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to. In all probability they are taken from his 'Ovouaotixóv. But his Work entitled 'Ορθογραφία 18 cited by Steph. Β. ν. "Ακτια: 'Αρκάδιος δ' εν τη 'Ορθογραφία φησίν, Ακτία και η πόλις, και η εορτή. 'Αλλ' ή μέν εορτή βαρύνεται, τα "Ακτια" ή δε πόλις λέγεται ουδετέρως, το "Ακτιον. “ Jure meritoque Arcadius a Steph. B. reprehenditur ; nain oppidi nomen, uti jam probavimus, neque a Gr. neque a Lat. Auctoribus feminino genere usurpatur. Arcadii Grammatici præstantissimi opus etianinum hodie ineditum in Europæ Bibliothecis latet, et sæpissime a Salmasio, Vossio, aliisque VV.DD. allegatur.” Berkel. But this Editor is mistaken in supposing that the Work, quoted by Salmasius, Vossius, and others, is the 'Ορθογραφία, because it is invariably the Book de Accentibus edited by me.
“ Arcadii Grammatici Glossa Mss., quas cel. P. Burmanno Secundo debeo acceptas : "Oκταλλος, ο οφθαλμός παρα Βοιωτούς. Ceteri enim Dorienses oculos οπτίλους vocabant: Albert. ad Ηes. ν». 'Οπτίλοι, "Όκκον.” Koen. ad Greg. Cor. 58ο.
liber, quem Bibliothecæ Parisinæ Cod. 2102, aliique tenent hoc titulo inscriptum : 'Αρκαδίου περί Τόνου των οκτω Μερών του Λόγου κ. τ. λ. Νonnulla ex eo excerpta Villois. Εp. Vinar. p. 115. sqq. evulgavit. Perexigui est pretii; interdum tamen, perinde ut Epimerismi Pseudo-Herodiani, nonnullius utilitatis." [Here I beg leave to differ from the accomplished Critic.] * Locus a Koenio citatus reperitur in libro 6. περί των εις βος, εις γος και των καθεξής μέχρι τών εις μος. Ibi haec legas [p. 54.]: Τα εις αλλος τρισύλλαβα μη εθνικά προπαροξύνεται, κρύσταλλος, χίαλλος (sic,) * οκταλλος ο οφθαλμός παρά Βοιωτούς το δε Τριβαλλός εθνικών, και το * προβαλλός ή ασπίς οξυνόμενον. (Ηesych. Πρόβαλος, artis.) Idem Arcadius, qui dicitur, commemorat etiam vocem οπτίλος, aut potius oπτίλλος. Ιn eodem enim libro [p. 54.] hec tradit: Τα εις λλος και πολυσύλλαβα, όποίω φωνήεντι παραλήγει πλην του α, προπαροξύνεται, Μάρκελλος, [in the printed copy Μύσκελλος precedes Μάρκελλος,] Κύριλλος, Σόφιλλος, Δόριλλος: το δε οπτίλλος παροξύνεται, και το νεογιλλος έχει θηλυκόν. Ρostrema si recte intelligo, Ioquitur Gramm. de adj. νεογιλλός, ή, όν: vide de νεογιλλος, aut potius νεογιλος, preter T. H. ad Lucian. 1, 180. Pierson, Verisim. 234. Eadem vox vindicanda Alciphroni 1, 27. Τί γαρ ου των εμών λαβούσα έχεις και ου σύκα; ου τυρόν εκ ταλάρων και ουκ άλεκτορίδων ζεύγος κ. τ. λ." Post ταλάρων enim e Codd. Ρar. inserendum, ουκ έριφον νεογιλόν.” Bast.
E. H. BARKER. Thetford, Nov. 1822.
A PLAN For Translating Languages, without Study, or any previous Acquaintance with them. BY HENRY MATTHEWS.
An opinion bas been entertained by some learned men, in different ages, that the knowledge of overcoming the difficulties of languages would be one day accomplished ; and others have thought it possible to contrive, or create, a general or universal language. Several ingenious plans have been suggested for the support of foreign correspondence, by means of a general or universal character; but, in all these, there is much to be acquired and remembered, as well as a thorough acquaintance with the principles of grammar. Un, less a plan be devised to be comprehensible by the person merely read, as well as by the scholar, the sale of such a work would not be sufficiently extensive to justify the expense. A system fully suitable has been conceived, which, by a simple arrangement, will obviate every difficulty.
The dictionary now proposed will enable persons to correspond with foreigners, of whose language they have no knowledge; and to translate, freely, every species of their literature.
Any two persons possessing this dictionary may carry on a private correspondence, which cannot be comprehended by those who have even access to the same dictionary.
In whatever language this plan is first published, that will become the universal language, or the one to which all others will refer, and from which they will enrich and enlarge the scope and capacity of expressing ideas.
By this dictionary, it will be only pastime for children to translate English works into the languages of India and China, and their works into our own. lo fact, it will unlock the knowledge of the world, and communicate it to all, the most uninformed as well as the profoundly learned.
In addition to these peculiar advantages, it will answer all the purposes of any other dictionary.
In order to ensure general acceptation, this proposed work should be rendered the most complete vocabulary of words and significations which the learned can devise. All the words in the English language should be carefully arranged, with a strict regard to the following rule: all the words which have more than one meaning, repeated as many times as there are significations. For instance, in the common dictionary the words and significations would sometimes stand thus :
Tiller, s. a ploughman; handle of a rudder.
But, in this dictionary, it must be repeated thus :
1. Til'ler, s. a ploughman.
2. Tiller, s. a handle of a rudder. When thus arranged, every word, or, (more properly,) every signification contained in the English language is to be numbered, and the same number placed against the like word or signification in every language to which the plan may be extended.
The idea of numbering words in each language has occurred to others. But here the difficulty commences, for which, hitherto, no practical remedy has been discovered : it is meant, for tbe difficulty of reference, which arises from every language differing in order or arrangement of words. Every vocabulary, except the English, would be so deranged by placing words in numerical order, that persons accustomed to refer by sound would not be able to find the word wanted, or the number of that particular word, in a numerical vocabulary. To make this plan extensively useful, every language, except the English, must have two vocabularies; one arranged in numerical, and the other in alphabetical order.
The English interpreting dictionary will be both alphabetical and numerical, in one and the same book. This advantage can only fall to the language that first adopts the plan. Universal Numbers. Words. Explanation.
1 Aba'cot, s. an ancient kind of a crown. English 2 Ba'al, s. a Canapitish idol.
3 •..• Caba'l, s. private junto, an intrigue.
The form in which foreign vocabularies must be printed, to correspond with the above, follows: No. 1.
No. 2. Numerical Vocabulary. Alphabetical Vocabulary, in Number. Word. Explanation. which the universal number of 1... Y
each word will appear, but not 2 K
in numerical order. 3
Universal 4 M
Word. Explanation. Number.
The way in which communication can be made with languages using an unknown character.
In those languages in which the common Arabic numeral is not
used or kuown, the characters by which they express numbers may be placed beyond the Arabic characters, thus :
1 a 2 B
3 g In order to be understood by a foreigner, a persou first writes a letter in his own language. He then refers to Book No. 2. for each word : there he finds its number. This number he places
273 over it, thus; or he may send the numbers only; the significations against which being the same in all languages, such letter can be understood in all languages, by means of their numerical vocabulary, No. 1.
If a person write to a foreigner who, he thinks, has not an interpreting dictionary, he may himself translate it, before he sends it, by the same means.
A person wishing to interpret a foreign book, refers to vocabulary, No. 2, of that language, for each word; the number of which, in his own numerical vocabulary, No. 1, gives him its meaning.
It will be perceived, that this plan will give a literal translation, not of sentences, but of single words, or their significations ; so that sometimes the words will not stand exactly in the same order in which a native would have placed them. However, they never can be so far out of place as that the proper idea can be lost. To translate a foreign book by this means, fit for the public eye, it will be proper to revise each sentence, and place the sense in words which flow most easy, in the sanie way that all other kinds of translations are given.
The way in which an endless variety of plans for private correspondence may be carried on from this dictionary, is simply for any two persons to agree what letter or private mark they will substitute for each numeral. For instance, the following marks,
1 ✓ V may be called, 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0
If the work now proposed were only an abridgment of a dictionary that could not be of general use, or were it to occupy considerable time in learning, some doubt might be entertained of its general acceptation ; but when it is remembered, that it is a complete dictionary, in the different languages in which it is published, no doubt can possibly remain.
Although this work will be found useful to the learned in languages, yet that is not the principal proposed end: if it had been, the variations in verbs, persons, tenses, and genders, might have been distinguished by particular characters placed before or after them, and thus the bulk of the work much compressed. But to
attain a knowledge of these abbreviations, would be nearly as diffcult as learning a system of short-hand, or acquiring a new language; after which, their writing could only be understood by those acquainted with this plan. This work will widely differ from any thing that has bitherto been suggested for the accomplishment of this desirable object. It may be properly called a dictionary of significations or single ideas; and will show by what character, word, or words, each signification is expressed, in every language into which the plan may be translated. After all the significations the English language is capable of expressing are properly arranged, the learned in languages will be consulted, to ascertain what foreign words there are capable of expressiug ideas which cannot be properly expressed by the English language. With these, our language, already rich, may still be more enriched. When this work is so completed, all these significations, however they are expressed, whether by a letter, a word, or by several words, must then be numbered: the English language will become as fixed as a dead language. The poorer languages, and those which are but little better than dialects, will be enriched from this fixed source, all their deficiency being supplied with English.
The facilities which this plan will certainly afford to the learner are so great, that, after it is published, no one will ever study a foreign language without it. Its usefulness as a school-book will readily be admitted; for by it the younger scholars, while they are learning to spell, will acquire a very considerable knowledge of grammar, of ready writing, of a correct pronunciation, and of a foreign language. All these kinds of knowledge, together with the habit of application, will simultaneously be acquired by simply learning to spell and read by this book. Let it be supposed that a given number of scholars of one class, two of whom stand up to read, one with the English, the other with the French dictionary on this plan: the boy with the English book pronounces distinctly a word, which all write down: the boy with the French dictionary then reads the corresponding word in the French, having first acquired the proper pronunciation of all the words he is to read for that exercise: this French word each boy writes against the English. By writing from the ear, the proper sound of letters, both English and French, will be more correctly acquired; and all those words, which are wrongly spelt, will have to be written again and learned by heart.
The same scholars being sometimes readers, sometimes writers, will not only gain the habit of pronouncing and writing correctly, but, by constantly reading in a book in which the different parts of speech are so fully expressed, they will become great proficients in an essential branch of grammar, before they know that they have begun to study grammar at all. It therefore must recommend itself as a school-book.