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ORIGIN OF NORTH AMERICAN INDIANS.
er be the basis of solid argument. On this subject, Dr. Godman, in his Natural History, observes ; « There is neither extravagance nor impropriety in the opinion, that the two continents were originally one, and being continuous, the only difficulty is removed, that could be urged against the approach of population from the extremity of Asia. But in addition to all the reasons that can be urged in support of the doctrine we maintain, it should not be forgotten, that there are strong evidences, derived from astronomical and geological observations, proving the axis and poles of our globe to be not now precisely where they originally stood. It is therefore very unfair to decide against the probability of peopling America from the extremity of Asia, if we reason from the existing climate of the countries adjacent to East Cape, or Cape Prince of Wales, the two nearest points of Asia and America.
“ The greatest difficulty thrown in the way of this opinion, was thought to be the striking difference between the Esquimaux and the common Indians, seeming to prove that they were derived from different races or kinds. We are informed in Crantz's History of Greenland, that the Moravian Missionaries, who visited the countries inhabited by the Esquimaux, were much surprised to find that they were in all respects similar to the Greenlanders, and made use of the same language ; shewing that the Esquimaux had sprung from the same race, and had gradually reached their present residence from the extremo northern parts of Europe. This fact, now rendered undeniable by more recent researches, entirely invalidates the conclusion, that the Esquimaux were derived from another species. The resemblance existing between these people and the Siberians, Kamtschadales, Tunguse, &c. is manifest ; and notwithstanding they differ in many respects from other inhabitants of the New World, they are undeniably descended from the same parent stock, coming from different parts of the globe. The copper-colored natives of America, who are the most numerous of the aborigines, approach more closely to the Asiatic Tartars in color and stature, and this because they are descendants of that race arriving in America from the extremity of Asia.”
In respect to the second objection, the same writer observes ; “ Granting, as we are perfectly willing to do, the great lapse of time which would be requisite for the production of such radical changes, we do not thirik the objection derived from the languages more solid than those heretofore mentioned. As far as the researches of philologers have extended, we do not find that there is so much difference in the dialects of our aborigines, as the arguments of these objectors would seem to imply. Throughout a large mass of this rative population, a very perceptible connexion of language is apparent, and the relation to a parent stock is fairly evident. Even allowing that the amount of difference is as great, as could be desired by our opponents, the comparison of the aboriginal dialects with those of European nations, is by no means a correct mode of deciding the point. If, according to our idea, people reached this country at different times, from the extreme north of Europe, or the northeast of Asia, the immense extent of country they were gradually to be scattered over, the new objects by which they were surrounded, and the new modes of life they assumed, would all conspire to produce a change in their language in a much shorter time than could take place on the old continent, where their wanderings must have been,
not only comparatively circumscribed, but their modes of living subject to very few variations.
“ But in the present condition of our knowledge, we have no right to state that the traces of affinity between the American dialects are entirely oblilerated; it would be far more correct to say, that we do not possess the means of making the necessary inquiries and decisions; our knowledge of their language is confined to a few meagre vocabularies, frequently derived from persons, whose statements cannot be relied on, however correct their intentions may have been, to say nothing of the almost insuperable difficulty of writing such languages from the hearer's idea of their pronunciation.
" But whatever apparent difficulties may be suggested to the Asiatic origin of the aboriginals of America, the circumstance of but one species of the human race existing throughouî the world is sufficient to reduce us to the necessity of acknowledging that mankind have descended from one parent stock, however their external appearance may have been modified by accident, disease, or situation. We are aware that some persons talk of the possibility of there having been various centres of creation to the human race, as among inferior animals; but we consider it very unphilosophical to suppose the existence of various centres of creation for the same species.” To the believer in Divine Revelation, this last idea, whatever may be thought of it in a philosophical view, will doubtless appear repugnant to the Scripture account of the origin of the human species, and is therefore to be rejected.
HUMAN STRUCTURE.-The animal frame is composed of bones, muscles, brain, nerves, arteries, veins, cartilages, membranes, glandsalso of chyle, blood, milk, &c.
BONES are white, hard, brittle, and almost insensible; they support and form the stature of the body, defend its viscera, and give power to the various muscles. The number of bones in the human body is generally 240 ; but in some individuals, who have two additional bones in each thumb and great toe, they arount to 248.
TEETH, a set of bones, situated in the upper and lower jaws, for the purpose of mastication. In adults, they are 32 in number, or 16 in each jaw-bone, consisting of 4 cutting, 2 canine, and 10 grinders.
The teeth are of various sizes, being arranged in the following order; four in front, termod cutting teeth, on each side of which is a sharp pointed canine or eye-looth ; adjoining to these are five grinders on each side, the last of which is denominated the looth of wisdom, because it seldom appears before the 25th year. The front and eye teeth are furnished with only one root each; the two first grinders with two; and the hindmost generally with three or four; which may in most persons be ascertained by the number of small tubercles on the crowns. The tooth is divided into two principal parts; viz. the crown, which projects above the gums; and the root, that is enclosed within the sockets. The crown is a hard, fine, glossy white enamel, serving to defend the substance against external injury. The root is open at the bottom, where it is connected with vessels and nerves, by which it receives nourishment, life and sensation.
MUSCLES, of which, it is said, there are 446 in the human body, dissectible and describable, are parts of the animal body destined to move some other parts, and hence are termed the organs or instruments, of motion. They are composed of flesh and tendinous fibres, and contain vessels of all kinds.
FLESH is the fibrous or muscular part of the animal body : mus. cular flesh is composed of a great number of fibres or threads ; it is commonly of a reddish or whitish color. The ancients distinguished five different kinds of flesh ; but the moderns admit one only, fleshy and muscular parts being with them the same.
SKIN is the general covering of the body. Though apparently a simple membrane, it consists of several parts. The outermost is the scarf-skin : it has no nerves, and is extended over every part of the true skin, except where the nails are ; it is this skin which is raised by the application of a blister; it is thickest in those parts accustomed to labor or pressure, as the hand and foot. The rete mucosum is a web-like mucous substance lying between the scarf and true skin, which chiefly gives the color to the exterior of the human body. It is black in the negro ; white, brown, or yellowish in the European. The true skin is a very sensible membrane extended over all parts of the body, and has nerves terminating so plentifully on its surface, that the finest needle cannot prick it without touching some of them.
ABSORBENTS are a set of small colorless vessels, which pervade the whole surface of the body both externally and internally. Their office is to take up whatever fluids are effused into the different cavities, and to pour out their contents for particular uses. absorption they are highly irritable at their extremities, and are very replete with valves to prevent the escape or return of their contents. Their number, when compared with other vessels, is four times greater; and they are divided into lymphatics and lacteals, according to their respective offices, the former conveying lymph, the latter chyle.
CARTILAGES, or gristles, are smooth, solid, flexible, elastic parts, softer than bone, and seem to be of the same nature : some even be-, come bones by time ; some again are much softer, and partake of the nature of ligaments. They terminate those bones that form moveable joints, and in some instances serve to connect bones tngether. In the nose, ears, and eyelids are cartilages.
A MEMBRANE is a thin, white, flexible, expanded skin, formed of several sorts of fibres interwoven together. The use of membranes is to cover and wrap up the parts of the body; to strengthen them, and save them from external injuries ; to preserve the natural heat ; to join one part to another ; to sustain small vessels, &c.
A GLAND is an organic part of the body, destined for the secretion or alteration of some peculiar fluid, and composed of blood-vessels, nerves, and absorbents. The glands are designated either according to the particular fluids which they contain, as mucous, sebaceous, lymphatic, salival, and lachrymal glands ; or their structure, as simple, compound, conglobate, and conglomerate glands. The vessels and nerves of glands always come from the neighboring parts, and the ar
For the purpose of
BRAIN.CEREBRUM.-CEREBELLUM. -SPINAL MARROW.
teries appear to possess a higher degree of irritability. Glands appear to the eye as whitish membranous masses.
The BRAIN consists of the whole of that mass which, with its surrounding membranes and vessels, fills the greater part of the skull. It is said to be larger in man, in proportion to the nerves belonging to it, than in any other animal. It consists of the cerebrum, cerebellum., tuber annulare, and medulla oblongata ; the whole weighs usually about forty-eight or fifty ounces ; but its weight varies in different subjects.
The CEREBRUM, which is by far the largest portion, is contained in all the upper part of the skull; it is divided into a right and left hemisphere by a membrane termed falz. Each hemisphere is also again subdivided into three lobes, the two lying in the front portion of the skull being the largest. It is surrounded with membranes, and accompanied with blood vessels.
The CEREBELLUM, or little brain, is situated in the back part of the skull beneath the posterior lobes of the cerebrum, from which it is separated by a membrane called the tentorium. It is divided by the falx minor into two hemispheres, which are again subdivided into lo. bules.
The Tuber annulare is of a roundish form, about an inch in length and of the same width. From the tuber annulare arises the medulla oblongata, which forms the beginning of the spinal marrow.
From the Brain arise nine pairs of NERVES; some in solid cords, Others in separate threads which afterwards unite into cords. Of these some have their origin in the cerebrum, some in the cerebellum, some in the tuber annulare, and some in the medulla oblongata. From these the nerves supplying the organs of smell, sight, taste, hearing, and feeling, in part, are derived. The nerves are called pairs, not because they proceed together from the brain and spinal marrow, but because they proceed from the opposite lobes of the brain, or from opposite sides of the spinal marrow, and supply similar parts on each side of the body with nerves. And hence it often happens in paralysis, or palsy, that on one side of the body all the nerves perform their office imperfectly, while on the other side no diminution of nervous energy is evinced. A nerve is a long white medullary cord. The uses of the nerves are to convey impressions to the brain, from all parts of the body, over which they are spread, and to impart motion, by exciting the muscles, to the whole system. It is the opinion of some philosophers, that the nerves contain a subtle fluid, by means of which impressions are immediately carried to the brain : this fluid has, however, never been seen: others think that sensation is produced by what has been termed vibration ; but the plain truth is, we are at present ignorant of the means by which sensation and muscular motion are produced, further than that we know both are the effect of the agency of the nerves.
The SPINAL MARROW, or medulla spinalis, is a continuation of the medulla oblongata from the head through the centre of the spine, which consists of a series of bones called vertebræ supporting the body. From the spinal marrow are given out thirty pairs of nerves : these, in conjunction with those arising from the brain, communicate energy and feeling to the whole body ; and also by their extreme sensibility
convey to the brain, the mind, or soul, the slightest as well as the strongest impressions made upon the different organs; hence our pleasures and our pains, our hopes, our fears, and our affections.
That the Brain, as a whole, is the organ of thought, the seat of the understanding, and the place where the emotions of the mind or soul arise, we cannot doubt; it is also the centre of sensation and muscular motion, and to which all the nerves of the body appear subservient. But to what other particular uses the different parts of the brain are applied, does not yet appear accurately known. Phrenologists have pretended to throw
some light on this curious and interesting subject. We shall confer a favor on our readers, we trust, by making them acquainted with some of the results of their investigation.
The founder of the system of phrenology—by which is meant," the science which treats of the faculties of the human mind, and of the organs by which they manifest themselves,”—is Dr. Gall, a physician of Vienna, who, about the year 1796, first began to deliver lectures on the subject. In 1804, Dr. J. G. Spurzheim became associated with him. Under the auspices, and captivating eloquence of these gentlemen, the system has acquired some credit, in several parts of Europe.
For ourselves, we give little credit to it. Its tendency is obviously towards the gloomy and foolish doctrine of materialism. In one respect-in regard to the position, and size of the brain-there is truth in phrenology; but, of the particular mapping of the skull, as adopted by the phrenologists, we think it behooves us, at present, to remain in modest doubt.
Still, as a subject of curiosity, it is not without interest. And in order that our readers may judge, in respect to themselves, what is the strength of their intellectual powers, or to what propensities they are most inclined, we have engaged our engraver to execute the outlines of a human head, skilfully and scientifically divided up, or mapped out, in the language of the science. The reader will notice that in each division is supposed to lie some faculty, or propensity of the mind. By an inspection of the brain itself, or the living man's head, the phrenologists affect to determine what faculty or propensity predominates —whether a man is gifted with the love of study, or inclined to idleness - whether he is peaceful or quarrelsome-timid or courageous-wise man, or a fool. We leave our readers to apply the subjoined rules for themselves.
The numbers which follow, refer to the numbers to be found in the maps of the heads below.
1. Here lies the propensity of amativeness or physical love. 2. Here, the propensity of philo progenitiveness, or love of children. 3. Concentraveness, or power of close study, (not represented.) 4. Adhesiveness, or disposition to friendship. 5. Combativeness or quarrelsomeness. 6. Destructiveness, or desire to destroy, and murder. 7. Constructiveness, or mechanical skill. 8. Acquisiliveness, disposition to avarice, theft, &c. 9. Secreliveness, cunning, deceit. 10. Self-esteem, on the top of the head, (not represented.) 11. Love of approbation, in the same vicinity. 12. Cautiousness. 13. 'Benevolence. 14. Veneration. 15. Hope. 16. Ideality, or love of the sublime. Fine arts. 17. Wonder. 18. Conscá