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Will, in the first person, as I will walk, we will walk, expresses the intention or resolution of the person, along with the future event: In the second and third person, as, you will, he will, they will, it expresses the future action or event, without comprehending or excluding the volition.

Shall, in the first person, whether singular or plural, expressess the future action or event, without excluding or comprehending the intention or resolution : But in the second or third person, it marks a necessity, and commonly a necessity proceeding from the person who speaks; as, he shall walk, you shall repent it.

These variations seem to have proceeded from a politeness in the English, who, in speaking to others, or of others, made use of the term will, which implies volition, even where the event may be the subject of necessity and constraint. And in speaking of themselves, made use of the term shall, which implies constraint, even though the event may be the object of choice.

Word and shou'd are conjunctive moods, subject to the same rule; only, we may observe, that in a sentence, where there is a condition exprest, and a consequence of that condition, the former always requires shou’d, and the latter wou'd, in the second and third persons; as, if he shou'd fall, he wou'd break his leg, &c.

These is the plural of this ; those of that. The former, therefore, expresses what is near: the latter, what is more remote. As, in these lines of the Duke of Buckingham,

“ Philosophers and poets vainly strove,
In every age, the lumpish mass to move.
“ But those were pedants if compared with THESE,

“ Who knew not only to instruct, but please.” Where a relative is to follow, and the subject has not been mentioned immediately before, those is always required. Those observations which he made. Those kingdoms which Alexander conquered.

In the verbs, which end in t, or te, we frequently omit ed in the preterperfect and in the participle; as, he operate, it was cultivate. Milton says, in thought more elevate ; but he is the only author who uses that expression.

Notice shou'd not be used as a verb. The proper phrase is take notice. Yet I find Lord Shaftesbury uses notic'd, the participle : And unnotic'd is very common.

Hinder to do, is Scotch. The English phrase is, hinder from doing. Yet Milton says, Hindered not Satan to pervert the mind. Book IX.



Conform to
Friends and acquaintances
Advert to
Proven, improven, approven

Conformable to
Friends and acquaintance
Attend to
Prov'd, improv'd, approv'd


ENGLISH Tear to pieces

Tear in pieces Drunk, run

Drank, ran Fresh weather

Open weather Tender

Sickly In the long run

At long run Notwithstanding of that Notwithstanding that Contented himself to do Contented himself with doing 'Tis a question if

"Tis a question whether Discretion

Civility With child to a man

With child by a man Out of hand

Presently Simply impossible

Absolutely impossible A park

An enclosure In time coming

In time to come Nothing else

No other thing Mind it

Remember it Denuded

Divested Severals

Several Some better

Something better Anent

With regard to Allenarly

Solely Alongst.

Yet the English say both amid, amidst, a. Along

mong, and amongst Evenly

Even As I shall answer

I protest or declare Cause him do it. Yet 'tis

good English to say, make Cause him to do it

him do it Marry upon

Marty to Learn

Teach There, where

Thither, whither Effectuate. This word in Eng. Effect

lish means to effect with pains and difficulty.

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