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END OF NO, LILI,

CLASSICAL JOURNAL;

No. LIV.

JUNE, 1823.

CRITICAL OBSERVATIONS ON SOME

LATIN AUTHORS.

Your learned correspondent in No. 50. Art. v., after giving Spalding's excellent observations on the difference between non solum, and non modo, and the use of the latter phrase as equivalent to non dicam, observes : “ It is well known by learned men, that non modo, put elliptically for non modo non, is a phrase followed by seD NE QUIDEM."

Both Clarke and Davis ad Cæs. Bel. Gal. 11. 17. et vill. 33. have observed, that it is usual with good authors to omit the second non : but neither they nor Perizonius seem to have remarked the principle on which the phraseology proceeds, There are three examples of the omission, as it is called, of the second non in Cæsar's Commentaries, B. G. 11. 17.: “ effecerant ut instar muri hæ sepes munimenta præberent; quo non modo intrari, sed ne perspici quidem posset.”—Ib, uur. 4. “ ac non modo defesso excedendi ex pugna, sed ne saucio quidem ejus loci, ubi constiterat, relinquendi, ac sui recipiendi, facultas dabatur.”—A. Hirtii B. G.) viii. 33. “ effugere non modo equitatum, sed ne legiones quidem possent.” Yet Cæsar says, B. G. 1. 16. “nam propter frigoranon modo frumenta in agris matura non erant, sed ne pabuli quidem satis magna copia suppetebat.” Livy in like manner gives examples of both phrases. 1. 40. “advenam non modo civicæ, sed ne Italicæ quidem stirpis.”—V. 38. “

non modo non tentato certamine, sed ne clamore quidem reddito.”

It appears to me, that this difference of phrase is not accidental, that a second non would be inadmissible, where the authors have written simply non modo, and that it is essential to their meaning, where they have written non modo non. The reason of the difference I think is this: in the former case the negative of the second clause, SED NE QUIDEM, is applied to a verb or word

VOL. XXVII. CI. JI. NO. LIV. 0

“ Not

on which the meaning of the first clause also depends, and therefore a second negative in the first clause would be redundant. It is easy to preserve this effect in the translation: “ The hedge was INCAPABLE not only of being entered, but even of being seen through ;" or turning it actively, “not only to enter the hedge, but even to see through it was iMPOSSIBLE”only to the tired of leaving the battle, but even to the wounded of retiring no opportunity was given ”-“ Not only to escape the horse, but even the legions, would be IMPOSSIBLE _“A stranger, WITHOUT pretension, not only to Roman, but even to Italian extraction." A second non in the first clause of these sentences, would be as great a solecism in Latin, as it would be in English, to say, “Nor ONLY NOT to enter the hedge, but even to see through it was IMPOSSIBLE.”

But in the sentences where the authors have written non modo non, the phrase in the second clause being varied, and there being no word common to both clauses, the second non is essential to their meaning. It would have been no less absurd in Cæsar to have said, “ non modo frumenta in agris matura erant, sed ne pabuli quidem satis magna copia suppetebat," than it would be in English, “ Not only were the crops in the fields ripe, but there was not even forage to be had.”

By the way, the Italians use non che exactly in the same way as their ancestors used their non modo, as equivalent to non dicam, “ Spero trovar pietà non che perdono." Petrarch. Son. 1. Examples occur very frequently both in poets and prose writers.

It is with more diffidence that I bring forward the next remark, as I am aware that I am contending for a very uncommon use of a compound. I am, however, satisfied, that Cæsar does so use it. At all events, the substitution adopted by many editors, appears to me infinitely more intolerable. B. G. III. 14. “Una erat magno usui res præparata a nostris, falces præacutæ, insertæ affixæque longuriis, non absimili forma muralium falcium. His

quum funes, qui antennas ad malos DISTINEBANT, comprehensi adductique erant, navigio remis incitato, prærumpebantur : quibus abscissis, antennæ necessario concidebant,” &c.

So I restore the reading instead of DESTINABANT. This word, I think, has been substituted by copyists and editors who did not understand Cæsar's use of DISTINEBANT.

How was it possible, I ask, that the hook in the hands of the Roman soldier could lay hold of the rope which attached the yard to the mast? The case was plainly this. The rope, or halyard, which was fastened to the yard, passed through a block,

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