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our pains; others from an association of internal feeling with external objects; and hence the incalculable varieties of human actions.
GHOST'; a spirit or apparition of some deceased person. The uncients supposed every man had three different ghosts, which, after the dissolution of the body, were variously disposed of. They were distinguished into manıs, spiritus, umbra; the manes they supposed went' to ine infernal regions; the spiritus ascended to the skies; and the umbru hovered about the tomb, as unwilling to quit its old connections. The superstitious notions of ghosts, spirits, &c. are rapidly declining ; and notwithstanding all the solemn tales which have been propagated, there is no reason to believe that any real spirits or celestial agents liave held intercourse with man since the establishment of Christianity. The history, therefore, of modern miracles, appearances of the dead, &c. will be always found, when thoroughly examined, merely the phantons of a disordered imagination.
In quitting this subject it may be observed, that when the mind turns inward, thinking is the first operation that occurs; and in this we may observe a great variety of modifications, and whence it frames to itself distinct ideas. Thus, the perception annexed to any impression on the body by an external object is called sensation. When an idea occurs without the presence of the object, it is called remembrance ; when sought for by the mind, and brought again to review this pro. cess, it is called recollection ; when the ideas are attempted to be regis. tered in the memory, it is attention ; and when the mind considers any subject in a variety of views, successively dwelling upon each, it is called study.
KNOWLEDGE, therefore, from this short view of the mind, it will be seen, arises from those impressions and ideas which we receive by the medium of the senses. We can have no knowledge further than we have ideas.
A man may be said to know all those truths which are lodged in his memory by a previous, clear and full perception. In intuitive knowledge, the mind perceives the truth as the eye does light; thus the mind perceives that white is not black, and that three are more than two. This part of knowledge is irresistible, and on intuition depends all the certainty of our other knowledge. When the mind is obliged to discover the agreement or disagreement of our ideas by the intervention of other ideas, this is what is called reasoning.
Again. Knowledge includes, of course, all which we can know. It has been also divided into useful and luxurious knowledge. The best knowledge is that which enables us to act most virtuously, because virtue is the foundation of genuine happiness. Learning, properly so called, is not essential to a virtuous life, although considerable knowledge most undoubtedly is so ; for ignorance is, in innumerable instances, the parent of error and of crime. A prudent choice in our pursuit of knowledge is however necessary, in order that we may avoid an idle and useless or pernicious waste of time.
The PASSIONS. In the proper management of the Passions consists mostly human wisdom. As every effort of the memory or imagination arouses some associate passion or affection, the mind rarely continues long in a quiescent state ; that is, entirely divested of every
PASSIONS.—AFFECTIONS. thing sensible, and unconscious of any particular feeling. It is by observing such associate feelings, that we are enabled to ascertain the nature and operation of the passions (or suffering) of the mind, and discover three distinct modes or states of passion, which differ from simple feeling only in duration and intensity, but not in quality. The state called passion is violent and transitory; emotion is less so; and affection is the least violent and most permanent. Hence we distinguish between the lowest and highest degree of feeling by the terms passion, emotion, and affection, which are always employed to express the sensible effects of objects or ideas concerning them on the mind. The word passion, therefore, is strictly and properly used to designate the first feeling, impression, or percussion, as it were, of which the mind is conscious from some impulsive cause ; by which it is wholly acted on without any efforts of its own, either to solicit or escape the impression. This passion or state of absolute passiveness, in consequence of any sudden percussion of mind, is necessarily of short duration. The strong impression immediately produces a reaction correspondent to its nature, either to appropriate and enjoy, or avoid and repel the exciting cause. This reaction is very significantly denominated emotion, which is applicable to the sensible effects produced on the mind in consequence of a particular agitation. Emotions, then, although often erroneously used as synonymous with, are only the effects of passions.
The term AFFECTION always implies a less violent, and generally more durable influence, which persons and things have on the mind. It is usually associated with ideas of good, but there exists no necessary connexion. Hence we find that the term passion is applicable to all the violent impressions made on our minds by the perception of something very striking and apparently interesting ; emotion, to the external marks or visible changes produced by the force of the passion on the corporeal system ; and affection, to the less violent, more deliberate, and more permanent impressions, by causes which appear suffi. ciently interesting. The range of affection may extend from those stronger feelings, which border upon emotions, to the mildest sensations of pleasure or displeasure, which we can possibly perceive. In like manner the desire of any thing under the appearance of its goodness, suitableness, or necessity to our happiness, constitutes the passion of live; the desire of avoiding any thing hurtful or destructive constitutes hatred or aversion; the desire of a good which appears probable, and in our power, constitutes hope ; but, if the good appear improbable or impossible, it constitutes fear or despair. The unexpected gratification of desire is joy; the desire of happiness to another under pain or suffering is compassion; and the desire of another's punishment, according to this hypothesis, is revenge or malice.
The desire of happiness is, then, it appears, the spring or motive of all our passions. Some wise and reasonable motive seems certainly necessary to all wise and reasonable actions. To act without a motive, would be the same as not to act at all; that is, such an action would answer no further or better end than not acting ; but whatever wise ends are intended by the passions, if they are not kept under due regulation and restraint, they soon become the sources of our misery. Authors have arranged the passions into grateful and ungrateful, primi
tive and derivative, &c.; but the simplest classification is into the selfish and the social, according to the exciting cause : in the former, the idea of good predominates; in the latter, that of evil. The only emotions, which cannot be considered as connected either with the selfish or social feeling, with self-love or apprehension, are surprise, astonishment, and wonder: these are excited by something novel, embarrassing, or yast and incomprehensible in the object, without any reference to its peculiar nature; and, exerting their influence indiscriminately in pas. sions of the most opposite characters, are aptly denominated introductory emotions. The passions and affections founded on self-love, and excited by the idea of good, are joy, cheerfulness, mirth, contentment ; pride, vanity, haughtiness, arrogance, &c.; desires inordinate, as gluttony, drunkenness, lust, &c., avarice, rapaciousness, emulation, ambition, and hope. The passions and affections operating on the principle of self-love, in which the idea of evil is immediately present to the mind, are sorrow, grief, melancholy, discontent, vexation, &c. The virtuous affections inspired by sorrow, are patience, resignation, humility; and fear, terror, despair, remorse, cowardice, doubt, shame, &c. Fortitude, courage, intrepidity, are virtuous affections, excited only by exposure to those evils, which are usually productive of fear, to which they are diametrically opposite. To this class also belong anger, resentment, indignation, and peevishness; fortitude, courage, and intrepidity, are likewise influenced by anger, with which they are always more or less blended.
The passions and affections derived from the social feeling, which extends its regards to the state, conduct, and character of others, and their relative circumstances, deportment, merit, and dispositions, as contrasted with ourselves, may be classed under the cardinal affections of love and hatred, in which the idea of good or evil is predominant. The benevolent desires and dispositions appear in the parental, filial, fraternal, conjugal, and friendly affections.
Sympathy is that inward feeling, which is excited by the situation of another, or which harmonizes with the condition and feelings of its object; in this manner it may become a passion, an affection, or a disposition. Sympathy indicates a susceptible mind, and impels men to plunge into water, or rush into flames, to succour a fellow.creature. The sympathetic affections are very numerous, and discriminated by various appellations. They may be considered as they respect distress, such as compassion, mercy, commiseration, condolence, pity, generosity, liberality, charity, and condescension : as they relate to prosperity, in the sensations of joy, gladness, happiness, &c. at the good fortune of others; and as they proceed from sympathetic imitation, or affections derived from good opinion, such as gratitude, thankfulness, admiration, esteem, respect, veneration, awe, reverence, with the devia. tions of fondness and partiality. The passions occasioned by displacency, in which evil is the predominant idea, are of two kinds; those in which malevolent dispositions are indicated, and those of simple disapprobation, without any mixture of malevolence. Those arising from malevolent dispositions are hatred, envy, rancour, cruelty, &c.; anger, rage, revenge, resentment, and jealousy. The displacency occasioned by unfavorable opinions gives rise to horror, indignation, contempt, disdain, and irrision. The five grateful passions, as they have been call
tive and derivative, &c.; but the simplest classification is into the selfish
, &c.; desires inordinate, as glut-
. To this class also belong anger, resent-
, are likewise influenced by anger, with which they are always more or less blended.
The passions and affections derived from the social feeling, which extends its regards to the state, conduct, and character of others
, and their relative circumstances, deportment, merit, and dispositions, as contrasted with ourselves, may be classed under the cardinal affections of love and hatred, in which the idea of good or evil is predominant. The benevolent desires and dispositions appear in the parental, filial, fraternal, conjugal, and friendly affections.
Sympathy is that inward feeling, which is excited by the situation of another, or which harmonizes with the condition and feelings of its
ed, of love, desire, hope, joy, and pleasing recollection, enhance each other; so do the five ungrateful ones of hatred, aversion, fear, grief, and displeasure.
As happiness and misery, virtue and vice, depend almost entirely on the proper exercise of the passions and affections, the study of their nature and influence should become a distinct and primary branch of education. Virtue, therefore, consists not only in an exemplary desire of regulating all our thoughts and pursuits by right principles, but also by so acting as to produce beneficial results to others as well as to our. selves. Vice is distinguished by unhappy effects, by conduct and propensities opposed to those of virtue, and consists in depraved affections and ungoverned passion's. Religion is evinced by a laudable desire of rectitude, of yielding obedience to the divine command, and habitual solicitude to obtain the divine favor. Devotion is the religious temper or disposition applied to prayers and meditations which deeply interest the affections. Superstition is a consecrated self-interest, without either love or regard to the supposed duties it enjoins, or to its object. He who imagines that the divine favor is to be gained by a strict attention to frivolous ceremonies is superstitious. A tenacious reverence for unimportant sentiments, with a disposition towards those whose opinions are opposite, constitutes bigotry. An incessant desire to propagate some particular sentiment, or principle, to make proselytes, from whatever motive, is called seal. The decided ascendancy of some particular object in the mind is denominated a passion, as a passion for music, &c. When this predilection occupies all our thoughts, and incites us to the most vigorous exertions with such an ardor and constancy as to brave all difficulties, it is termed enthusiasm. Even our motives form various species of desire, which characterize the prevailing disposition ; such as integrity, fidelity, loyalty, honesty, industry, honor, &c.; or treachery, treason, fraud, artifice, deceit, cruelty, &c.; according as they are influenced by worthy or unworthy dispositions. An invincible predilection to some one thing, opinion, or sentiment, extreme contempt for all other kinds of knowledge, and an obstinate opposition of private opinion as the only counterpoise to public sentiment, without any regard to the weight of evidence on either side, are the invariable features of fanaticism:
object ; in this manner it may become a passion, an affection, or a dis-
, or rush into flames, to succour a fellow-creature.
, pity, generosi-
. The passions occasioned by displa-
ALIMENTS are those materials, from which the different orders of created beings derive their nourishment. To most animals, nature has assigned but a limited range of aliment; but to man an extensive choice has been allotted. The vegetable and animal kingdoms, fruits, grains, roots, and herbs, flesh, fish, and fowl, all contribute to his suste
, revenge, resentment, and jealousy. The displacency occasioned hy unfavorable opinions gives rise to horror
, indignation, contempt
, disirrision. The five grateful passions, as they have been calle
It is an interesting inquiry, How aliments so diversified in structure, and sensible qualities, become assimilated in one system, and contribute to our support? To this question, it may be answered, that all organized beings, animal as well as vegetable, are composed principally of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, lime, sulphur, and phosphorus. Different combinations of these elements make up the whole of their material systems.
Now, then, as the human frame is composed of the above materials, its daily waste must be supplied, by substances which yield these materials. These are to be found in various animal and vegetable sub. stances, used by man as food. This food, when masticated, is received into the stomach, where it is exposed to the action of the gastric fluid, a powerful solvent of animal and vegetable matters. Here, it soon undergoes an important change, being reduced to a soft and similar mass called chyme. From the stomach, the digested chyme passes into the intestines; where, subjected to the action of the bile, the pancreatic and mucous secretions, it undergoes still further changes; the result of all which is the formation and separation of a bland, white, milky fluid, called chyle. The chyle is sucked up by numerous vessels, called ab. sorbent lacteals, to whose orifice it is every where exposed, in passing through the intestinal canal. These absorbents after numerous communications, terminate in one common trunk, by which the chyle is mixed with the blood, and subjected to the action of the heart and arteries. Circulated now through the lungs, it undergoes new changes, from the respiration of the atmosphere ;-it is incorporated with the common circulating mass, and becomes itself blood, the fountain from which all the other constituent parts of the body are formed, and renewed.
Such is a concise account of the manner, by which animal and vegetable substances contribute to the support of the human frame-a process, though complex, taken in all its parts, yet easily understood; and when understood, eminently calculated to draw forth admiration, in view of the wisdom of God.
The gastric fluid of man is capable of digesting a great variety of animal and vegetable matters. And the structure of his body, his instinct and experience, clearly indicate, that his Maker designed him to derive his aliment, from both the animal and vegetable kingdoms.
We say from both, for it is obvious that neither is suited to form the whole of our daily aliinent. Animal food is more nutricious; but, from its heating and stimulating nature, when exclusively used, it exhausts and debilitates the system, which it at first invigorates and supports. And it is matter of observation and experience, that those persons, who confine themselves to animal diet, become heavy and indolent;
the tone and excitability of their frame are impaired; they are afflicted with indigestion, and numerous other infirmities.
On the other hand, vegetables are ascescent, and less stimulating; they are, also, less nourishing, and of more difficult assimilation, than food derived from the animal kingdom. A pure vegetable diet seeins insufficient to raise the buman system to all the strength and vigor of which it is capable.
Some eastem nations, indeed, and thousands of individuals of every