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the horse or the love of experiment leads to it, it may be regarded as fixed by experience, that nothing but a long course of internal remedies, drawn from the mineral acids, can effect it. These have been tried in their endless variety: White recommends the mildest preparations of mercury, as ethiops mineral; under the conviction that the more acrid preparations disturb the powers of the constitution so much, as to destroy as effectually as the disease. At the veterinary college the sulphate of cop. per (blue vitriol) has been long in use. Others have used the sulphates of iron and zinc. Clark recommends the daily administration of a drink or ball, composed of the following ingredients : sulphate of zinc, 15 grains ; powdered cantharides, 7 grains ; powdered allspice, 15 grains ; of which he gives one or two extraordinary proofs of utility.

SHOULDER STRAINS. These are very rare, most of the lameness attributed to the shoulder belonging to the other parts, and particularly to the feet. Out of one hundred and twenty cases of lameness before, Blaine found that three only arose from ligamentary or muscular extension of the shoulder, or rather of the adductor and sustaining muscles: when shoulder strain does happen, it is commonly the consequence of some slip, by which the arm is forced violently forwards. It is less to be wondered at than at first seems probable, that farriers mistake foot lameness for shoulder strains, when we reflect that a contracted foot occasions inaction, and favoring of the limb; which thus wastes the muscles of the shoulder. Seeing that one shoulder is smaller than the other, the evil is attributed to that, and it is pegged, blistered, swam, and fired, to the torture of the animal and the increase of the foot's contraction by the confinement. In real shoulder strains, the toe is dragged along the ground while in motion; at rest it is planted forward, but resting on the point of the toe. When the lameness is in the foot, the horse points his foot forward also, but he does so with the whole limb unbent, and the foot flat. These differences are highly necessary to be attended to, as well as the peculiar difficulty there is in moving down hill, which he does with reluctance, and by swinging his leg round to avoid flexing it. This lameness may be further brought to the test by lifting up the foreleg considerbly, which if the evil be in the shoulder, will give evident pain. The muscles between the fore legs are likewise tumified and tender in these cases.

The treatment consists, when it is recent, in bleeding in the plate vein, rowelling in the chest, and fomenting with hot water two or three times a day. When the heat and tenderness have subsided, first bathe daily with the astringent wash for strains (Vet. Pha. No. 6,) for a week; and afterwards, if necessary, proceed to blister in the usual manner,

Galls. When a horse is galled by the saddle or harness, or when he is chafed between the arm and chest, an accident, which frequently happens in travelling through muddy roads, the following lotion will be found servicable :-Sulphate of zinc, one ounce; superacetate of lead, one ounce; water, one quart.

WIND GALLS. When wind galls make their first appearance, they are easily cured by a bath and bandage. Boil red oak bark to a strong decoction, add some sharp vinegar and a little allum, let the parts be fomented twice a day, warm as the hand can be held in it; then take a woollen cloth, dip it in the bath, and bind the ancle up, tight as possible, without giving pain to the horse.

Should this method not succeed, after a thorough trial, the swelled or

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DISEASES OF HORSES. puffed parts may be opened with a sharp knife, but blistering with flies is less dangerous, and generally attended with equal success.

RING BONE. This is a hard and bony substance which generally reaches half way round the ancle, and causes a horse to go stiff and lame. When it first makes its appearance an application of corrosive sublimate added to Spanish flies and Venice turpentine mixed with hog's lard may be useful. But, when a ring bone has attained to its full size, we know of no remedy.

BROKEN WIND. This when once fastened upon a horse, admits not probably of a perfect cure, but may be relieved in a measure, by a careful attention to diet. The food should be compact and nutritious. Corn is better than oats, and old hay, which has been well kept, better than new. During the grass season, the disease often almost disappears, but recurs in the winter, during which, potatoes may be given to advantage; also carrots, parsnips, and beet roots. Molasses in small quantities has beeu recommended, also tar water; but more dependence probably, may be placed on lime water. In case the symptomatic cough be troublesome, bleeding will be found highly advantageous.

FOUNDER. A horse may be foundered,” says Mason, in his excellent work entitled, “Gentlemen's New Pocket Farrier," and which we take the liberty to recommend to our readers, “ by excessive hard rides, pero mitting him to plunge deep into cold water, while hot and sweating, and drinking his fill of cold pond water, eating large quantities of new corn and fodder, and then briskly exercised; over-feeding with bran alone whilst performing hard labor, drinking plentifully at every branch in travelling, feeding with more than a horse can eat after being half starved, violent exercise on a full belly, or not permitting a horse who has travelled in a hot sun all day, to cool thoroughly before he is given as much as he can eat, drink, &c.

Symptoms of a Founder.—The symptoms that indicate an approaching founder, are so few and so common, that the most ignorant persons will rarely be mistaken. Great heat about the legs, pasterns and ears, a soreness in the feet, together with a stiffness so great in all his limbs, that the animal frequently refuses to move, unless force is used-his flanks and lower part of his belly draws up, his hide becomes bound or tight, his legs thrown a little more forward than in his usual or natural position; a constant thirst, and very often a considerable swelling of the ancles, &c. &c.

Remedy for a Founder.—So soon as you are convinced that your horse is foundered, take from his neck vein at least one gallon of blood ; give a drench of one quart strong sassafras tea, one table spoonful of salt petre, and a quarter of an ounce of assafætida, and do not permit him to drink for five or six hours; at the expiration of which time, should he not be evidently better, repeat the bleeding, taking half a gallon of blood, and give another drench: at night offer him some bran or oats, scalded with sassafras tea, and if it can procured, let him have green food, fresh from the field, for it has the happy effect of opening the bowels and cooling the system: his feet should be nicely cleaned out and stuffed with fresh cow manure : his drink should be at least one half sassafras tea, with a small handful of salt thrown therein.

By the morning should the horse be better, nothing further is necessary, only being careful not to over feed him. But should there be no change for the better, tie a small cord just above his knees, and with a lancet or

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pbleme bleed in a vein that runs around the coronet, just above the hoof: cake from each leg a pint of blood; give a pound of salts dissolved in three half pints of water, in form of a drench, keep his feet stuffed with fresh cow manure, and bathe his legs with equal parts of sharp vinegar, spirits and sweet oil or lard. By attention to these directions, in two or three days the horse will again be fit for service.

A horse in this unpleasant situation, requires great attention. Whenever they are foundered, they search for a bank of manure to stand on, which should always be prevented, as its heat increases the fever.

Horses slightly foundered, have sometimes been cured in a few hours, by standing them in pond water or mud, or by bleeding in the mouth, but those remedies are uncertain, and are not so much to be relied on as those first recommended.

A foundered horse is generally very much reduced in flesh, before a cure is effected; and always more subject to founder afterwards.

Large ridges on the hoofs, or a turning up of the feet are strong indications of old founders or other injuries.


Colic or GRIPES. When afflicted with colic, the diseased animal will rise up and lie down almost incessantly, continually striking its head and horns against any object that occurs. Young cattle are chiefly affected by the colic; which is attended eitlier with a scouring or with costiveness, aná which of course must be treated according to those two circumstances. In the former case, a warm draught should be given, consisting of one quart of ale, mixed with a few drops of laudanum, and two or three ounces of oil of sweet almonds; or, which, perhaps, is preferable, with half a pint of olive oil, and sweetened with sugar. This draught is to be repeated at the end of twelve hours, or oftener, as the nature of the case may require. When colic is accompanied with costiveness, the following purge should be given, as early as possible. Dissolve from four to six drachms of fine Barbadoes aloes, (according to the size of the beast and the urgency of the case,) in half a pint of brandy, or other ardent spirit; mix the infusion with two quarts of water-gruel, and administer the draught in a lukewarm state. In both cases, great and speedy attention is necessary, to prevent inflamma. tions of the intestines, which must otherwise prove fatal; the beasts should be kept warm and dry in order to promote perspiration.

Hoven. No distemper is of more frequent occurrence among cattle than that of being swollen, that is, blown or hoven, as it is usually denominated among farmers. It is induced either by exposure to damp situations, by too sudden removal from an inferior to a rich pasture, or by eating

too eagerly of turnips, clover, or any other succulent food, especially before the dew is off in the morning; thus the stomach is loaded with food, and the process of rumination, or chewing the cud, being prevented, the animal becomes swollen with confined air, which penetrates into the stomach and intestines. Its preventive is obvious, and consists simply in turning cattle into such rich pastures, only when they are not pressed by hunger, so that their appetite may soon be gratified; or they should be gently driven about for a few hours, that the dew may not only have time to evaporate, but also


the animals being thus suffered to graze a very short time at once, their stomachs will become gradually accustomed to it.

Various remedies have been tried and recommended for this malady, which if not opportunely discovered, inevitably proves fatal. Of these, the most common is to make an incision with a pen-knife beneath the short ribs, when a quill, or small tube of ivory or srnoothed elder, is introduced in order to give vent to the confined air; the wound is then covered with adhesive plaster, to prevent it from being affected by the external cold, and thus the danger is in general quickly removed.

The method here noticed appears to be the result rather of absolute necessity than of mature thought, though sanctioned by custom; and as it is liable to be attended with fatal consequences through the ignorance or inexpertness of the operator, it becomes necessary to resort to more easy remedies. Medicines, indeed, are seldom of any particular service, on account of the distance to which country people are often obliged to go in order to procure them; but the following recipe, (which we communicate from Mr. Young's “Annals of Agriculture,” Vol. xxxiii.) being composed of simple, cheap, and common ingredients, promises to be useful." Let three quarters of a pint of olive oil, and one pint of melted butter, or hog's lard be mixed together, and given to the animal by means of a horn or bottle ; if no favorable change be produced in a quarter of an hour, the same quantity may be repeated. This dose is calculated for neat cattle: for sheep, when hoven or blown, a wine glass full and a half, or two glasses will be sufficient to be given in like manner. And it is asserted in the communication above cited, that this remedy is a specific for the malady in question, effecting a cure within the short period of half an hour. Where, however, the pen-knife is resorted to—and necessity alone can justify it the incision ought to be made with a small pen-knife, very sharp at the point, with a sudden push, four inches from the hip bone, and four inches from the edge of the loin.

A writer in the American Farmer recommends a spoonful of hartshorn infused in water, which he says completely removes the distention ; others recommend soda and potash, all of which combining with the carbonic acid gas--the cause of the distention-will immediately reduce it. For want of these, ley from wood ashes may be employed.

When the animal has obtained relief one of the following drinks is recommended by Dr. White; No. 1. powdered ginger, half an ounce; spirits of nitrous ether, 2 ounces; oil of peppermint, 30 drops; warm water, one pint. Mix for one dose.

No. 2. Powdered carraway, 1 ounce; ginger, 1 drachm; warm ale or warm water, 1 pint. Mix.

No. 3. Powdered gentian, 1 ounce; Cascarilla bark, 2 drachms; warm ale, or water, 1 pint.

INDIGESTION, OR LOSS OF THE CUD. Mr. Lawrence says, that in this disease, “the beast mourns and has no appetite, or drops its food without attempting to swallow it. Probably from defective irritability of the fibres or contracting muscles of the rumn or cud-bag, the animal is unable to throw up or ruminate; of course the bag remains loaded and obstructed. The intention is to remove the obstructiop, and invigorate the animal fibres. Let the animal fast sometime, then give a warm bran or pollard mash, with good hay, and warm water with salt. This treatment alone may succeed with patience, even should the maw be obstructed by acorns or




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other hard fruit. An aloes tincture, made with brandy and ginger, or capsicum, (red pepper) might be of use in this case. After conquering the obstruction, bitter infusions made of camomile, hoarhound, oak bark, &c., in beer, may be required, as restoratives, although, perhaps, good dry nourishing feed will have an equally good effect.”

It is remarked by Mr. White that “the earlier stages of this complaint are not marked by very striking symptoms. The animal has a dull or languid appearance, and generally a rough unhealthy coat and tight skin. The appetite is diminished, and at length he'ceases to chew the cud. The eyes and mouth have generally a yellow appearance.

To cure this disease, it should be attacked at an early period; for when the liver has become effected in a considerable degree, it terminates fatally; Should there be any appearance of costiveness, the following warm laxative, is first to be given; more commonly, however, the bowels are in a loose state, and the dung has an unhealthy appearance; in this case let the tonic drench be given morning and evening, and let the animal be kept in a warm sheltered situation. It may be necessary to repeat, that this like most other internal diseases of cattle, may generally be removed by timely attention; but in attempting a cure after they have existed some time a great deal of unnecessary expense is often incurred.

Warm laxative. Barbadoes aloes, half an ounce; castile soap, 6 drachms; ginger, 3 drachms; cascarilla bark, 2 drachms; warm water, 1 pint. Mix.

After the operation of the laxative, the following tonic drench may be given should it be found necessary :-Of cascarilla bark and ginger, each 2 drachms; soda, 2 drachms; to be given in a pint of ale beer, or warm water.

JAUNDICE or Yellows. This disease may be known, principally by the yellowness of the eyes and mouth; a dull or languid appearance and debility; a loss of appetite also, is a common symptom. It n


be distinguished from the former disease by the costiveness, which uniformly attends it, and by the animal appearing to be in more pain. At the commencement of the disorder, a cure may generally be accomplished, by giving the warm laxative directed for the foregoing complaint, and repeating it, after an interval of five or six days, giving in the intermediate time, the following drink every morning and evening.–Castile soap, half an ounce; Venice turpentine, half an ounce; ginger, 3 drachms; powdered gentian root, I

Rub the soap and turpentine together in a mortar, until they are incoporated, then add gradually, a pint of water, and afterwards the ginger and gentian. In the more advanced stage of this disorder, the liver is generally so injured as to render a cure impossible.

FOUL IN THE FOOT, or hoof-ail. Dr. Peck, an English writer, has given the following account of this disorder and its trentment,

The first appearance of this disease is a hard crack between the claws or hoofs, attended with considerable inflammation; afterwards, a fætid and offensive matter is discharged, similar to that of the grease in horse's heels; sometimes it appears in form of a large tumor upon the cornet, between the hair and the hoof, attended with violent pain and inflammation.

Wash the parts from all dirt, castile soap should be used, and if between the claws, take a rope of proper thickness and chafe the part afflicted, and afterwards dress it with the butter of antimony, or oil of vitriol. Let the animal stand in a dry place for an hour; repeat the application every day.


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