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taken away by travellers; and many used both by Turks and Greeks in the construction of their modern habitations; the squared blocks furnishing convenient materials for the mason, while for his cement or coating he reduces to lime the fine marbles employed by the ancients in their works of sculpture. A note, (p.cviii.) which we strongly recommend to the notice of all future travellers in Greece, indicates nearly sixty places, where, from various circumstances, our author thinks it probable that many precious remains of antiquity still exist below the surface of the soil :-besides those cities, the äron or sacred groves, where sumptuous temples in sequestered situations were filled or surrounded with admirable statues, would yield, in his opinion, a rich subterraneous harvest to the antiquary. He particularly Dames Olympia, Delphi, Nemea, and the Isthmus. The Grove of the Muses on Mount Helicon, the sanctuaries of Jupiter and of Despena in Arcadia; the Heræum of Argolis, the Hierum of Epidauria, the oracular fane of Apollo in Mount Ptous, the temples of Minerva Itonia in Bæotia and Thessaly, Actium and Dodona, &c.

Much as Athens has suffered, it still, says Col. Leake, above all the cities of Greece, affords the best prospect of discoveries to the artist and antiquary: although the modern buildings cover a considerable portion of the ancient site, yet many parts are open to the excavator's researches :

The Turks have seldom shown much repugnance to such undertakings, when proper measures have been taken to obtain their previous consent; and every nation in civilized Europe is interested in the acquisition by any one nation, of those works which, in proving the superiority of the ancients in some particular branches of art, afford us at the same time the means of imitating them.' (P. cxii.)

Although we have omitted a multiplicity of learned and curious observations in our faint outline of the introduction, it has imperceptibly extended far beyond the limits within which we should have restricted it in proportion to the subsequent work: but this, however diversified with valuable matter, being more strictly topographical, and its minute details requiring frequent consultation of the plates, would probably, in our notice, yield less entertainment to the general reader. We must here remark, that our author has judiciously taken for his ground-work, Pausanias's description of Athens; this, literally translated, numerous excellent notes, and some account of buildings or monuments imperfectly indicated, and of other objects wholly omitted in Pausanias's work, occupy the first section of Col. Leake's “ Topography”-the second relates to those positions and ex

isting monuments of ancient Athens concerning the identity of which there can be little or no doubt :

* The positions which ancient history and local evidence concur in determining with the greatest certainty, are the River Ilissus; the Acropolis with its three principal buildings, the Parthenon, Erectheium, and Propylæa; the Areiopagus, the Theseium, the Museium, the Pnyx, the Temple of Jupiter Olympius, the fountain Enneacrunus, the Stadium, Dionysiac Theatre, the Odeium of Herodes, and the Agora of the time of the Romans.' (P. 36.)

Having fixed beyond any reasonable doubt, the positions above mentioned, our author proceeds in the third section to notice some not yet determined with equal certainty, though names may be assigned to them with a considerable appearance of propriety. Such are Mounts Anchesmus and Lycabettus; Dipylum and the Peiraic gate. In the fourth section he traces the route of Pausanias from the Stoa Basileios to the fountain of Enneacrunus, noticing the temple of Mars, the Ceramic Agora, the quarter of Melite, and of Cæle, " where were the Cimonian sepulchres, and where the historian Thucydides was buried,” (p. 107), the Odeium, the Eleusinium, or temple of Ceres and Proserpine, the temple of Triptolemus and the temple of Eucleia. In the fifth section our learned author replaces Pausanias at the Stoa Basileios, whence he accompanies him to various parts of Athens northward of the ridges of Areiopagus and Acropolis, and thus in the sixth, seventh and eighth sections, be traces that ancient traveller from the Prytaneium to the Stadium; to the Propylæa, the Acropolis, Areiopagus and Academy-and the ninth he devotes to the Ports of Peiræus, Munychia and Phalerum,—the Long Walls and other fortifications of Athens. It will readily be imagined that the Parthenon occupies a due portion of this work : but within our narrow limits it is impossible to notice, as we could wish, the account of that admirable edifice given by Col. Leake; neither can we indicate the other passages which, in a particular manner, claim the reader's attention. As a specimen, though taken almost at random, we shall offer one extract (from p. 280) concerning the Acropolitan walls, since it delights us in proving that minute circumstances recorded by an ancient historian are confirnied by the actual inspection of fragments still remaining :

“There can be little doubt,' says Col. Leake, “that the greater part of the existing walls, although disfigured by reparations of various ages, and carefully kept covered with a coat of whitewash, according to the usual Turkish mode of concealing defects, and inspiring distant respect, consists of the original Hellenic work, raised by Themistoclos and

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Cimon. A part of the southern wall, where the profile is not less than sixty feet in height, appears in particular to consist almost eutirely of the ancient Cimonian work; and the centre of the northern side still bears the strongest evidence of that baste with which Thucydides describes the fortifications of Athens to have been restored after the Persian war, when the Athenians having returned to the city upon the departure of the Barbarians, found nothing left but a small part of the walls, and some of the houses which bad been occupied by the Persian Grandees. By the counsel of Themistocles they instantly set about rebuilding their fortifications, and completed the lower part during the intentional delays of an embassy to Sparta, which Themistoclcs devised and conducted in person. The work,' says Thucydides, who wrote about forty years afterwards, bears marks of the baste with which it was constructed; for the foundations are built of stones of every shape and size, not fitted to one another; and the works are full of sepulchral columns, and of wrought stones, (from former buildings) united together.' About the middle of the northern wall, or exactly in that part which is most likely to have preserved a part of the work of Themistocles, several wrought stones are observed, which belonged to former buildings. The most conspicuous among them are a range of Doric triglyphs with plain metopes, and some entire courses of masonry, formed of the fragments of Doric columns, of proportions, corresponding to those of the architraves. Having with some difficulty mounted up to this part of the wall, I found the columns to be partly fluted, and partly plain ; to have twenty flutings, and that the chord of the fluting (the only dimension which could be measured) was eleven inches and three tenths. As this was upon a part of the column not likely to be the lowest, it is probable that the columns were very nearly of the same diameter at the base, as those of the Parthenon, the flutings of which are 1l. 68 inches at the base. Such large dimensions could hardly have belonged to any other building than the old Hecatompedum, or Temple of Minerva, which was the predecessor of the new Hecatompedum, or Parthenon; and nothing appears more likely, than that Themistocles, in his hasty construction of the fortifications of the citadel, should have made use of the fragments of a temple which had recently been burnt and overthrown by the Persians, and whose ruins were so conveniently situated for his purpose.

' Throughout this work, by a continued and accurate reference to the highest classical authorities, and from the result of his own personal researches, Col. Leake not only illustrates the descriptions of Athens furnished by ancient writers, but in many instances corrects the erroneous opinions of Spon, Wheler, Stuart, Chandler and others; he also derives assistance from two rare coins of Athens, represented in the frontispiece:-one is preserved in the British Museum; the other in Mr. Payne Knight's most valuable collection;-a third coin, from the Royal Library at Paris, is likewise engraved in p. 428, and explained in one of the additional notes, which constitute a very interesting portion of this volume. In the Atlas are comprised a plan of Athens and its harbors with the surrounding country, and a plan of the Anti

quities of Athens, both from the actual survey of Col. Leake; also a plan of the Acropolis, wherein the measurements and plan of the Parthenon have been supplied by Mr. C. R. Cockerell; and a plan of the Propylæa-all these excellently engraved by Walker :-then follows a beautiful View of the Acropolis, in its present state, showing the Parthenon, Dionysian Theatre, Olympium, &c. very neatly executed by W. Cooke, junior, from a drawing by Mr. Cockerell. Next is a Western View of the Acropolis restored, and after that an Elevation of the Northern Side, both by the same artist, from the admirable designs of Mr. Cockerell. The last plate represents the Eastern and Western pediments of the Parthenon, with their sculptured figures.Here we must close our very inadequate notice of this work, which is equally adapted to gratify and instruct the classical or antiquarian reader in his closet, as to conduct future travellers through the most interesting monuments of ancient Greece.



Pars IV.—[Continued from No. LI. p. 167.]

1. DE PARTICULA Ný. I HAVE read with much satisfaction J. B. M.'s remarks" on the inseparable Negative Particle Nī,” which appeared in Classical Journal 52, 390; and I reflect with real pleasure on the fact that the Article, which I had inserted in No. 51, 162–5, has induced your learned Correspondent to write those remarks. I now offer to his notice some additional matter on the same subject.

Νηγάτιος, Νουus, Nuper factus. Est pro νεηγάτεος, e νέος et γάτεος, pro γατός, ο γάω, quod idem ac γίνομαι. Vide supra. [Usus est hac voce Hom. Il. B.42. ucraixòx 8" @vauvs Xitūva, Kadòv, vyáteov. Vide etiam Il. E. 185. Hymn. in Apoll. 122. Etymologus M., Eustathius, Apollonius, Hesychius, Suidas, Schol. minora, uno quasi consensu, reddunt νέους κατεσκευασμένον, νεωστί γενόμενον. Addit Εtym., quemadmodum a τείνω, τείνομαι, factum sit τατος, sic a γείνω

'The Schol. Ven. Say :-Νηγάτεoν ή αγέννητον, ή λεπτον, ή το γεωστι γεγονός, νεο

γείνομαι ortum esse γατός : porro pro νεόγατος, νοcali o in ή conversa, fieri venyatos, dein, é trajecto, myúteos. Quod si tamen comparaveris alia, ab initio, cum syllaba », composita, uti vxspons, Non lucrosus, výxegos, Non habens cornua, maalis, Carens dolore, výplextos, Incomtus, výtoivos, Impunis etc., videri queat, m, tali in compositione, esse negativum a m, (Ne Latinorum,) desumtum. Itaque rectius fortasse se habet aliorum sententia, a Suida commemorata, vocem νηγάτεος, κατά στέρησιν, esse το μη γατόν, id est, quod non est factum s. elaboratum: nisi præplaceat, tò yatéos, hac in compositione, idem esso quod xatbos, a yáw, xáw, Hisco, ut mnyáteos de vestimento cet. dictum, pp.sit Fissuris foraminibusve carens,


Non hiscens. E. S.] Lennep. Etym. L. Gr., Traj. ad Rh. 1808. p. 451.

Scheide very justly rejects the derivation from véos, and it may be remarked that all the other compounds from this word contain either veo, or contractedly, ve, as in Herodiani Epimer. p. 90. Νεήλης, ο νεωστι ελθών νεαλής, ο εκ νέου άγρευBels. “ Basil. Néviais, vswoti exowy, scr. vénaus: Moschop. Nexxus, ó VEWOT towy, scr. vénaus : quod et ap. Nostrum reponi velim pro venams.” Boissonade.

“ Observetur porro, præter literam istam a,' septem dari particulas in L. Gr., quæ significatum intendant vocum, quibus præfiguntur, sc. da, fa, ha, špi, ägo, Bou, vm. Postremum illud sæpius et., æque atque a, est priv. Adnotentur pauca. 4a doivos, Cædis valde avidus, Gándoutos, Ditissimus, (qui et forma intensiva dicitur adottat,) nánaxos, Valde pugnar, égißpquos, Altifremens, åpíondos, Valde clarus, výdupos, Valde dulcis, víXUtos, Valde fusus. Aquòs, Fames; Fames canina, morbus tristissimus, Bourquía dicitur Medicis. llais, Puer; Bohmais, Vagrandis puer.” Selecta e Schol. Valck. in N. T. 1, 312. « Νηστεύειν est a νηστις, hoc autem contractum ex νη έστεις, composito ex ή et εστος, quod ab ήσται, 3 præt. pass. verbi veteris čio. Qui cruda vorabat, ó wpci kowv, vel fo@we, wunotis Græce dicebatur, idque Bacchi fuit epith. Serpens pellem arrodens, και δέρμα έδων, δερμηστης est ap. Harpocr.” Idem ibid. 1, 469. See Etym. L. Gr. 454. where

γώτεόν τι δν, ή ώσπερ παρά το τείνω τατος, ούτως γείνομαι γατος, νεήγατος, και υπερθέσει του ι, νηγάτεος. Νηγάτεο: η αγέννητον, ή λεπτών, ή νεήγατον, τεστ γεγονότα. Cf. ad Il. s. 185. Phot. : Nayárier• Arttày, xatvor, azador, deuxót, küüpis. With pupis, which must be restored to Suidas for supues, compare Etym. M. yenys uivor, Apollon. Ler. IÙ voyno pivov. See Schleusner, ad Phot. : vet. Schol. Apoll. Rb. 1, 775. vyaτέσι καλύβησε ταϊς νεοκατασκευάστες, Schol. Ρar. ταις γεωστί κατεσκευασμέναις.

See Barker's Aristarchus Anti-Blomf. 43.

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