, this dangerous mode has been seldom practised of late years; the park-keeper generally shooting them with a rifle gun at one shot.
“When the cows calve, they hide their calves for a week or ten days in some sequestered situation and go and suckle them two or three times a day.' If any person come near the calves, they clap their heads
close to the ground, and lie like a hare in a form, to hide themselves. This is a proof of their native wildness, and is corroborated by the following circumstance, that happened to the writer of the narrative, who found a hidden calf two days old, very lean and very weak; on stroking its head, it got up, pawed two or three times, like an old bull
, bellowed very loud, retired a few steps, and bolted at his legs with all its force ; it then began to paw again, bellowed, stepped back, and bolted as before ; but knowing its intention, and stepping aside, it missed him, fell, and was so very weak that it could not rise, though it made several efforts; but it had done enough; the whole herd were alarmed, and coming to its rescue, obliged him to retire; for the dams will allow no person to touch their calves without attacking them with impetuous ferocity.
When any one happens to be wounded, or grown weak or feeble through age or sickness, the rest of the herd set upon it and gore it to death."
II. The DEVONSHIRE BREED, delineated above, is supposed to have descended directly from the wild race. It is found in its purest state in North Devon; in the agricultural report of which district its peculiar qualities are thus described by the late Mr. Vancouver :
“Its head is small, clean, and free from flesh about the jaws; deerlike light and airy in its countenance; neck long and thin ; throat free from jowl or dewlap; nose and round its eyes of a dark orange color; ears thin and pointed, tinged on their inside with the same color that is always found to encircle its eyes ; horns thin, and fine to their roots, of a cream color, tipped with black,* growing with a regular curve' upwards, and rather springing from each otber; light in the withers, resting on a shoulder a little retiring and spreading, and so rounded below as to sink all appearance of its pinion in the body of the animal; open bosom, with a deep chest, or keel; small and tapering below the knee,
* The late Rev. Arthur Young, formerly Secretary to the Board of Agriculture, describes thorough bred Devons as of a bright red, neck and head small, eye prominent, and round it a ring of bright yellow; the nose round the nostril having the same color ; the horn clear and transparent, upright, tapering, and gently curved, but not tipped with black.
III. The Sussex BREED differs but little from the Devonshire; when pure, the cattle are invariably dark red; and those which are marked with a mixture of either white or black, although passing under the denomination of Sussex, are always crossed with foreign blood. In other respects they are thus described by an eminent breeder, the accuracy of whose judgment has been confirmed by many intelligent graziers:
"A thin head, and a clean jaw; the horns pointing forward a little, and then turning upward, thin, tapering, and long; the eye large and full ; the throat clean, no dew-lap; fong and thin in the neck; wide and deep in the shoulders; no projection in the point of the shoulder, when looked at from behind; the fore-legs wide ; round and straight in the barrel, and free from a rising back-bone; no hanging heaviness in the belly i
wide across the loin; the space between the hip-bone and the first rib very small; the hip-bone not to rise high, but to be large and wide; the loin, and space between the hips to be flat and wide, but the fore part of the carcass round; long and straight in the rump, and wide in the tip; the tail to lay low, for the flesh to swell above it; the legs not too long ; neither thick nor thin on the thigh; the leg thin; shut well in the twist; no fulness in the outside of the thigh, but all of it within ; a squareness behind, common in all long-horned beasts, greatly objected to; the finer and thinner in the tail the better.
“Of these points, the Sussex beasts are apt to be more deficient in the shoulder than in any other part. A well made ox stands straight, and nearly perpendicularly, on small clean legs; a large bony leg is a very bad point, but the legs moving freely, rather under the body than as if attached to the sides; the horns pushing a little forward, spreading moderately, and turning up once. The horn of the Devonshire, which very much resembles the Sussex, but smaller and lighter, is longer, and rises generally higher. The straitness of the back line is sometimes broken, in very fine beasts, by a lump between the hips.”
On a comparison between the Devon and Sussex breeds, the former has been considered by competent judges as thinner, narrower, and sharper than the latter, on the top of the shoulder, or blade bone; the point of the shoulder generally projects more, and they usually stand narrower in the chest; their chine is thinner and flatter in the barrel, and they hang more in the flank; but they are wider in the hips, and cleaner in the neck, head, and horns, and smaller in the bone, than the Sussex; their hides are thinner and softer, and they handle as mellow. The distinction between them however is not very striking; they are equally profitable to the grazier, and as working cattle, they both stand unrivalled.
IV. The HEREFORD BREED is a variety of the Devon and Sussex, but is larger and weightier than either ; being generally wider and fuller over the shoulders or chine,
and the breast, or brisket, as well as in the after part of the rump. The prevailing color a reddish brown, with white faces; the hair fine and the skin thin.
In the true bred Hereford cattle there is no projecting bone in the point of the shoulder, which in some breeds forms almost a shelf, against