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OF GOVERNMENT. p. 201-217.

Origin and History of Government; Of the different Forms of Government ;
Synopsis of the Constitution of Maine ; New Hampshire ; Massachusetts ; Ver.
mont; Connecticut; Rhode Island; New York ; New Jersey; Pennsylvania ;
Delaware ; Maryland ; Virginia ; North Carolina ; South Carolina ; Georgia;
Alabama ; Louisiana ; Mississippi ; Tennessee ; Kentucky; Ohio ; Illinois ; In.
diana ; Missouri ; United States.

FAMILY ENCYCLOPEDIA ;

OR

COMPENDIUM OF UNIVERSAL KNOWLEDGE.

PART I.-MAN.

A knowledge of the various objects of nature and art is doubtless worthy the attainment of every one. An acquaintance with these objects contributes to enlarge the mind-to gratify a rational curiosityto excite admiring views of the Great Author of all things, and to prepare for a wider sphere of usefulness. Yet, it cannot be denied, that a knowledge of oneself is of higher importance still. Without self-knowledge, man must be ignorant of the true dignity of his nature, and lost to just views of the Divine wisdom and goodness, displayed in his composition.

Man, it has been well observed, is a compound existence, made up of two great parts; the Body, and the Mind, or Soul. The body was formed of the dust ; but it is a frame of a most wonderful nature. The parts of which it is composed—their number--their various uses-dependencies and operations,—the arrangement, by which they are formed into a system—the faculties attached to it, of seeing, hearing, smelling, tasting, and feeling—its capacity of pleasure and pain--the warnings which it is fitted to give of approaching or commencing evil-and the power which it so variously possesses of self restoration, are all wonderful, mysterious, and strongly declaratory of the skill, and benevolence of the Creator.

But the Mind or Soul is of a still more wonderful nature. It is this, which emphatically gives man his pre-eininence over other beings, by which he is surrounded; and entitles him to be considered as “the lord of the creation.” To the faculties of the body there is a limit; but to the immortal mind God has never said, “ Thus far shalt thou go, but no further.” Much as man knows, in any stage of his progress, he may know still more ; and may become still more exalted and lovely. Not confined to the present system, as are other animals, he is destined to an existence, which, in point of duration, will run parallel with that of his Maker.

NATURAL HISTORY, STRUCTURE. It will, therefore, naturally belong to the first part of our work, to take a view of man, considered as to his animal and intellectual nature.

SECTION I.

NATURAL HISTORY, STRUCTURE, &c.

VARIETIES.—The human family is divided into different nations, which are scattered abroad upon the face of the earth, and exhibit several varieties of form and color. These divisions are five in number :The European, or while race the Tarlar, or Mongulthe Malay -the African, or Negro race—and the Americ in, or Copper-colored race.

1st. The European race is distinguished by the elegance of its form, and by a forehead more or less broad and prominent; indicative of a considerable portion of brain, in the front part of the skull; the skin is, however fairer; the hair and eyes lighter in color, in the more temperate climates, than towards the south. This race includes all the inhabitants of Europe, (except the Laplanders and Finns) and the descendants of Europeans in America, and other portions of the world. It also embraces the inhabitants of the western temperate parts of Asia, as far as the river Oby, the Caspian Sea, and the Ganges, and those of the northern parts of Africa, viz. the people of Barbary, Egypt, and Abyssinia, and the Moors of Northern Africa.

2d. The Tarlar or Mongul race, is characterized by a yellow skin; straight black hair ; square heads; large and flat face; small and flat nose ; round and prominent cheeks; and pointed chin. This variety includes all the nations in Asia, east of the Oby, Caspian, and Ganges, excepting Malacca. It embraces, also, the tribes which inhabit the frigid zones in both the eastern and western continents, including th Laplanders, Samoiedes, Ostiacs, Tunguses, Yakuts, Tschutskis, and Kamschadales of Siberia, and the Esquimaux and Greenlanders.

3d. The Malay, comprehends the inhabitants of the peninsula of Malacca, Ceylon, the Asiatic Islands, New Zealand, and Polynesia, with the exception of New Holland, New Guinea, New Caledonia, and Van Dieman's land. This variety is characterized by a tawny color ; black curled hair, which is soft, thick, and abundant ; a prominent forehead ; thick, wide, and flattened nose ; and moderately projecting upper jaws.

4th. The African or Negro variety, is spread over western and southern Africa. It is found, also, upon the coasts of Madagascar, and occupies New Holland, Van Dieman's Land, New Caledonia, and New Guinea. This variety is characterized by a black color ; black and woolly hair; thick lips ; projecting cheek bones ; large and flat nose ; raised chin; retreating forehead ; and crooked legs.

5th. The American or copper-colored race, includes all the aboriginal inhabitants of both the Americas, except the Esquimaux and Greenlanders. This race is of a copper color, resembling that of rusty iron, or cinnamon; coarse, straight black hair ; high cheek bones; and

INTELLECTUAL CAPACITY.

sunken eyes. The forehead is usually short; the nose and the whole countenance broad; the nòstrils open ; and the lips thick. The beard is thin and scanty. Of the Indians it has been affirmed, that they are destitute of beards ; but this only occurs, when the beard has been eradicated, at the expense of much industry, and suffering.

INTELLECTUAL CAPACITY.–Of all the varieties of mankind, there can be no doubt that the white man exbibits the greatest marks of ingenuity and intelligence; and of this variety, the most intelligent will be found to be those who reside in temperate climates. Portions of the Mongul race exhibit also considerable ingenuity, evinced particularly in the Hindoo and the Chinese ; but the range of intellect of this portion of our race is nevertheless comparatively circumscribed. The third, or Nalay race, exhibits no small variety of intellectual endowment. While none of the tribes, which belong to this race, equal the Chinese and some others of the Mongul race, few, perhaps are so sunken as some portions of the Negro race. This last race exhibits much animal power, yet it is far beneath the white man in intellectual capacity ; we see the Negro in the Hottentot at its lowest grade. The copper-colored man, we may be certain, is also far beneath the European in his intel. lectual capacity, although he is not deficient in many fine traits of character.

DIFFERENCE OF STATURE, FORM, AND COMPLEXION. Three causes, a writer remarks, may be regarded as concurring in the production of those varieties which we find attached to the different nations of the globe. First, the influence of the climate ; second, food, which has a dependance on climate ; and third, manners, on which climate has, perhaps, a still greater influence.

The heat of the climate is the chief cause of blackness among the human species. When this heat is excessive, as in Guinea, we find the people are perfectly black; when a little less severe, the blackness is not so deep ; when it becomes nearly temperate, as in Barbary, the Mogul empire, and Arabia, the men are only brown; and when it is altogether temperate, as in many parts of Europe, Asia, and America, the men are white. Some varieties are, indeed, produced by the mode of living; all the Tartars, for example, are tawny, while Europeans, who live under the same latitude, are white. This difference may safely be ascribed to the Tartars being always exposed to the open to their having no cities and fixed habitations ; to their sleeping constantly on the ground; and to their rough and savage manner of living. These circumstances, are sufficient, at least, to render the Tartars more swarthy than the Europeans, who want nothing to make life easy and agreeable.—Why are the Chinese fairer than the Tartars, though they resemble them in every feature? Because they are more polished, live in towns, and practise every art to guard themselves against the injuries of the weather; while the Tartars are perpetually exposed to the action of the sun and air.

When the cold becomes extreme, it appears to produce effects similar to those of great heat. The Samoiedes, the Laplanders, and the natives of Greenland are tawny. Here the two extrenies approach each other; great heat and great cold produce similar effects on the skin, because each of these causes acts by a quality common to both--the dryness of

air ; ORIGIN OF NORTH AMERICAN INDIANS.

the air, perhaps, is equally great in extreme cold, as in extreme heat. Both cold and heat dry the skin, and give it that tawny hue which we find in so many different nations. Cold contracts all the productions of nature; the Laplanders, accordingly, who are perpetually exposed to the rigors of the frost, are the smallest of the human species.

The most temperate climates produce the most handsome people, and from this climate, the ideas of the genuine color of mankind, and of the various degrees of beauty ought to be derived.

Although the climate may be regarded as the chief cause of the different colors of men, yet food greatly affects the form of our bodies ; that which is unwholesome and ill prepared, makes the human species degenerate. All those people who live miserably, are ugly and ill made. The air and soil have considerable influence upon the figure of men, beasts, and plants. In the same province, the inhabitants of the elevated and hilly parts, are more active, nimble, handsome, and ingenious, than those who live in plains, where the air is thick and less pure.

Every circumstance concurs in proving that mankind are not composed of species essentially different from each other; that on the contrary, there was originally but one species ; who, after multiplying and spreading over the whole surface of the earth, have undergone various changes by the influence of climate, food, mode of living, epidemic diseases, and the mixture of dissimilar individuals ; that, at first these changes were not so conspicuous, and produced only individual varieties, which afterwards became specific, because they were rendered more general, more strongly marked, and more permanent, by the continual action of the same causes ; and that they have been transmitted from generation to generation, as deformities or diseases pass from parents to children.

ORIGIN OF NORTH AMERICAN INDIANS.—This is a subject which has justly attracted the attention of philosophers, and produced many interesting researches. It would obviously be impossible, within our narrow limits, to give our readers any correct idea of the various theories which have been adopted, to account for the peopling of America by the Indians. The received opinion, we believe, and that which seems to be supported by facts is, that the aborigines of America emigrated to America from the continent of Asia.

The principal objections which have been urged against this doctrine, so far as we know, are, the two following ; 1st, that many thousand years must have elapsed subsequent to the creation, before the population of the old world could have been sufficiently numerous, to extend to its remote borders, and thence attain the American conitnent. Besides, it is thought to reflect upon the wisdom of the Deity, to permit so large a part of the globe to remain during “ so long a time" unpeopled.

The second objection is drawn from the number of different languages spoken in North and South America, which Mr. Jefferson and others have thought incompatible with the idea of so-recent an arrival on this continent, as even three or four thousand years.

In respect to the first objection, it were sufficient to reply, that it assumes a position which needs itself to be proved, and can therefore ner

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