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bladders filled with lukewarm water should be applied to different parts of the body, particularly to the pit of the stomach ; or a warming-pan wrapped in flannel gently moved along the spine; or aromatic fomentations frequently and cautiously repeated.
8. As the breathing of many persons in an apartment would render the air nephitic, and thus retard, or even prevent the restoration of life, not more than five or six assistants should be suffered to remain in the room where the body is deposited.
STIMULANTS GENERALLY EMPLOYED. 1. Moderate friction with soft warm flannel at the beginning, and gradually increased by means of brushes dipped in oil till pulsations of the heart are perceptible.
2. Inflation of the lungs, which may be more conveniently effected by blowing into one of the nostrils, than by introducing air into the mouth. For the former purpose, it is necessary to be provided with a wooden pipe, fitted at one extremity for filling the nostril, and at the other for being blown into by a healthy person's mouth, or for receive ing the muzzle of a pair of common bellows, by which the operation may be longer continued. At first, however, it will always be more proper to introduce the warm breath from the lungs of a living person, than to commence with cold atmospheric air. During this operation, the other nostril and the mouth should be closed by an assistant, while a third person gently presses the chest with his hands as soon as the lungs are observed to be inflated.
3. Stimulating clysters, consisting of warm water and common salt, or a strong solution of tartar emetic, or decoctions of aromatic herbs, or six ounces of brandy should be speedily administered. We do not consider injections of the smoke of tobacco, or even clysters of that narcotic plant, in all instances safe or proper.
4. Let the body be gently rubbed with common salt, or with fiannels dipped in spirits ; the pit of the stomach fomented with hot brandy, the temples stimulated with spirits of hartshorn, and the nostrils occasionally tickled with a feather.
5. Persons of a very robust frame, and whose skin after being dried assumes a rigid and contracted surface, may be put into a sub-tepid bath, of about 65° which must be gradually raised to 75o or 80° of Fahrenheit's scale, according to circumstances; or the body carried to a brewhouse, and covered with warın grains for three or four hours ; but these expedients generally require medical assistance.
6. Violent shaking and agitation of the body by the legs and arms, though strongly recommended, and supposed to have often forwarded the recovery of children and boys, apears to us a doubtful remedy, which can be practised only in certain cases.
7. Sprinkling the naked body of a drowned person with cold water; submitting it to the operation of a shower-bath, or the sudden shocks of the electric fluid ; as well as whipping it with nettles, administering emetics, and blood-letting, are desperate expedients, which should be resorted to only after the more lenient means have been unsuccessfully employed.
It is, however, a vulgar and dangerous error to suppose that persons apparently dead by immersion under water are irrecoverable, because
life does not soon re-appear; hence we seriously entreat those who are thus employed in the service of humanity to persevere for three or four hours at least in the application of the most appropriate remedies above described ; for there are many instances recorded of patients who recovered after they had been relinquished by all their medical and other assistants.
TREATMENT ON THE RETURN OF LIFE. As soon as the first symptoms of that happy change become discernible, additional care must be taken to cherish the vital action by the most soothing means. All violent proceedings should, therefore, be immediately abandoned, no farther stimulants applied, nor even the ears of the patient be annoyed by loud speaking, shouting, &c. At that important crisis, moderate friction only is requisite. And, if the reviving person happen to be in the bath, he may either remain there, provided his sensations be easy and agreeable, or be removed to a comfortable bed, after being expeditiously dried with warm flannels : fomentations of aromatic plants may then be applied to the pit of the stomach ; bladders filled with warm water, placed to the left side ; the soles of the feet rubbed with salt; the mouth cleared of froth and mucus, and a little white wine, or a solution of salt in water, dropped on the tongue. But all strong stimulants, such as powerful electric shocks, strong odors of volatile salts, &c. are at this period particularly injurious. Lastly, the patient after resuscitation, ought to be for a short interval resigned to the efforts of Nature, and left in a composed and quiescent state : as soon as he is able to swallow, without compulsion or persuasion, warm wine, or tea, with a few drops of vinegar, instead of milk, or gruel, warm beer, and the like, should be given in small quantities frequently repeated.
CHOKING. As soon as any person is observed to be choked, and more particularly children, the obstructing body should be felt for with a finger at the top of the throat; it is possible many times to remove it directly, and should we fail in this, the pul excited by the finger frequently removes the offending body.
Food, and foreign substances are sometimes lodged in the top of the wind-pipe and produce immediate suffocation; help in this case must be afforded at the moment, by introducing the finger. Sometimes, however, a bunch of thread with several small nooses, secured upon the end of a piece of whalebone, will frequently be serviceable, in removing sharp pointed bodies, as fishbones, needles, &c. Should this fail, a piece of sponge may be fastened to the whalebone, and passed into the stomach, and when it becomes enlarged by moisture, it most frequently brings away any foreign substance which may be present; the enlargement of the sponge may be forwarded by the patient swallowing a little water. Vomiting will sometimes succeed ; though this should not be attempted when the substance is sharp and pointed.
Unless the offending body can be seen, any apparatus is unsafe except in the hands of an experienced surgeon.
Presence of mind will enable any person to do much, in all cases of casualty, and particularly in this, and the directions above, are sufficient. The finger, and the vomiting it is sure to produce, will do much more at the instant than is commonly thought.
LIGHTNING. Persons apparently dead from lightning may be frequently restored by proper means. Sprinkling or affusion of cold water, and in general the means laid down for aerial poisons, are to be persevered in. A rigidity of the limbs usually attends persons recovering from a stroke of lightning ; sprinkling, and rubbing the parts with cold water should often be used.
The means to be used for the recovering of persons suddenly deprived of life, are nearly the same in all cases. They are practicable by every one who happens to be present at the accident, and require no great expense, and less skill.
The great aim is to preserve or restore the vital warmth and motion. This may in general be attempted by heat, frictions, blowing air into the lungs, administering clysters, cordials, &c. These must be varied according to circumstances. Common sense and the situation of the patient, will suggest the means of relief. Above all we would recommend perseverance. Much good may, and no harm can result ; who would grudge pains in such a case ?
Every family should know something about the weights and measures which are used by apothecaries, and the signs by which they are denoted.
It contains twelve ounces,
three scruples, scruple
twenty grains. - grain gr The grain weights are stamped with punch marks, indicative of the number of grains each is equivalent to.
MEASURE OF FLUIDS.
cong. contains eight pints.
eight fluid drachms. fluid drachm f3
sixty minims. minim or drop til A table spoonful is supposed to be equal to half an ounce, or four drachmsyet many of the modern spoons will contain five drachms. A tea spoonful will equal sixty or seventy drops. A drop will contain a quantity proportioned to the size of the mouth of the vial from which it falls. A common ounce vial should be a medium size.
Where the dose furnished for an adult is a certain quantity, the proper dose for a person of fourteen years will be two thirds of that
FAMILY DISPENSATORY. quantity-for seven years, one half-for five years, one third-for three years, one fourth-for twenty-eight months, one fifth--for fourteen months, one eighth-for seven months, one twelfth—for two months, one fifteenth-for one month, one twentieth--under, one twenty-fourth.
It is recommended that laudanum, antimonial wine, and other active fluids, should not be given to young children after there is a cloud in them, as the strength is then uncertain. In such cases, the substance having fallen to the bottom, the top of the Auid is weaker, and the bottom stronger.
LAXATIVE Pills. Take of powder of cinnamon, 10 grains ; socotorine aloes in fine powder, and castile soap, of each one drachm. Beat them together in a stone or iron mortar, adding one or two drops of sirup or molasses. Make into 32 pills. Dose for grown persons, two at bed time.
PILLS OF ALOES AND FETIDA. Take socotorine aloes, assafætida, and soap, equal parts. Pill with gum arabic. These pills are good in indigestion, attended with costiveness, and wind in the stomach and bowels.
Hull's Colic Pills. Take cinnamon, cloves, mace, myrrh, saffron, ginger, castile soap, of each one drachm, socotorine aloes one ounce, essence of peppermint sufficient to moisten it. Make common sized pills, and take them till they operate.
PURGING PILLS. Take rhubarb one part, cream tartar three parts, grind together, and take a tea-spoonful in molasses occasionally to prevent costiveness.
Sir H. HALFORD'S APERIENT Pills. Take of blue pill, twenty grains; compound extract of colocynth, half a drachm : mix and divide into twelve pills. One or two to be taken for a dose every second or third night.
STRENGTHENING PILLS. Take of subcarbonate of iron, two drachms; ipecacuanha, in powder, one scruple ; extract of gentian, two scruples; socotorine aloes, powdered, eight grains ; simple sirup or mucilage, enough to form a mass ; divide into forty pills. Take two or three twice or thrice a day.
To Excite PERSPIRATION., Take of opium, six grains ; camphor, twelve grains ; James' powder, twelve grains ; conserve enough to form into twelve pills. One to be taken at bed time, occasionally.
ADHESIVE Plaster. Take of yellow resin, half a pound ; lead plaster, three pounds; melt the lead plaster by a gentle heat, then add the resin in powder, and mix. This is the plaster commonly applied to cuts, and to hold together the edges of recent wounds.
ANODYNE PLASTER. Take of hard opium, powdered, half an ounce ; resin of spruce fir, powdered, three ounces; lead plaster, a pound, melt the plaster and resin together, and then add the opium and mix.
STRENGTHENING Plaster. Take of litharge plaster, four ounces ; white resin, one ounce ; yellow wax, olive oil, of each half an ounce :
rub the iron with the oil, and adding the other ingredients, mix the whole.
Picra. Socotorine aloes, one pound; white canella, three ounces; separately powdered and then mixed. Good purgative. Dose between a scruple and a drachm. May be taken in sirup or molasses.
SWEATING POWDER, OR Doyer's POWDER. Ipecac in powder ; opium, (dry,) of each one part; sulphate of potash, eight parts; grind them together to a fine powder. Dose from five to twenty grains, as the stomach and strength will bear it; lessen the dose if it threatens to puke. This is a powerful sweating remedy in fevers, rheumatisms, and dropsy, excellent in colds and suppressed respiration. In general, this is the best opiate, as the Ipecac lessens the danger of a habitual use of opium-a thing to be avoided next to habits of intoxication.
Elixir PROPRIETATUS, Elix. PRO., Or TincturE OF MYRRH AND Aloes. Take of myrrh in powder, two ounces ; alcohol, one pound and a half; water, half a pound; mix the alcohol with the water and add the myrrh. Steep four days, and then add, socotorine aloes, an ounce and a half; saffron, an ounce. Steep three days, and pour off the clear liquor from the sediment. Laxative and stomachic.
TINCTURE OF Bark, OR HUXHAM'S TINCTURE. Take of Peruvian bark in powder, two ounces ; orange peel dried, half an ounce ; Virginia snake root bruised, three drachms ; saffron, one drachm; proof spirits (rum,) two pounds; steep fourteen days and strain. Good preparation of the bark taken as a bitter, a tea-spoonful to a glass of wine before eating; useful in low fevers.
TINCTURE or Guaiac. Take of gum guaiac, one pound; alcohol, two pounds and a half; steep for seven days, and strain. A powerful sweating remedy in rheumatism and old gouty affections. Dose, a teaspoonful in spirit.
LAUDANUM. Take of opium, two ounces; diluted alcohol, two pounds ; digest seven days. This is an elegant opiate, but separates by keeping
ELIXIR ASTHMATIC. Take liquorice root, (pounded pretty fine,) one pound ; common honey, one pound; Benzoic acid, or flowers, half an ounce ; gum opium (good,) half an ounce ; gum camphor, a third of an ounce; oil of annise, two drachms ; common pearlash, half an ounce ; best old spirits, eight pints. To the liquorice pounded pretty fine, add the other ingredients, taking care to pulverize the opium. When prepared, it should be kept in a warm place ten or twelve days, and decanted clear. The remaining liquor must be squeezed from the roots and filtered through a piece of unsized paper.
LINSEED MEAL PoulticE. Scald your basin by pouring a little hot water into it ; then put a small quantity of finely ground linseed meal into the basin, pour a little hot water on it, and stir it round briskly, until you have well incorporated it ; add a little more meal and a little more water, then stir it again. Do not let any lumps remain in the basin, but stir the poultice well, and do not be sparing of your trouble.
BREAD AND Water POULTICE. Put half a pint of hot water into