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οπότ' αιθρία καθαρών ποιήσει τον αέρα, ακτίνες δε τότ' εις την γήν, πάσαι διαπερώσει, τούτον ποιμένες με χαράν, και θαυμασμόν ορώσι, ως τάξις θείων γυναικών έλαμπε, μέγα θαύμα, ουδέν διενοούντ' αυται, ή θάνατον, ή τραύμα. ήδη χ' η ροδοδάκτυλος 'Ηως 'ς αέρ' εφάνη, είς αθανάτους και θνητούς, το φώς ένα σημάνη, και τότε δύο φάλαγγες Ελλήνων, χ’ Ελληνίδων έστράτευσαν, μαχίμων δε, Ηρώων και Ηρωίδων: των μεν ήρχεν ο Βόζαρης, των δε Χάϊδω ηγείτο, παιάνα τ' ηδον, κ' εις αυτόν "Ηρως πάς τις υμνείτο: ως δε πλησίον των εχθρών ούτω ταγμένοι ήλθον, πρώτον μεν τα τουφέκια των άναψαν: είτα δ' είλον το ξίφος εις την δεξιάν, συντρίψαντες την θήκην, κ' ουδέν άλλο στοχάζοντο, πλήν θάνατον ή νίκην ως ότ' εις ποίμνιον αρνειών, πεπεινασμένος Λέων ορμήση, και ουδέ ποιμήν να εμποδίση πλέον αυτόν ισχύει, αφόβως δε αρπάζει, και ξεσχίζει, τα δε λοίπ’, όσα μείνουσι, πάντα διασκορπίζει, ούτω Σουλιωτικός στρατός σκορπίζει, φθείρει, σφάζει βαρβάρων πλήθος άπειρον, είτα δε παν αρπάζει το Τουρκικός στρατόπεδον, περί μέσην ημέραν,
τρόπαιον δ' είτα έστησαν της νίκης, προς εσπέραν Of the “ Pæan,” we like the following stanzas best. Παίδες Ελλήνων, ώ υιοί αθανάτων πατέρων,
έμβλέψατε τριγύρω σας, ίδετε πως τα πάντα, πράξεις προγόνων ου θνητών, αλλά τι θειοτέρων,
κ' εύψυχα πάνυ, κ' ευτυχή σας δείχνουσι συμβάντα. * Εκαστον όρος, και κοιλάς έργ’ ένδοξ’ υπομνήσκουν,
μαθήματα δε ποταμός τιμής, πας τις παρέχει, αι θερμοπύλαι λέγουσι πως "Ηρωες 'ποθνήσκουν,
την δόξαν δε ο Μαραθων, των Νικητών πάντ' έχει. Πόλεμος, θόρυβος, βοαι, και μάχαι ανδροφόνοι,
αίμα καταχυνόμενον, και αι των μαχομένων φωναι οξείαι, και δειναι, και’ αγριώτατοι πόνοι,
οι των θνησκόντων βογγισμοί, τραύματα σφαζομένων, Αυτά, ναι, καίτοι φοβερά, εις γην την των Ηρώων,
ήσαν πολύ τιμιώτερα, μετά 'Ελευθερίας, ή ειρήνης και απόλαυσις, και αγαθών αθρόων,
μετά ζυγού τυραννικού, και αισχροτάτης δουλείας.
Ελλάς εγείρου, τείναξον ζυγόν πολλών αιώνων,
αφ' ύπνου σου δε του μακρού εξύπνησον, και ρήξον αισχράς αλύσεις, χ’ ώρμησον κατά των μιαιφόνων
βαρβάρων, και ότ' αδάμαστος συ πάντα είσαι δείξον. Τι έστι βίος και άλλο ουδεν, ή Ηρωϊκή ανδρία,
και ο δια δόξαν πόλεμος, και δι' ελευθερίαν· το ζήν δε, όπου βδελυρα δεσπόζει Τυραννία,
τούτο ουδέν άλλο δηλοί, ειμή αισχράν δουλείαν The “ Song to Greece” requires no particular mention."
NOTICE OF. ΦΩΤΙΟΥ ΤΟΥ ΠΑΤΡΙΑΡΧΟΥ ΛΕΞΕΩΝ ΣΥΝΑ .
ΓΩΓΗ. . E Codice Galeno descripsit RICARDUS PORSONUS. Lond. In Ædibus
In Ædibus Valpianis. 2 Vols. 8vo. 11. 10s. 1822.
HEN we first announced the publication of this work, we stated our determination to give forth with a review of its contents. The circumstances, however, which have prevented the fulfilment of our intentions in the last number, we cannot regret, as we have been enabled to employ the lengthened interval in a way, we trust, useful alike to the reader, the editor, and ourselves.
De Photio, says Mr. Dobree, disserere non meum est. Nor is it our wish to cheat the reader, as our craft would direct us to do, into an opinion of our extensive researches into literary history, by translating a page or two of the Bibliotheca Græcu
We may take the present opportunity of noticing a late publication on the subject of the Greeks; we allude to “ A Letter addressed to the Rev. T. S. Hughes, by E. H. Barker, occasioned by the perusal of the • Address to the People of England, in the cause of the Greeks.'” It is a mélange of extracts from all quarters, directly or indirectly relating to the subject in question,-from Bp. Shipley's Discourses, to the Bury and Norwich Post; and from Ld. Chatham, to Mr. W. Fawkes,-with applications by the compiler. We recommend it to our readers, not merely as an amusing miscellany, but as containing a great mass of convincing arguments and impressive statements, and as imbued throughout with good feeling and Christian benevolence,
of Fabricius, or abridging Schottus' preface to his edition of the Myriobiblou of Photius. To either of these works we may refer all, who are curious about the Patriarch of Constantinople.
Id solum, proceeds Mr. D., mihi demandatum fuit, ut Porsoni textum repræsentarem, et codicem Galeanum conferrem.
To understand these few words, we must tell a rather long story.
Among the Greek MSS. bequeathed to Trinity College, Cambridge, by Thomas Gale, is one containing a portion of a Lexicon, that passes under the name of Photius. Of this MS. various transcripts exist in different libraries of England and of the Continent; and of these transcripts, two were lent to Godofredus Hermannus; who, to break the tedium of a confinement to his sopha, occasioned by a fall from his horse, amused himself with preparing for the press, this Lexicon, non sine molestia nunc utrumque Photii exemplum comparuns, nunc adjacentia Hesychii et Suida versans volumina.
But as no reliance could be placed on either of these transcripts, Mr. D. was authorised by the society, of which he is a distinguished ornament, to publish Photius, as it really existed in the Codex Archetypus of Gale; and thus execute the plan originally laid down by Porson, as the only one which could answer the best
purposes of criticism in its search after truth. To accomplish an object so desirable, but one which, we are compelled to say, is either neglected or ridiculed, when the discovery of truth is likely to mar our profit, or wound our pride, Mr. D. has spared no pains. His words, and they who have wasted days and nights in similar pursuits, can alone enter fully into the weariness of such occupations, are, quum Galeani Codicis lectiones quasdam prætermissas deprehendissem, idem saxum denuo revolvendum esse vidi; quod me diu exercuit. Nam primum collationen, unte annos duodecim cum editione Lipsiensi factam diligenter perlustravi, deinde totum codicem quam potui accuratissime tertium contuli-præterea lituras et primæ scriptura mutationes omnes ad unam indicare conatus sum. We
e are well aware of the objections likely to be made to this crambe ter recocta. But Mr. D. has wisely despised such cavils, as it has enabled him to affirm, illud jure postulo ut major etiam tacenti mihi habeatur fides, quam diserte loquentibus exscriptoribus, quotquot hactenus viris doctis innotuerunt: and we may at length congratulate the learned world on the
possession of a printed work, which will supersede, as far as it is practicable, the necessity of an appeal in cases of difficulty to the original docunent.
Of the errors of the Leipzig edition, arising from the inaccuracy of the transcripts, we say only in the language of other achievements, requiescant in pace, or in that of Mr. D., istiusmodi tenebriones exagitare neque libet neque vacat. We will, however, remark, that the mistake, on which Mr. D. pours out his wrath, of confounding aplévou and napolley, is not peculiar to the transcribers of Photius. We remember, that in Eurip. Troad. 40., Canter's correction of the Aldine napolder into maglévov, is confirmed by the Harleian MS.
We have spoken of the Galean MS, as the archetypus. But from the mention made by Harles (Introduct. Histor. Ling. Græc. i. p. 65.) of a MS. of Photius in the Bibliotheca Angelica at Rome, one might guess, as Jonathan says, that the English is only a copy of the Italian MS., just as the Paris MSS. of the Greek dramatic writers have been lately found to be for the most part but modern transcripts of older MSS., still extant in Italy. We suspect, however, that upon enquiry. the Angelic Coder will be found to contain, not the Lexicon, but the Myriobiblon of Photius, and that it is one of the MSS., whose various readings were communicated by Andreas Schottus to David Hoeschelius, the first editor of the Myriobiblon. Besides, it is scarcely probable that the Italian Ms., if it be the Lexicon, can be older than the Galean ; since the latter, in the opinion of Porson, (and on this, as on other points, to which Porson gave bis attention, his opinion is not to be hastily disregarded) appears to have been written about A. D. 1200, a date which few MSS. at present known can reach.
Nor is this the only surmise of Porson respecting the Galean MS. worthy of attention. For by a comparison of the numbers of the folios still existing in different parts of the MS., he discovered that only one half of the Lexicon has been preserved, and that it was written by eight different scribes. The latter supposition, we conceive, it would be difficult to establish. A change of writing in the original exemplar, might produce a corresponding change in the copy of the transcriber; nay, a different pen is apt to give the appearance of a different hand, But it is needless to dwell on so trifling a point. It is of greater moment to know that Mr. D. has found out, that Photius, when entire, contained the whole of the Lericon Sangermanense ; (a portion of which has been published by Bekker in his Anecdota Græca, Vol. 1, p. 321–476.) and that this last mentioned Lexicon formed a third part of Photius. Hinc, therefore says Mr. D., potius supplementa petant Lipsienses, quam infimorum Byzantinorum ineptiis librum distendant. There
VOL. XXVII. CI. JI. NO. LIV.
seems, however, little reason to expect the appearance of such a supplement; since Bekker has told us, vol. iii. p. 1115. that he neglected the remaining part of that Lexicon, because it contained scarcely any thing but what is already printed in Suidas and Zonaras. And yet bad a similar reason possessed equal weight in the case of Photius, this Lexicon would have remained still in MS.; for Scaliger had long since truly observed, that omnia, quæ in Photio sunt, hodie in aliis, unde ipse hausit, libris exstant. For ourselves, we are ready to confess our regret, that Bekker did not publish the whule of that Lexicon, or its counterpart, the Lexicon of Eudemus; for one or both would doubtless be of essential service in the correction of Hesychius, particularly in the letter Κάππα, to which Alberti used to apply the Greek proverb, τρία Κάππα κάκιστα.
We cannot dismiss the subject of Photius' Lexicon, without expressing our conviction that in the composition of it the Patriarch never stirred a finger. The Lexicon has passed under his name, as others have done under those of the presbyter Hesychius and Cyrillus the patriarch of Alexandria, merely from the fact of these works being found in the possession of those reverend Fathers. Although Photius might, like Chrysostom, pore over the pages of an Aristophanes, for the purpose of improving himself as a Polemic, by imitating the violence and virulence of Cleon and the sausage-man in the equity-cause at Athens; yet he would scarcely give himself the trouble to become a word-collector, as the richness of his library in the department of Lexicography was quite competent to answer all the purposes of his literary warfare. A curious instance of this may be seen in the notes of Toup on Suid. v. 'Εγκομβώσασθαι, where Photius thus ridicules the whole tribe of word-catchers. Θαυμάζω μάλιστα, εί και σοι γραμματικευομένω και ταϊς των ποιητών λεσχηνεύοντι μελεταίς το εγκομβώσασθαι βαρβάρου φωνής- έδοξεν. ό μεν γαρ μακάριος και κορυφαίος Πέτρος, ουδέν περί την εκλογής των Ελληνικών ονομάτων σπουδάζων ταύτην τους εαυτού παρείληφε γράμμασιν ου γαρ ηχώ τινα και τέχνην ρημάτων ουδέ λεξιδίων ψόφον και κτύπον ρημάτων, δι' ών τινες τα των μειμακίων υπογαργαλίζουσιν ώτα, και κρότον εαυτώς εγείρουσιν εκείθεν, αλλά ψυχών σωτηρίαν τους ακροαταίς ένθεϊναι φροντίδα ετίθετο. And he then observes that he, who remembers the expressions 'Επιχάρμου μάλιστα και 'Απολλοδώρου του Καρυστίου, ought rather to embrace than be offended with the words of St. Peter': την ταπειφροσύνην έγκομβώσασθε; for that Epicharmus πολλαχού και κατά διαφόρους εγκλίσεις σχηματίζων την λέξιν έχρήσατο ταύτης έγκεκόμβωται γάρ, φησί, και απαρεμφάτως εγκομβώσασθαι, ο δε