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VINEGAR.ALCOHOL.-RUM. sulphite of potash into each cask, which will precipitate and render insoluble the remaining leaven. If the fruit is good, and properly ground, and the cider racked from the fermenting casks at a proper time, most or all of the subsequent operations will be superseded.

VINEGAR is an agreeable acid liquor, prepared from wine, cider, beer, and other liquors, and it is of considerable use, both as a medicine and a sauce. The word is French, vinaigre; from vin, wine, and aigre,


There are four kinds of vinegar known in commerce; that from wine, from malt, from sugar, and from wood. This last is called the pyroligneous acid, and is now prepared in large quantities in London, by distilling wood in close vessels. It may be obtained eight times the strength of common vinegar, so that it may be diluted by the purchaser at pleasure. It is colorless, and by many considered superior to common vinegar. It is said to be perfectly. free from all flavor, save that of the

pure acid.

The principal requisites to form good vinegar, are, 1. contact with the air; 2. A temperature not exceeding 770 of Fahrenheit; 3. The addition of some extraneous vegetable matter, to promote the acetous fermentation ; and, 4. the presence

of alcohol. The vinegar used in the United States is chiefly made from cider. It may be prepared thus : to a quarter cask of good cider, add 4 lbs. of white Havanna sugar, and half a pound of argol, or rough tartar, in fine powder; it will be better for the addition of some lees of wine. Expose it to a heat not less than 75°, nor more than 80°, with the bung out. Twice or thrice a day, draw off a pail full, and after it has stood exposed to the air, a quarter of an hour, return it to the bung-hole by a funnel.

Vinegar is sometimes made from whey. The following directions are given by Mr. Genet, of New-York. “ After having clarified the whey, it is poured into casks with some aromatic plants, or elder blossoms, as suits the fancy, and exposed in the open air to the sun, when it soon acquires an uncommon degree of acidity.”

ALCOHOL. This is said to be an Arabian word, which signifies antimony ; so called from the usage of the Eastern ladies to paint their eyebrows with antimony, reduced to a most subtile powder; whence, it at last came to signify any thing exalted to its highest perfection. Alcohol is highly rectified spirit of wine, freed from

all those watery particles, which are not essential to it. When pure, it consists of hydrogen, carbon and oxygen. It is quite colorless, and clear; of a strong and penetrating smell and taste; capable of being set on fire, without wick, and burning with a flame, without leaving a residue, and without smoke and soot. It is not known to freeze, in any degree of coldness. It is used in those preparations, called elixirs, tinctures, essences, &c. It is a powerful stimulant and antisceptic. It is this, which in brandy, rum, wine, &c., exhilarates, and which, at length, destroys the constitution of the drunkard. In England, alcohol is procured by distillation from molasses ; in Scotland and Ireland, from whiskey. In the East sudies, arrack is distilled from rice; in the West Indies, rum from the sugar cane ; and in France and Spain, brandy, from wine ; in the Uni


ted States, cider-brandy, from cider. All these afford alcohol by distillation.

RUM is a spirit obtained by distillation from the fermented juice of the sugar-cane, or from molasses and other coarse saccharine matter in the West Indies. Rum contains a considerable portion of alcohol; but as it contains, in solution, a gross essential oil, which is apt to disagree with some stomachs, it is not so good, considered medicinally, as brandy.

BRANDY is obtained by simple distillation, from real wines, or the fermented juice of grapes. To distil brandy, they fill the still half full of the liquor from which it is to be drawn, and raise it with a little fire, till about one sixth part be distilled, or till they perceive what falls into a receiver is not at all inflammable. Brandy, when first made, is perfectly colourless ; the colour it has in this country is given to it by burnt sugar. The peculiar taste of brandy is produced by a small portion of some essential oil ; whether arising from the wine from which it is distilled, or added afterwards, is not known in this country. On this account, in moderate doses, it is very grateful to the stomach. The greatest part of the brandies in use is prepared in France. Of the French brandies, those of Languedoc and Anjou, whence the well known Cognac brandy, are the most esteemed. Of brandy, either plain or rectified, are prepared various kinds of strong liquors, with the addition of other ingredients, sugars, spices, flowers, fruits, &c. The strength of brandy may be determined by olive oil or tallow, both of which sink in good brandy.

GENEVA or GIN; the name of a compound water, procured from juniper berries and other ingredients, distilled with malt spirits. The French name of the juniper-berry, is genievre, from which the word is formed. But our common distillers leave out the juniper-berries entirely from the liquor they now make and sell under that name. • Our chemists have taught them, that the oil of juniper berries and that of turpentine are very much alike in flavor, though not in price; and the common method of making what is called geneva, in London, is with common malt spirit, and a proper quantity of oil of turpentine distilled together, with sometimes angelica root, and other aromatic vegetables. The Dutch, it is said, still continue the original use of juniper berries, and hence the reason why Hollands is by many preferred to English gin. This hot fiery spirit is too much used by the lower classes of people in its undiluted state as a dram. It is most injurious to their constitution and morals.

ARRACK; a spirituous liquor imported from the East Indies ; used by way of dram and in punch. The word arrack, according to Mr. Lockyer, is an Indian name for strong waters of all kinds, for they call our spirits English arrack. But what we understand by the name arrack, he affirms to be no other than a spirit procured by distillation from a vegetable juice called toddy, which flows by incision out of the cocoa-nut tree, like the birch juice procured among us.

Others are of opinion, that the arrack is a vinous spirit obtained by distillation in the East Indies from rice or sugar fermented with the juice of the cocoa treo. The Goa arrack is said to be made from the toddy ; the Batavia arrack from rice and sugar; there is likewise a kind of shrub froin


which arrack is made. By fermenting, distilling, and rectifying, the juice of the American maple, which has much the same taste as that of the cocoa tree, arrack has been made not inferior to any that comes from the East Indies.

ALE is a popular beverage or drink made from malt. The sythum and curmi, mentioned by Tacitus as the beverage of the ancient Germans, are supposed to correspond with our ale and beer.

MALT denotes barley cured, or prepared to fit it for making a potable liquor, under the denomination of beer, ale, &c.

The manner of making malt Sir Robert Murray describes as follows: Steep good barley in a stone trough full of water, till the water be of a bright reddish color, but it may be known when it is steeped enough by other marks, as by the excessive swelling of the grain and the degree of softness. It is afterwards taken out, and laid on heaps, to let the water drain from it, then turned and laid in a new heap, where it may lie forty hours, more or less. In about fifteen or sixteen hours the grains put forth roots, which when they have done, the malt must be turned over, otherwise the grains will begin to put forth the blade or spire, which must be prevented. It must now be spread to a depth not exceeding five or six inches, and then turned over and over for the space of forty-eight hours at least. This cools, dries and deadens the grain, when it becomes mellow, melts easily in brewing, and separates easily from the husk. Then throw up the malt into a high heap, and let it grow as hot as your hand can endure it, which it usually does in about thirty hours. This perfects the sweetness and mellowness of the inalt. It is now again cooled and turned over, and then laid on a kiln, with hair cloth or wire spread under it, where. after one fire, it must have a se, cond, and perhaps a third, before the malt be thoroughly dried. The time during which the grain continues on the malt floor varies according to circumstances; fourteen days is, however, the general average. Malt drinks are either pale or brown, as the malt is more or less dried on the kiln, that which is the least dried tinging the liquor least in brewing, and therefore called pale; whereas the higher dried, and as it were roasted, makes it of a higher colour. High dried malt yields less liquor or beer than low dried or pale malt does, and hence the por. ter-brewers are obliged to use colouring drugs and many, pernicious stuffs, as substitutes for malt, which is too dear to afford deep-colored pure malt liquor at the common price of porter.

BREWING is the operation of preparing ale or beer from malt. In brewing, a quantity of water, being boiled, is left to cool till it becomes of the temperature of 175° or 180° ; or till the face can be seen pretty distinctly in the water. Mix the malt with the water, stirring it dur. ing the process with the mashing stick. Reserve a few handfuls of the dry malt to strew over the surface after it is mixed, to prevent the escape of the heat; the vessel should also be covered besides with cloths, in order to keep the mixture hot; this operation is called mashing. Let the whole stand for three hours, more or less, according to the strength of the wort, which is then to be drawn off into a receiver. The mashing is repeated for the second wort nearly in the same manner as for the first. After these worts are run off, a quantity of hops is added, and the liquor is again boiled. The hops are afterwards

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strained from it, and when it is moderately cool, the barm or yeast is applied. The barm causes the whole to ferment, and when sufficiently fermented, it is tunned up in vessels for use. One, two, three, or more months are necessary to pass, before it will be fit for use. The quantity of malt for making a hogshead, sixty-three gallons, of strong beer, may be ten bushels ; for good ale five bushels are sufficient.

The following account of a London brewing establishment, from the pen of Professor Griscom, will give the reader some idea of the extent to which brewing operations are carried in England. This establishe ment (Barclay's brewery,) covers about eight acres of ground, and manufactured last year (1829), 340,000 barrels of 36 gallons each. The building which contains the vats, and the vats themselves, are enor

The largest of the latter contain each 4000 barrels. The average number of vats is nearly one hundred. A steam engine of twenty two horse power is employed in driving the machinery, and about two hundred men are engaged in the various works of the establishment; while it is supposed that the number of persons dependent upon it without, in the sale and transportation of the beer, is three or four thousand. The three coppers in which the beer is boiled, hold each 150 barrels.

Twenty-five gentlemen once dined in one of them ; after hich, fifty of the workmen get in and regaled themselves. One hundred and ninety pounds of beef-steaks were thus consumed in one day, in this novel dining room. The tuns in which the beer ferments, hold 1400 barrels each. The carbonic acid in one of them stood about three and a half feet above the liquor, and poured over the side in a continued stream. A candle is instantly extinguished on being placed near the outer edge of this receptacle, and on holding one's face over it, a sharp, pungent sensation is felt in the mouth and fauces, not unlike that produced by ardent spirits. An immersion of a few moments would be sufficient to occasion a suspension of voluntary motion.

One hundred and sixty horses are kept on the premises, for the purpose chiefly of transpo the materials to and from different parts of

the city.

HOPS, it is said, preserve malt liquors : if hops were not added, that clammy sweetness, which the liquor retains after working, would soon become acid, and render the liquor unfit for use. The whole virtue of the hop resides, it appears, in a fine yellow powder, readily separable from the leaves by mere rubbing, or threshing : this powder is called Lupulin.



GINGER, the common, is a native of the East Indies, but now naturalized in the West Indies, whence we are chiefly supplied with it. It is a perennial shrub, which grows about a yard high. Its propagation is effected by parting the roots in the spring, planting them in pots of


light earth, and placing them in a hot bed of tanner’s bark, where they remain. The different kinds of ginger found in the shops appear to be the same root differently dried, or otherwise prepared; the roots which are white, soft, and woolly, are in general, less pungent than the more solid and compact kinds. Ginger is much employed as a condiment, and as a medicine. It is considered as a useful stimulant in dyspepsy, gout, and other complaints, requiring exciting medicines. Ginger is sometimes brought to this country, preserved in syrup. It is also used as a plaster, wet with French brandy, to be laid upon the stomach, in cases of great pain, or to check excessive vomiting in cholera; and of ten subserves an excellent purpose. .. NUTMEG is the product of a tree, which resembles the cherry tree in growth, and size, and is a native of the Molucca Islands, from which, except Banda, by the policy of the Dutch, it has been nearly extirpated; Banda, now supplying with mace and nutmegs, the whole of Europe. The flowers, which are inodorous, are present at the same time with the fruit, and male and female are on the same, and on separate trees. Nutmegs are inclosed in four different covers. The first a thick husk, like that of our walnuts. Under this lies a thin reddish coat, of an agreeable smell, and aromatic taste, called mace. This wraps up the shell, and opens in proportion as the pod grows. The shell, which makes the third cover, is hard, thin, and blackish; under this is a greenish film of no use; and in this is found the nutmeg,which is properly the kernel of the fruit. The nutmeg tree yields three crops annually : the first, which is the best, in April; the second in August, and the third in December. The fruit requires nine months to ripen ; when gathered, the outer covering is first stripped off, and then the mace carefully separated and dried; the nutmegs in the shell are next exposed to heat, and smoke, for three months, then broken, and the kernels thrown into a strong mixture of lime and water, after which they are cleaned and packed up. This process is said to be necessary for their preservation, and with the same intention, the mace is sprinkled with salt water.

The CLOVE is obtained from a tree, somewhat in the form of a nail; whence the term clove, from the French clove, a nail. The clove tree was anciently very common in the Molucca islands; at present, cloves are chiefly obtained from Amboyna, the Dutch having from their cupidity, dug up the trees in the other islands. It is now, however, cultivated in the isles of France, at Cayenne, and in the island of Dominica, in the West Indies. The tree is very large; its bark resembles that of the olive tree, and its leaves those of the laurel, its fruit falling, takes root without any culture, and eight years after bears fruit. The clove is the unexpanded flower. At Amboyna, they are collected from October to December, when they begin to redden. They require to be dried quickly; on which account, they are first immersed in boiling water, and then exposed to smoke and heat ; the drying is afterwards, finished in the sun. Although the unopened flowers, and even the leaves, are extremely aromatic, the real fruit which is a coriaconus berry, is not so. Cloves are hot, stimulating aromatics, which affect the breath, eyes, and head, and are useful in palsies, &c. There is an oil drawn from cloves by distillation ; it is sometimes used as a remedy for

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