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was sent to Glasgow and finished, and then sent per coach to London. It took three years to bring this article to market, from the time that it was packed in India till it arrived complete in the merchant's warehouse in London ; whither it must have been conveyed 5,000 miles by sea, and nearly 1000 by land, and contributed to reward the labors of nearly 150 persons, whose services were necessary in the carriage and manufacture of this small quantity of cotton, and by which its value was advanced more than 2000 per cent."

SILK MANUFACTURE. Silk is a very soft, fine, bright, delicate thread, the production of an insect or moth, called by the ancients bombyx; by the moderns, phalæna mori, or silk worm. Silk is manufactured into a variety of fabrics, of which we shall notice the following:

SATIN is a kind of thick silken stuff, very smooth and shining; the warp is very fine and prominent, the woof coarser and hidden underneath : on which depends its gloss and beauty. Some satins are quite plain, others wrought, some flowered with gold or silk, others striped. The finest satins are those of Florence and Genoa, yet the French will not allow those of Lyons to be at all inferior. Indian satins, or satins of China, are silken stuffs, much like those manufactured in Europe. Of these some are plain, others worked, either with gold or silk, flowered, damasked, striped, &c. They are mostly valued because of their bleaching easily, without losing any thing of their lustre. In other respects they are inferior to those of Europe. Some very good satins are made in England.

VELVET ; a rich kind of thick, shaggy stuff made of silk; the nap, or velveting, of this stuff is formed of part of the threads of the warp, which the workman puts on a long narrow-channelled ruler, and which he afterwards cuts by drawing a sharp steel tool along the ruler to the end of the warp. The principal and best manufactures of velvet are in England and France ; there are others in Italy, as at Venice, Milan, Florence, Genoa, and Lucca, and in Holland at Haerlem ; those in China are the worst of all. A good imitation of silk velvet is now to be obtained, made of cotton ; but the dyes are less permanent on cotton than on silk.

TAFFETY; a kind of fine, smooth, silken stuff, having usually a remarkable gloss. There are taffeties of all colors, some plain, others striped with gold, silver, silk, &c. others chequered or flowered. There are three things that contribute to the perfection of taffeties, the silk, the water, and the fire. The silk should not only be of the finest kind, but must be worked a long time and very much before it is used. The watering seems only intended to give it that fine lustre, by a peculiar property not found in all waters; and lastly, the perfection of the stuff depends greatly on a particular application of the fire.

GAUZE, a transparent kind of stuff, which is woven sometimes of silk, and at other times only of flax. There are figured gauzes, some with flowers of gold and silver, on a silk ground; these last are chiefly brought from China. The gauze loom is much like that of a common weaver's, though it has several appendages peculiar to itself.

TABBY: in commerce a kind of coarse taffety, watered. It is manufactured like the common taffety, excepting that it is stronger and BROCADE.--STOCKINGS.-HISTORY OF SILK. thicker both in the woof and warp. The watering is given to it by ineans of a calender ; the rollers are of iron or copper variously engraven, which, bearing unequally on the stuff, render the surface thereof unequal, so as to reflect the rays of light differently. It is usualto tabby moħairs, ribbons, &c. Tabbying is performed without the addition of any water or dye, and furnishes the modern philosophers with a strong proof, that colors are only appearances.

BROCADE, in commerce, a sort of stuff made of cloth, of gold, silver, or silk, raised and enriched with flowers, foliage, or other figures, according to the fancy of the manufacturer. Formerly the term was applied only to cloths woven either wholly of gold, both woof and warp, or of silver, or both together; but by degrees it came likewise to pass for such as had silk intermixed, to fill up and terminate the flowers of gold and silver. At present any stuff or silk, satin, or even simple tapestry, when wrought and enriched with raised flowers, &c. obtains the appellation of brocade.

STOCKINGS. Anciently the only stockings in use were made of cloth, or milled stuffs sewed together; but since the invention of knitting and weaving stockings of silk, wool, and cotton thread, the use of cloth stockings is laid aside. The modern stockings, whether woven or knit, are a kind of plexus, formed of an infinite number of little knots, called stitches, loops, or meshes, intermixed. Knit stockings are wrought with needles made of polished iron, or brass wire, which interweave the threads, and form the meshes of which the stocking consists. This operation is called knitting, the time of the invention of which it is difficult to fix precisely, though it is commonly attributed to the Scots, because the first works of this kind came from Scotland. Woven stockings are manufactured on a frame or machine made of iron, the structure of which is exceedingly ingenious, yet complex. On this account it is not easily described.

HISTORY OF SILK. The silk worm is a native of China. The Seres, who inhabit the northern part of that country, cultivated the precious article. Having been expelled by the Huns, A. D. 93, they settled in Little Bucharia. Silks were first brought from China to Syria and Egypt by traders, who in caravans performed journies of 243 days through the deserts of Asia. The price was far beyond the reach of any but the rich; and for a long time the use of silk among the Romans was confined to women of fortune. The emperor Aurelian refused his queen a garment of silk, by reason of the high price it bore -its weight in gold. In the sixth century, two monks, who had been employed as missionaries in the East, penetrated into the country of the Seres, and observed the labors of the silk worms, and the manner of working their production into elegant fabrics. They imparted the secret to the emperor Justinian, at Constantinople, who induced them, by a great reward, to return and bring away a quantity of the silk worms' eggs. They put the eggs into the hollow of a cane, and brought them safely to Constantinople, about the year 555. The eggs were hatched, and the worms were fed with mulberry leaves ; and the insects produced from this cane full of eggs were the progenitors of all the silk worms of Europe, and the western parts of Asia. The people of the Morea,

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and of the cities of Athens and Thebes enjoyed the profit of the culture and manufacture of silk upwards of 400 years; but in 1146, the king of Sicily made war upon Greece, and carried off a great number of silk weavers, who taught the Sicilians to raise silk worms, and weave silk stuffs. The Saracens introduced the silk manufacture into Spain and Portugal; and subsequently the Italian States, France and England engaged in it.

It will not consist with our limits to enter minutely into the history of the silk business in foreign countries. Much of the silk used in the manufactures of France is raised at home; yet it is stated that that country pays nearly twenty millions of dollars annually for raw silk, raised in other countries.

The art of reeling silk from the cocoons, so as to convert it into a saleable article, is known only in China, in Bengal, in the Turkish dominions, in Italy, and in the south of France. It is not known in Great Britain, where the climate is not suited for that culture. Her manufacturers are obliged to depend upon foreign countries for the raw and thrown or twisted silk, which they use, and of which several millions of pounds are annually imported into that country.

The manufacture of this silk into various fabrics, employs a large capital, and many thousands of men and women. “ I calculate,” said Mr. Wilson, a well informed and extensive silk manufacturer, while under examination before a committee of the House of Lords, “ that 40,000 persons are employed in throwing silk for the weaver, whose wages will, I think, amount to £350,000. I estimate that half a million pounds of soap, and a large proportion of the most costly dyestuffs are consumed, at a further expense of £300,000 ; and 265,000 more are paid to 16,500 winders to prepare it. The number of looms may be taken at 40,000; and including weavers, warpers, mechanics, harness-makers, enterers, twisters, cane-spreaders, quill-winders, and draw boys, at two hands to a loom, will employ 30,000 more persons, and the wages amount to £3,000,000. If we include infants and dependents, about 400,000 mouths will be fed by the silk manufacture, the value of which I estimate at TEN MILLIONS.” Mr. Hale, of Spitalfields, estimates the number of persons supported by the silk manufacture, at 500,000; but Mr. Bell, and some other intelligent gentlemen engaged in the trade, do not carry their estimate so high as Mr. Wilson ; perhaps his, which is the medium, may be regarded as the most



Since the settlement of the United States by the English, several experiments have been made on the subject of raising silk. The cul. ture of it first commenced in Virginia. As early as 1666, the rearing of silk worms was a part of the regular business of many of the far

One man had 70,000 mulberry trees growing in 1664. Georgia sent eight pounds of raw silk to England, in 1735, and 10,000 pounds in 1759. Some attention was paid to the culture of silk in South Carolina, and in 1755, Mrs. Pinckney raised and spun silk enough for three complete dresses. In Pennsylvania and New Jersey, the culture of silk began in 1771, but was suspended by the war of the revolution.

Mulberry trees and silk worms were introduced into the town of Mansfield, in the county of Windham, Conn., about the year 1760 ;



and in 1789, two hundred pounds of raw silk were made in that town. At present, three-fourths of the families in Mansfield are engaged in raising silk, and make annually from five to ten, twenty, and fifty pounds in a family, and one or two have made, each, one hundred pounds in a season. It is believed that there are annually made in that town and the vicinity, from three to four tons of silk.

From the experiments which have already been made, ample evidence exists that the culture of silk may be profitably pursued in the United States to almost any extent, since the mulberry tree grows indigenously throughout the country: and it is a fact well ascertained that American silk is decidedly superior to that of any other country on the globe. In France, twelve pounds of cocoons are required to produce one pound of raw silk, while eight pounds are amply suffi. cient to produce the same quantity in this country.

Were the culture of silk only equal to our home consumption, an immediate attention to it would be a saving to the country of not less than ten millions of dollars annually, as may be seen by the following Statement of the value of silk goods imported and exported in the years

1821 to 1825 inclusive. Years. Imported.

1821 $4,486,924 $1,057,233
1822 6,480,928



1825 10,271,527

2,565,742 $35,156,494 $7,968,011 Yet there cannot be a doubt that a quantity may be annually produced, which shall not only meet the home demand ; but, in a few years, leave a surplus for exportation. The most important step towards this state of things is the extensive cultivation of the white mulberry tree, the leaves of which form the proper aliment of the silk-worm.

MULBERRY TREE. All practical writers agree that the proper soils for the mulberry tree are dry, sandy or stony. Indeed, a soil which is of little value to the farmer, on account of its sterility, will answer well for the mulberry tree. The methods of propagating the tree are various. A writer in the New England Farmer speaks as follows of four methods.

First, From the seed ; 2d from roots ; 3d from layers, and 4th from cuttings. The 1st and 4th can at present be alone generally resorted to in this country. An ounce of good, well cleaned seed, well managed, will probably produce ten or twelve thousand plants. It should be sowed towards the last of April. The ground being properly pre pared, by previous ploughing, or digging, and manuring, is to be cleaned, levelled, and divided into beds of four or five feet in width. Drills from six to ten inches asunder, and from one to two inches deep, must then be made by a line. The seed may be sown in these drills dry, or having been steeped two days in water, rub it on pack thread to which


it will adhere, lay the thread in the bottom of the drill and cover it with earth. In two or three weeks, if kept moist, the young plants will appear. Keep the beds clear of weeds. On the approach of winter it may be well to cover them with leaves. If the seedlings grow the first season to the height of one foot or more, take them up in the spring following, cut the top so as to leave about three inches above ground, cut off the lower part of the root, and set them in nurseries in rows, like other fruit trees, where the following spring they may or may not be grafted, pruned and cultivated, until they become sufficiently large to set in hedges or plantations. Cuttings should be taken from perpendicular shoots, and particularly from those which terminate branches. They should be of the last summer's growth, and from 6 to 15 inches in length. Plant them in shady borders, early in the spring, about two-thirds of their length in the ground ; close the earth well about them, and in dry weather let them be watered. After a year, they may be transplanted in open nursery rows, if well rooted.

Another mode of cultivating the mulberry, and one which has been to some extent adopted in New England is to sow the seed broadcast, like turnips in the spring ; and in the following season to cut the plants with a scythe when wanted. The mowing is regularly prosecuted every morning, in the quantities required, and unless the season is one of severe drouth, the field will be cut twice or thrice before the worms begin to wind up.

The advantages of this last mode are stated to be

1. The leaves are gathered with less labor and expense, being cut and taken together like hay, or grain.

2. The leaves are larger and more tender, than on the grown tree, and the worms eat with more appetite and produce more silk.

3. The time of gathering the supply is so short, that the leaves are got with the morning dew upon them, which is deemed by practical men an essential advantage. Other writers say that the leaves when given to the worms should be thorougly dry.

4. More worms can be supported from a given space of ground, and the mulberries are ready after one season, instead of waiting several years for the formation of an orchard.

The importance of the culture of silk will be our apology for giving at some length, directions for the raising of silk worms, for which we are indebted to a valuable work entitled “ Essays on American Silk, &c. by John D. Homergue.”

EGGS OF SILK WORMS. The eggs of silk worms so strongly resemble the seeds of the poppy, that they may easily be taken for them; and the contrary. In Europe, the latter have sometimes been sold for the former. Pure water, however, is an effectual test; good eggs sinking to the bottom, while poppy seeds and bad eggs will swim. Eggs, which have been washed, should be dried by exposure to cool and dry air. They should be kept in a cool place until the hatching season. Cold does not injure them provided that they do not freeze.

HATCHING THE EGGS. The general rule in Europe is to pat the worms to hatch, as soon as the mulberry trees begin to bad. In this country, this happens usually about the 21st of May. Should the

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