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a pint basin, add to this as much of the crumbs of bread as the water will cover, then place a plate over the basin, and let it remain about ten minutes ; stir the bread about in the water, or, if necessary, chop it a little with the edge of the knife, and drain off the water by holding the knife on the top of the basin; but do not press the bread as is usually done; then
take it out lightly, and spread it about one third of an inch on some soft linen, and lay it upon the part. If the part to which it is applied be a wound, a bit of lint dipped in oil may be placed beneath the poultice. “ This poultice,” says Mr. Abernethy,“ may be made with poppy water, if thought necessary; it may be made with hemlock juice, if recently expressed, which is a very good application to irritable sores ; but there is nothing better, that I know of, than the bread poultice to broken surfaces.”
MUSTARD POULTICE. Take of mustard seed, and linseed, of each, (in powder,) half a pound ; hot vinegar, a sufficient quantity ; mix them to the consistency of a poultice, and the poultice will be fit for
YEAST POULTICE. Take of flour, a pound ; yeast of beer, half a pint; mix, and expose the mixture to a gentle heat, until it begins to swell, when it is fit for use.
SIMPLE OINTMENT. Take olive (sweet) oil, five parts ; white wax, two parts ; melt together. May be used for softening the skin, and healing chaps and excoriations.
Golden OINTMENT. Take of purified quicksilver, an ounce; nitric acid, eleven drops ; lard, six ounces; olive oil, four ounces ; dissolve the mercury in the acid, then mix the hot solution, with the oil and lard melted together. This is an excellent ointment for sore eyes, scald head and most sorts of ulcers. When first used, it should be mixed with an equal quantity of simple ointment.
SULPHUR OINTMENT. Take of hog's lard, four parts; flowers of sulphur, one part; to each pound of this ointment may be added, volatile oil of lemons, or oil of lavender, half a drachm. A certain remedy for the cure of itch. A pound serves for four unctions. The patient should be rubbed four nights in succession, each time one fourth part of the body.
Sir H. HALFORD'S PILE OINTMENT. Take one ounce of golden ointment, and the same quantity of almond oil ; mix them carefully in a mortar. Apply this ointment to the part affected once or twice daily.
YELLOW BASILICOM OINTMENT. Take of yellow wax, white resin, and frankincence, of each one quarter of a pound; mix, and melt over a gentle fire, then add lard, one pound: strain the ointment while warm. This ointment is the best dressing for all heathy ulcers.
SIMPLE SIROP. Take of double refined sugar, fifteen parts ; water, eight parts. Let the sugar be dissolved by a gentle heat, and boiled a little, so as to form a sirup.
Sirup OF GINGER. Take of best ginger, three ounces; boiling water, four pounds; double refined sugar, seven and a half pounds ; steep the ginger in the water, in a close vessel, for twenty-four hours, then
to the strained liquor add the best sugar, so as to make a sirup. This is an agreeable and inoderately aromatic sirup; impregnated with the flavor and the virtues of the ginger.
SIRUP OF LEMONS. Take of juice of lemons, suffered to stand till the sediment falls, then strain off the liquor, three parts; double refined sugar, five parts; dissolve the sugar in the juice till it forms a sirup. In the same way, are prepared sirup of mulberry juice ; sirup of raspberry juice, and sirup of black currant juice. All these are pleasant cooling sirups; quenching thirst ; and may be used in gargles for sore mouths.
VOLATILE LINIMENT. Take spirit of hartshorn, one part; sweet oil, or fresh butter, two parts; mix, and shake in a viol. Sometimes a lit. tle landanum or camphor is added.
LINIMENT OF OIL AND LIME. Take of linseed oil, lime water, of each equal parts; mix them. This liniment is extremely useful in burns and scalds ; efficacious in preventing inflammation after such accidents.
CAMPHORATED Oil. Take of olive oil, two ounces; camphor, half an ounce; dissolve the camphor in the oil. Good, applied to local pains; to glandular swellings, and to the bowels in tympany.
OPODELDOC. Take of the best hard soap, two ounces ; camphor, one ounce; very strong spirit, one pint: mix the soap with the spirit, and let them stand in a moderate heat, until the soap is dissolved, occasionally shaking the vial; then add the camphor, and continue to shake the vessel frequently until the whole is dissolved. Useful in sprains, bruises, and in rheumatic pains. Good to disperse swellings, tumors and the like.
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COTTON. The rearing of cotton, and the manufacture of it into various fabrics, have of late years become objects of so much attention, in several parts of the world, that we shall devote the greater space to a notice of these two subjects, than our limits would otherwise seem to justify.
The plant which produces cotton is cultivated in the East and West Indies, in North and South America, of which it is a native, and in Egypt, and other parts of the world. It is an annual plant, propagated from seeds. It grows to a considerable height, and has leaves of a bright green color marked with brownish veins, and each divided into five lobes. The pods which contain the cotton, are triangular in shape, and have each three cells. These, on becoming ripe, burst, and disclose their
snow white contents. The cotton which is cultivated in the southern parts of the United States is of three kinds—the nankeen cotton, so called from its color; the green seed cotton, producing white cotton, and green seeds; and the black seed cotton. The two first kinds are cultivated in the middle and upper country, where they go by the name of short staple cotton; the last is raised in the lower country near the sea, and on the islands adjacent to the continent. This is denominated sea island cotton; it is stronger, finer, and longer than the short staple cotton, and bears a higher price in market.
The manner of raising cotton, upon which it will be proper to make a few observations, is as follows:
If the land has been recently cleared, or has long remained fallow, turn it up deep in winter; and in the first week in March, bed it up in the following manner. Form 25 beds in 105 square feet of land, (being the space allotted to each able laborer for a day's work); this leaves about four feet two and one-half inches from the centre of one bed to the centre of the next. The beds should be three feet wide, and flat in the middle. About the 15th of March, in the latitude of from 290 to 30°, the cultivator should commence sowing, or as it is generally termed planting. The seed should be well scattered in open trenches, made in the centre of the beds and covered; the proportion of seed is one bushel to an acre; this allows for accidents occasioned by worms, or night chills. The cotton should be well weeded by hoes once every twelve days, until blown, and even longer, if there is grass,
observing to hoe up, that is, to the cotton, till it pods; and hoe down, when the cotton is blown, in order to check the growth of the plant. From the proportion of seed mentioned, the cotton plants will come up plentifully, too much so, to suffer all to remain. They should be thinned moderately at each hoeing: When the plants have got strength and growth, which may be about the third hoeing, to disregard worms, and bear drought, they should be thinned according to the fertility of the soil, from six inches to near two feet between the stocks or plants. In rich river grounds, the beds should be from five to six feet apart, measuring from centre to centre ; and the cotton plants, when out of the way of wornis, from two to three feet apart. It is adviseable to top cotton once or twice in rich luw grounds, and also to remove the suckers. The latter end of July is generally considered a proper time for topping.
The month of August in South Carolina and Georgia, is the season for commencing the business of picking cotton.
The quantity of black seed cotton produced on an acre of Georgia sea island, is about 200lbs.; in Carolina, from 130 to 150lbs.; an acre of upland will commonly produce 300lbs. of green seed cotton.
'The preparation of the ground for cotton is almost entirely effected by the hoe. The plough is scarcely used.
For many years the separation of the seeds was a work of great labor. But this is now much diminished by means of gins, of which there are two kinds—the roller-gin and the saw-gin.
The first of these gins consists of two small cylinders, which revolve so closely, that while the cotton passes through, the seeds are prevented.
The second kind, or saw-gin, was the invention of Mr. Whitney of New Haven, Connecticut, and is one of the most important labor saring machines ever introduced into the country. It is used in disengaging the seeds of the black seeded cotton, which adhere too strongly to be separated by the roller-gin. This machine consists of a receiver, one side of which is covered with strong parallel wires, about an eighth of an inch apart. Between these wires pass a number of circular saws, revolving on a common axis. In the revolutions of these saws, the cotton becomes entangled, and is drawn through the grating, while the seeds are, from their size, denied a passage.
The earliest seat of the manufacture of cotton was Hindoostan, where it is still carried on, as at the first, by hand labor. But by means of the inventions of Hargreaves and Arkwright, between the years of 1763 and 1780, the manufacture of cotton has so far outstripped that of the East, that the countries of the latter are now receiving the products of British manufactories at a cheaper rate than they can manufacture for themselves. Cotton fabrics are also beginning to be exportod from the United States to the East to advantage.
Next to the facilities for preparing cotton for the loom, which have arrived to an astonishing degree of perfection, nothing has contributed to extend the manufacture more than the invention of the power-loom, by which the laborious process of weaving is converted into the mere superintendence of two and sometimes three of these machines, each
one of which is capable of producing from thirty to forty yards of cloth per day. Added to this, is the discovery of a process for transferring in the manufacture of calicoes, the most delicate patterns from copper cylinders, instead of from wooden blocks; by means of which the labor and expense are surprisingly diminished.
We shall next speak of the process observed in the manufacturing of cotton into cloth, which we abridge from the Encyclopedia Ameri
“ After the cotton has been ginned and picked or batted, the first operation of the manufacturing, is carding. The carding engine consists of a revolving cylinder covered with cards, which is nearly surrounded by a fixed concave framing, also lined with cards, with which the cylinder comes in contact. From this cylinder, called the breaker, the cotton is taken off by a comb called the doffing-plate, and passes through a second carding in the finishing cylinder. It is then passed through a kind of funnel, by which it is contracted into a narrow band or sliver, and received into tin cans, in a state of uniform, continued carding. The next step in the process, is called drawing the cotton. This is effected by the drawing-frame, which in principle is similar to the spironing.frame. Roving the cotton, which is the next part of the process, gives a slight twist, which converts it into a soft and loose thread, called the roving. The machine for performing this operation is called the roving-frame, or double-speeder. In order to wind the roving upon the bobbins of the spindles, in even, cylindrical layers, the spindle rail is made to rise and fall slowly by means of heart-wheels in the interior of the machine. And as the size of the bobbins is augmented by each layer, the velocity of the spindles and of the spindle-rail is made to diminish gradually, from the beginning to the end of the operation. This is effected by transmitting the motion to both, through two opposite cones, one of which drives the other with a band, which is made to pass slowly from one end to the other of the cones, and thus continually to alter their relative speed, and cause a uniform retardation of the velocity. The bobbins are now transferred to the spinning frame. The twist is given to the thread when drawn out by flyers driven by bands, which receive their motion from a horizontal fly-wheel. The yarn produced by this mode of operation is called waler twist, from the circumstance that the machinery from which it is obtained was at first generally put in motion by water. In 1775 the mule-jenny or mule was invented by Samuel Crompton of Bolton. The spindles are mounted on a moveable carriage, which recedes when the threads are stretched, and return when they are to be wound up. By means of this machine the size and twist of the thread become uniform throughout.”
The following process of a pound of cotton may not be uninteresting to our readers. It appeared originally in the English Monthly Magazine. “ There was sent to London lately, from Paisley, a small piece of muslin, about one pound weight, the history of which is as follows. The wool came from the East Indies to London; from London it went to Manchester where it was manufactured into yarn; from Manchester, it was sent to Paisley, where it was woven. It was sent to Ayrshire next, where it was tamboured; it was then conveyed to Dunbarton, where it was hand-sewed, and again returned to Paisley, whence it