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DISEASES OF HORSES, CATTLE, SHEEP, AND SWINE. they are gorged with food, or denied a sufficient quantity, or supplied with such as is unwholesome. Hence we learn the chief causes of their maladies. Learn to prevent them, instead of undertaking the tedious, unsuitable, and often hopeless task of learning to cure theni.” Although many diseases incident to our domestic animals might, as the above writer suggests, be prevented by care and vigilance, yet they will sometimes get sick, under the most favorable circumstances, and for some of their maladies, no certain cures have as yet been discovered. It would greatly swell the limits of this work, were we to enumerate all the maladies incident to the animals which stand at the head of this article. We must therefore confine our attention to a few of those which are of most

common occurrence.

Botts. There are two varieties of the insects which produce the botts, one larger than the other. The larger kind are covered with down of a brownish color, with darker shades. The female deposits her eggs, generally, on those parts of the horse, where he can bite himself, especially on the anterior of the legs; but never under his throat. When she approaches the horse, she supports her body nearly upright in the air, and with one of her feet bends out a hair, on which she deposits an egg, and thus she continues to do for a short time, and then retires, probably to rest herself, when she returns to her charge. The smaller kind are covered with a darker and thicker down. Wings transparent, and without any shades. The female deposits her eggs under the throat, and no where else. As she approaches the horse, she instantly darts up under his throat, and deposits an egg with incredible expedition, and then goes off, but soon returns again and again, to the great disquiet and trouble of the horse, causing him to throw up his head with violence. Each kind varies in size; but in general, they are about three fourths of an inch in length.

The larvæ produced by the eggs of the above insects, penetrate through the villous, into the muscular coat of the stomach, forming small cavities in the same, and then hang by their hooks, irritating and wounding the animal. If at any time they lose their hold, they immediately catch again. Not any part of the stomach is exempted from them; but they are most numerous near the passages into and out of the stomach. They are of all insects the most tenacious of life, at this period; and at this time of their existence it is, that they prove so destructive to horses.

The following experiments were made at different times, and on the larvæ three fourths grown or more.

h. minutes. Rum

25 Decoction of tobacco

11 Strong elixir vitriel

2 18 Essential oil of mint

2 5 Volatile spirit

56
Spirits of turpentine

45
Decoction pink root lived 10
Fish oil

-49
Linseed oil

10 Tincture of aloes

10 Brine

10 Solution of indigo

10 Elixir camphor

10

66

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experiments No effect, and

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DISEASES OF HORSES.

Mercury is not so effectual in destroying the insects as is generally be. lieved. September 16, 1806, immersed a number of small botts, with one which was full grown, in a strong solution of corrosive sublimate; the small botts died in sixty minutes; but a full grown one was taken out of the solution, six hours after its immersion, apparently unhurt.

From the preceding experiments, for which we are indebted to an able Essay on the Natural history of the Bott-Fly by Dr. Adams, published by the Medical and Agricultural Register, it is apparent that it must be extremely difficult to destroy the larvæ in the stomach of a horse, under any circumstances, by the use of any remedy, which would not be worse than the disease.

Various applications have indeed been proposed, such as rum, aloes, jalep, brine, linseed oil, pepper, tincture of tobacco, tincture of pink root; but none of them have proved effectual. But, while we are not able to suggest a specific for this most terrible of all evils, which afflict the horse, two points deserve attention-the one by way of preventing the existence of botts in the stomach of the horse, the other by way of palliating the sufferings of the animal, when they do actually exist.

The best method of preventing the bott is perhaps once in ten or fifteen days to scrape off the eggs deposited by the insect. This should be done through the season of their appearance, July, August, and September. A sharp knife may be used, taking care not to scrape the eggs where the horse will be likely to eat them while he is feeding.

When botts are found to exist in a horse, the chief object should be to remove irritation and inflammation. This should be done by blood-letting and the free use of mild oils. Blood-letting has a tendency to remove the inflammatory disposition, and should be the first resort, and should be frequently repeated ; at the same time that mild oils are administered. Drenches may be used, but the chief dependence should be had upon allaying the irritation and inflammation by the means suggested.

Worms. Besides botts, horses are sometimes troubled with other kinds of worms, such as teres tænia and ascaris.

The teres or large round worm, says Loudon, sometimes 'occasions mischief, when it exists in great numbers, such as a staring coat, binding of the hide, irregular appetite, and clammy mouth. The best remedy is the spigelia marylandica or Indian pink, in daily doses of half an ounce.

Tænia are not common in the horse, now and then they exist, and are best combated by weekly doses of oil of turpentine, three ounces at a time, mixed by means of the yolk of an egg with half a pint of ale. The ascaris or thread worms, are best removed by mercurial purgatives. The existence of worms may be known by the appearance of a yellow matter under the tail, and by the disposition the horse has to rub his fundament. Blaine recommends the following vermifuge ; porodered arsenic, eight grains; pewter or tin finely scraped; Venice turpentine, half an ounce, make into a ball and give every morning. He also recommends salt to be giva en daily with the food, which agrees with our own experience as one of the best vermifuges known, it is a fact acknowledged by the residents along the sea-coast, that horses troubled with worms will often voluntarily drink largely of sea water, and thus cure themselves.

Colic, flatulent, or spasmodic, called also gripes, fret, or gullion, is an iwportant, because a frequent, disease, and because it frequently destroys either quickly by its irritation, or by its degenerating into the red

DISEASES OF HORSES.

or inflammatory colic, when improperly treated or long continued. It is usually very sudden in its attack.

The causes of colic are not always apparent. It is sometimes occasioned by intestinal stones, which accumulate to a great size, remaining for years in the cells of the colon, until some accidental displacement occasions an interruption to the peristaltic motion. Cold in various forms is a parent of colic; but under the form of cold water given when a horse is hot, it is most common. In some horses it is so frequent as to become a constitutional appendage.

The distinguishing marks between colic and inflammation of the bowels are gained, occording to Blaine, by attending to the following circumstances. În gripes the horse has violent fits of pain but they remit, and he has intervals of ease. The pain in red colic is more uniform and less violent. In gripes, the pulse is, in general, natural; in red colic it is quicker than natural, and commonly small. The extremities are not usually cold in gripes; in red colic they usually are. In gripes, the horse attempts to roll on his back, which in red colic he seldom does. There are no marks of fever with gripes, as red eyelids, inflamed nostrils, &c. but in red colic they are always present. When the complaint has continued some hours it is always proper to bleed to prevent its ending in inflammation : bleeding in the mouth is quite useless. Back-rake, and throw up clysters of warm water, one after another as fast as possible, which often overcomes the irritation. La Fosse recommends a curious remedy, but as it can always be obtained, and has the sanction of long experience, it may be tried. An onion is pounded and mixed up with some powdered savin; in default of which, use powdered ginger. This is to be introduced up the rectum as high as possible, and the horse is to be then moved briskly about. An onion put up the fundament whole has long been a domestic remedy. The following is recommended by Blaine: spirit of vitriolic æther, an ounce; powdered opium, one drachm ; oil of turpentine, three ounces; warm ale, a pint. He also recommends the following more simple remedy as always at hand: the expressed juice of two or three large onions; common gin, common oil, of each half a pint; mix and give. White recommends a pint of brandy, or of gin, with water, as an excellent carminative. Clark, who has expressly written on gripes, extols the virtues of a mixture thus made; which, if it have the qualities he attributes to it, and which there is no reason to doubt, no agriculturalist, coach, or post master should be without it: pimento berry, called also allspice, ground fine, half a pound; spirits of wine, and of water, of each a pint and a half; infuse these together, and keep it for use. Give a quarter of a pint every hour until full relief is obtained; hand-rubbing, wisping, or fomenting the bowels with hot water at the time.

INFLAMMATION OF THE BOWELS OR RED COLIC, is a very distinct disease from the gripes, gullion, or fret, with which it is, however, very apt to be confounded to the destruction of many horses. The peritoneal inflammation of the bowels, the one here treated on, is an affection of their outer covering.

The causes are various. It is not unfrequently brought on by a sudden translation of cold after great heats, as swimming during hunting, or from the removal of a horse from grass at once into heated stables, clothing and hard food; neglected gripes, or long continued costiveness, excessive riding, and the immediate drinking of cold water, have brought it on. It begins by restlessness, loss of appetite, some uneasiness; the

DISEASES OF HORSES.

mouth is hot and dry, the inner membranes of the mouth, nose and eyelids are often redder than natural. As the disease advances, the pain, before not violent, now increases, so as to force the horse to lie down and rise again frequently; and when very violent, he kicks at his belly, or looks round at his sides, pawing his litter very frequently. The pulse is usually small, quick, or hard; sometimes it is more full and small

, but always hard. Breathing is quickened, the extremities are alternately hot and cold, but continue longer cold than hot; and the animal is costive: sometimes pain may force away a few hardened balls of fæces, but, the principal contents are retained. Blaine has given the distinguishing features between this disease and colic, under which head we have stated them.

The treatment must be active and immediate, or a fatal termination may be expected. Begin by abstracting a considerable quantity of blood; from a large horse to the amount of seven or eight quarts; proceed to back-rake, throw up a large clyster of warm gruel. Give by the mouth, a pint of castor oil , mixed by the means of the yolk of two eggs,

with half a pint of broth or gruel. Or, give olive oil instead, following it up in half an hour by a gruel drench in which six ounces of Epsom salts have been dissolved. A sheep skin, immediately as it is removed from the sheep, may be applied to the belly, which should first be well rubbed with the strong liquid blister. (Vet. Pha. 13.) In four hours repeat the bleeding, if considerable improvement have not taken place, and if the bowels be not unloaded, give more oil, and clyster frequently, having first back-raked. Avoid exercise; first hand-rub, and afterwards wrap up the extremities to the knees. As a clear passage for the dung is found, the symptoms mitigate, and the animal slowly recovers; but he must be fed at first very sparingly.

LAMPAS. All horses, but particularly very young ones, are liable to enlargement of the rugæ or ridges of the palate, dependent not on any local disease confined to the part itself, but occasionally by an affection of the whole passage of the mouth, throat, and stomach. It is usual to attend to the part only, which is scarified or burnt to little purpose, when a mild dose of physic, or gentle alteratives, would prove more certain expedients; to which may be added rubbing the part with bay salt, or with vinegar.

BRIDLE SORES. When the bit in colt breaking, or in hard pulling horses, has hurt the bars, care is requisite to prevent the bone becoming carious. Touch daily with ægyptiacum, and cover the bit with leather, unless total rest can be allowed.

POLE EVIL. This complaint commonly requires the attendance of an experienced practitioner-but the prevention is often in the power of owners and others about horses, and to this point we shall particularly direct their attention. Pole evil is commonly the effect of accident. Repeated small blows of the manger, or continued pressure from hanging back on the haltre, &c. will, if not remedied, produce swelling at the nape of the neck, with some tenderness. In this early state, if the collar be removed and the part be kept continually wet with vinegar and water, the swelling will often disperse-but if, in spite of this, it proceeds to suppuration, let a vent be made for the matter by a seton [116] so that it may readily flow out. Introduce nothing healing, but encourage a free discharge, and it may heal at once. When such is not the issue, the disease attacks the ligaments; sinuses form, and the matter burrows

DISEASES OF HORSES.

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under the skin and muscles, when a seton must be introduced from the opening above and should be brought out at the bottom; the seton should be then daily wetted with the liquid blister. (Vet. Pha. 13.) Should this plan fail, escharotics will be required in the form of scalding mixture. (Vet. Pha. 37.)

STRANGUARY or suppression of urine; incontinence of urine; bloody urine. Stranguary may arise from an injury done to the kidneys, or to the bladder, by strains, or by the absorption of irritating matters. In these cases, bleed if there be fever, and if not merely give the horse absolute rest; mash him, give gruel, and warm his water for drink. Bloody urine should be treated in the same way; some horses have such a natural or acquired weakness of the kidneys, as to stale blood with their urine on every occasion of over exertion: the means frequently used for relief, are such as aggravate the complaint, and indeed are often the occasion of it, which are diuretics. Strong diuretics injure horses more than strong physic, and benefit them less than any other of the popular means made use of.' In retention of urine, but particularly in cases of bloody urine, they are absolutely improper.

MANGE. This is a contagious disease, not uncommon among low bred and badly kept horses, but which is seldom generated in those properly managed. When it is the effect of impoverished blood, a different course of feeding must be substituded, not heating, but cooling though generous; as carrots, speared oats, malt mashes, stable soiling, &c. When it arises in full fed horses, bleed twice, lower the feeding, substituting for corn, soiling, carrots, or bran mashes. Give a nightly alterative (Vet. Pha. No. 1 or 2) and dress with either of the mange dressings. (Vet. Pha. 43.). After a cure has been effected, carefully clean all the apartments with soap and water.

GLANDERS. This is a disease which is highly infectious, but which according to Loudon is extremely difficult if not impossible to cure. The marks of glanders are a discharge of purulent matter from ulcers situated in one or both nostrils, more often from the left than the right. This discharge soon becomes glairy, thick, and white-of-egg-like: it afterwards shows bloody streaks, and is fætid. The glands of the jaw of the affected side, called the kernels, swell from an absorption of the virus or poison, and as they exist or do not exist, or as they adhere to the bone or are detached from it, so some prognosis is vainly attempted by farriers, with regard to the disease ; for in some few cases these glands are not at all affected, and in a great many they are not bound down by the affection of the jaw. As there are many diseases which excite a secretion of matter from the nose, and which is kept up a considerable time; so it is not always easy to detect glanders in its early stages. Strangles and violent colds, keep up a discharge from the nostrils for weeks sometimes. In such cases a criterion may be drawn from the existence of ulceration within the nose, whenever the disease has become confirmed. These glanderous chancres are to be seen on opening the nostril a little way up the cavity, sometimes immediately opposed to the opening of the nostril; but a solitary chancre should not determine the judgment. The health often continues good and sometimes the condition also, until hectic takes place from absorption, and the lungs participate, when death soon closes the scene.

The treatment of glanders, it has been already stated, is so uncertain that it is hardly worth the attempt; however, when the extreme value of

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