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all the hairs of your head are enumerated;" he intimated the kind condescension of Providence in numbering all the circumstances and proceedings of the saints. The Syriac version of this text reads 126 90%!, literally, “ the numerable part of your head,” omitting the usual word for hair, 1:5.00: but in the corresponding passage of Luke xii. 7. this word appears. This text, says the learned Lightfoot, puts me in mind of Luke xxi. 18. Και θριξ εκ της κεφαλής υμών ου μή απόληται ; which appears to be a proverbial speech, by 1 Sam. xiv. 45. Owo Ox 0787% 8. See his Works, ii. p. 1251. fol. ed. of 1684.

Rev. xiii. 17, 18. Τον αριθμόν του θηρίου or τον αριθμόν του ονόMOTOS AÚToŨ: “ The number of the beast," or, “ the number of his name,” stands for the numerical value of the letters that compose his name. This is expressed in Greek by “XES," or, according to some readings of Griesbach,“ taxócial dexa egy and at full length in Syriac, 100 deo 116 che “sis hundreds and sixty and six.” See a lengthened discussion of this subject in Calmet's Bibl. Encyclop. on Antichrist, 4th ed.- On the general word Numerus, for a judicious and scriptural amplification, consult the Clavis Script. Sac. a Matt. Flacio Illyrico, p. 749,750;-a work on Biblical Literature that deserves to be better known.

The NUMERAL WORDS, in addition to those noticed in No. 11. which seem to require some expository remarks for the purpose of illustrating the texts in which they occur, are the following; and appear in the writings of the New Testament.

Alaxónoi, 216, two hundreds. Acts xxvii. 37. Esaxógiai Baojuýxovted; “two hundreds seventy-six." This, says Parkhurst, to some not sufficiently acquainted with the state of ancient shipping about this time, may appear an extraordinary number, but it is not. Josephus, who, a very few years before, namely, in the procuratorship of Felix, was sent from Judea to Rome, tells us in his life, (Sect. 3.) that the ship in which he sailed, and which was shipwrecked in the Adriatic, had on board “ about six hundred men," tegi etaxoo lous Tòv áp.Quòv ÖVTES.

Exatòv, 1112, a hundred. The circumstance of so large a produce as “ a hundredfold,” mentioned in Matt. xii. 8, bas not been noticed by Commentators in general : but it was observed by that interesting Lexicographer, the late Rev. John Parkhurst ; who has, by his two Scripture Dictionaries, contributed so much to the service and success of Biblical science. Citing from the father of Greek history, he writes:-"Herodotus,

“ forty

lib. 1. cap. 193. says, that the country about Babylon was so fertile as constantly to produce two hundred, and sometimes three hundred fold.” From “ an Agricultural Experiment,” recently made by Dr. Adam Clarke, it was shown that, by subdividing and transplanting, " 2 grains of wheat had yielded 574 distinct plants;" and in the following season, “the one of these multiplied itself into 900 plants, and the second grain into 916!” See the West. Meth. Mag. for September, 1822. p. 573, 574.

Teocagáxovta, 52;, forty. 2 Cor. ii. 24. Tercapáxovta (Tangas elliptically, but not unusually, omitted: Bos Ellips. p. 177. and Wetstein on Luke xii, 47.) tapa uiar, (stripes) save one." The rule in Deut. xxv. S: 85132 DY278 7'd was (according to Michaelis, “ Laws of Moses,” ni. p. 446.) since the Babylonish captivity, observed by the Jews with such ridiculous scrupulosity, as noted here by the Apostle. Josephus even represents the Law as ordering tanyás tego apáx.ovta mias Reitouons: Antiq. lib. iv. cap. 8. sect. 21, 23. The modern Jews observe the same custom, as appears from the case of the wretched Acosta_which article see in Bayle's Dict. note F.

AIETÈS, pode 254, two years. In Matt. ii. 16: ’ATÒ Sietūs meanis, “ from the beginning of," or, “ entrance into, the second year.” Aristotle uses the word in this sense when he says, Hist. Anim. lib. ix. 5, stags, &ieteis, “ of the second year” begin first to produce horns. But it is certain, that stags do this at the beginning of their second year. Further, Herod is said, Matt. ii. 7, to have “accurately learned of the Magi the time of the star's (first) appearance,” tÒv Xpórov ToŰ Paivouévou &otégos, and ver. 16, “to have slain all the children” åtò &IETOŪS and under, according to the time which he had of them learned by accurate inquiry. But it is impossible that the Magi, whether they were of Arabia or Persia, should spend more than a year in coming to Jerusalem, and thence to Bethlehem, which confirms the interpretation of anò SIETOūs here given.-Parkhurst's Greek Lex.: who also refers to Knatchbull's and Campbell's notes on Matt. ii. 16.

The APPARENT CONTRADICTIONS in Scripture, arising from differences in Numbers, have been judiciously classified, and very satisfactorily explained by the Rev. T. H. Horne, in his excellent “ Introduct. to the Crit. &c. of the H. Scriptures :" Vol. 1. p. 594-598. 2d ed. A few selections may suffice for the present purpose.

1. The Scriptures sometimes state in whole or round numbers.

Thus, Stephen in Acts vii. 6. says, érn Tetpaxócil, leaving out the odd tens. But Moses says, in Exod. xii. 40: Doubu AV DINO y27877730 : as also Paul in Gal. iii. 17 : ÉTY Tetpaxória xai apsáxovta ; and Josephus.

In Num. xiv, 39, it is 77W Dyax: but if we compare Num. xxxiii. 3 with Josh. iv. 19, we shall find that some days, if not weeks, were wanting to complete the number of “ forty years.

In 1 Cor. xv. 5, the twelve Apostles are all mentioned, though Judas was no inore.

2. The numbers are reckoned exclusively or inclusively. Matt. xvii. 1, and Mark ix. 2, have mépas ; but Luke ix. 28, ópépas óxtú. In the two former texts the first and last days are excluded, and the intermediate days only are reckoned ; while in the latter they are both included.

So, perhaps, guégas óxtw in John xx. 26, are to be understood inclusively; it being most likely on that day se’onight on which Jesus Christ had before appeared to his disciples.

3. There are Various Readings to be considered. Mistakes in some of the similar letters, being numerals, may occasion them.

In 2 Kings viïi. 26, we read 700 Dynon Diwy; but in the parallel passage of 2 Chron. xxii. 2, I Don d'yan, which is impossible, as Abaziah could not be born two years before Jehoram, his father, who was only forty years old. The former, therefore, is of course the true reading; and the difference may have been owing to the use of the numeral ~ 40, instead of

20.— Boothroyd's Bib. Heb. i. p. 379, note.

2 Sam. viii. 4, and x. 18, read ise yaw; which in 1 Chron. xviii. 4, and xix. 18, is O'D5x nyaw,“ seven thousands,” the proper number.-Kennicott's Diss. i. pp. 96-99. 462, 463. Diss. ii. p. 209.

The hour of Christ's crucifixion is stated by Mark, xv. 25, to have been opírn; but by John, xix. 14, &XT). As in ancient times all numbers were written in Mss., not at length, but with numeral letters, it was easy for r 3, to be taken for s 6. 4. The writers of the New Testament sometimes quote from the

Septuagint Version, instead of the Hebrew Text. This is evidently the case in Acls vii. 141 Boque “XONTA Fívte;

whereas in Gen. xlvi. 27, the writer says, d'yzw. The Sept. of Gen. xlvi. 20 enumerates 5 persons more than the Heb., which, being added to the 70 mentioned by the Heb. writer, shows the exact number “ seventy-five." - Dr. Hales' New Anal. of Chron. &c., Vol. 11. part i. pp. 159–162.

J. W.

NOTICE OF Thucydide de Duker, de Beck, de Seebode, de Gail,

de BEKKER, &c.

Il existe de Thucydide 7 à 8 éditions. Le travail de M. Gail, rapproché de celui de Bekker, et l'opinion qu'on doit s'en fornier, vont occuper cet article. M. Bekker vient de publier une édition de Thucydide imprimée en Angleterre et en Prusse. Ce savant annonce une collation des manuscrits de la Bibliothèque royale de Paris, faite par lui : et ensuite, des notes de Wasse et de Duker. Dans cette annonce, il ne fait pas la moindre mention des notes de M. Gail: il n'accorde pas le plus foible éloge aux collations de manuscrits faites par M. Gail, sur Hérodote, Thucydide et Xénophon.

Il faut qu'on nous permette de rappeler le compte rendu de ce travail. 1, M. de Sainte-Croix dans le Mercure (Octobre 1807, p. 219), et dans le Moniteur (ler Juin 1806, et 15 Novembre 1807), dit que la publication de M. Gail est du petit nombre des entreprises où se trouve intéressée la gloire de la nation. D'autres journaux ont également parlé de cette édition et traduction dans les termes les plus flatteurs (Journal des Débats, Mars 1820). Les étrangers ne lui ont pas refusé cet hommage, et le Journal de Halle (feuille supplémentaire, No. 117, Octobre 1820), après avoir blâmé M. Gail de n'avoir pas imprimé les variantes avec les accents (reproche très fondé), ajoute : “ Fidèle à sa promesse, ce savant n'a rien épargné pour vaincre en exactitude Hudson et Ducker: et nous lui devons ce témoignage, que nous avons remarqué un grand nombre de passages où il s'est montré plus consciencieux que ses prédécesseurs.” On aime à voir les savants étrangers honorer les heureux efforts des François: et M. Gail n'a point à se plaindre d'eux à cet égard, puisque M. God. Seebode accompagne le nom de notre compa

triote des mots Francogalliæ decus, répétés aussi par M. Beck (Opuscule publié à Leipsick en 1815).

Le Journal de Halle (feuille supplémentaire, No. 117, Octobre 1820), en termine ainsi l'annonce générale: “ Puisse la noble entreprise de M. Gail trouver aussi des appuis dans notre patrie !"

M. Bekker n'a certes pas à se plaindre de M. Gail, qui s'exprime en ces termes de son ami: Je suis redevable (des nouvelles variantes de Thucydide, Liv. vi.) je le redis' avec un vifo sentiment de reconnoissance, à M. Bekker, qui a eu la bonté de me les transcrire lui-même, en marge de mon exemplaire de Thucydide. Ce volume sera déposé au département des manuscrits de la Bibliothèque du Roi.

Comme on le voit, M. Gail a déclaré avoir de grandes obligations à M. Bekker par une revue nécessaire des manuscrits du 6€ Livre. M. Bekker, qui ne dit point avoir la moindre obligation à son ami, mi pour

les notes dont il

aucune, ni pour les variantes qu'il publie en son nom, est-il, dans une partie de son travail, redevable à M. Gail, et ne devoit-il

pas

faire mention de la collation de M. Gail? tandis que M. Seebode, qui adopte les variantes de M. Gail, l'appelle, en songeant et à ses variantes et à ses innombrables travaux, Francogalliæ decus.

2°, Les variantes de M Gail ont-elles servi à M. Bekker? Quel est le résultat de son travail, comparé à celui de M. Gail? c'est ce que nous allons examiner en prenant au hasard : cet examen ne sera point inutile pour la critique des manuscrits de Thucydide.

Liv. 1. i. ). (i, 3, p. 1.) gútùs ici, dit M. Gail, le manuscrit A. donne aŭtixa pour glose de eufús. M. Bekker qui a colla

ne cite

! Je le redis, donne lieu de penser que M. Gail a parlé ailleurs de ce don de M. Bekker. M. Gail pourra en indiquer l'endroit.

2 Cette revue du VIe Livre et d'autres livres encore peut être très utile, En 30 passages de sa collection (Xénophon, Tome VII. et Tom. I. de son auctarium Xenoph. p. 451), il déclare des parties de ses collations incomplettes et les causes de cette imperfection. Mais ces imperfections déclarées avec candeur, peuvent-elles anéantir le mérite de ce qui est fait? On a loué dans diverses éditions de Brunck, de Larcher, et autres, des fragments de collations de manuscrits; pourroit-on, sans ingratitude, méconnoître l'entreprise de la collation des manuscrits d'Hérodote, de Thucydide, de Xénophon, par M. Gail, où ce savant donne tant de variantes ?

3.1. 1. indique chez M. Gail le chap. 1. et le paragr. 1.: ce qui est en parenthèse, indique le chap. 1, la ligne 3, la page 1, de l'édit. de M. Bekker, qui divise les chap. par lignes et non par paragraphes. En général nous ne ferons d'alinéa qu'aux changements de paragraphes chez M. Gail.

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