« ZurückWeiter »
1, could be exposed to from an army at Sigeum. Hector asks Polydamas if he was not tired of remaining shut up within the walls, in consequence of which the city was impoverished (ll. xvii, 287). Priam asks permission of Achilles to send to Mount Ida for wood, saying, they were shut up within the city, as Achilles knew (II. xxiv, 662). Achilles tells that while he fought, Hector durst not venture beyond the Scæan gutes and the beech-tree (II. ix, 352). And lastly, from the time that the Greeks arrived at Troy, the Trojan women had given up the practice of washing their linens at the hot and cold fountains, though these were under the walls (II. XXII, 154). All these circumstances show that the city was near the camp, and the two last lead us to suppose, that the moment any person passed without the city walls, on one side, he could be seen either from the camp itself, or perhaps the hill above. It will be seen that the hill, I, alone is sufficiently near, and has the exposed situation which these details imply.
7. On the morning of the day after the first battle, the Trojan herald, Idæus, went vev, at day-break, from the city to the Greek camp, where he found the chiefs sitting in council at the ship of Agamemnon,-he settled a truce with then for burying the slain, -returned to Troy, and delivered the result of his mission,-after which, the Trojans who were ready assembled, issued out of the city to collect their dead from the field of battle; and there they met the Greeks, (who came for the same purpose,)“ when the sun rising in the heavens had newly thrown his rays upon the fields” (II. vii, 381. 423). , Thus in the short interval between day-break and sunrise, or a little after it, which could scarcely exceed an hour and a half, the herald had passed twice over the ground between the city and the camp, and the Greeks and Trojans had each passed over one half of the space. Nor can the word be translated early, and applied to a period before the dawning, for Idæus could not think of going to an enemy's camp in the night-time. It is obviously impossible to reconcile this incident with the supposition of a greater distance between the camp and the city than three miles.
8. Patroclus began his attack at the post of Ajax, the part of the
camp nearest Troy. He beat off the first divisions of the Trojans there, but as there were other bodies still in the camp, he followed the fugitives but a short way, evidently not farther than the nearest point where the river could be crossed, viz. E. From this point he led back his troops to renew the combat at the ships, “and did not allow them, though desiring it, to ascend to the town (Il. XVI, 284. 398), an expression which clearly implies that the city was near, and that the eminence on which it stood began to rise from that very spot. It will be observed how justly and exclusively this manner of speaking applies to a city at I.
9. Preparatory to the last battle, when the Greeks were drawn up in front of their camp, and the Trojans between them and the
Scamander, (about E,) Minerva excited the Greeks, by shouting from the ramparts, and the resounding shore (that is most probably the hill at Sigeum, A); and Mars on the other side, excited the Trojans by shouting from the citadel (Il. xx, 51). The city thus appears to have been so near the camp that, when the two armies were drawn up in a position extending from E up towards D, the summit of the city served Mars as a station to animate the troops from by shouting, exactly as the hill at A served Minerva on the other side. How could Mars have made this use of a citadel at O or L? And is the hill, I, one foot nearer the shore than this incident requires ?
10. On the day of the first battle, Agamemnon calls the Greeks to an assembly at day-break, and proposes to them to return home: - they joyfully agree, and disperse through the ships to prepare for their departure, -are summoned to a second assembly, where, after several speeches, a resolution is taken to remain ;-they again disperse among the ships, take their forenoon repast, perform solemn sacrifices, and then draw up in battle-array before their camp (Il. 11, 1–464). These proceedings in so large an army, encamped over the space of one mile, must have consumed nearly one half of the day. Let us see then what is done in the other half. The Greeks advance till they are so near the city that Priam can distinguish the chiefs from the walls :-here Paris is challenged by Menelaus, and a long pause ensues, during which Agamemnon sends to the fleet for a lamb, wine, &c.—sacrifices are performed,—the duel takes place, and Paris flies, -after which the armies join battle. The Trojans are first repulsed (II. v, 37), and must of course have retired very near to the walls;—they prevail in their turn, and force back the Greeks to a position éni ynuod, at or near the ships (Il. v, 788). The latter again drive the Trojans close under the walls of the city (Il. vi, 256. 435). Hector goes to the Acropolis and orders sacrifices, then rejoius the army, and after fighting some time in the ranks, challenges the boldest of his adversaries to single combat. Nine candidates present themselves, speeches are made, and lots drawn, and Ajax, on whom the lot fell, fights Hector till the approach of night puts an end to the duel, and both armies return home (II. VII, 282. 306. 311). Thus, in little more than one afternoon, the Greeks pass four times over the ground between Troy and their camp, twice fighting, and twice simply marching. Besides this the armies rest on the field while a herald goes from the vicinity of the city to the camp, and returns with a live animal, and while two duels are fought, one of which was preceded by solemn sacrifices. We leave it as a problem to those who would place Troy at L, or 0, or R, or any spot more distant than I, to reconcile these facts with their theories.
Mr. Maclaren then shows, that when we take the route from the camp to the city by parts, noting the different objects which
mark stages in it, as—the Scamander—the tomb of Ilus—the Erineus—the Beech-tree; and again, when we examine the details of Priam's journey in the 24th book, we are conducted to a conclusion precisely similar as to the distance.
We may then consider it as proved that Troy was within three miles of the Greek camp. Now there is no bill within this distance of the ground B, between Scamander and Simois, but Issarlik, and that hill ought therefore to be the site of Troy. But farther, the ground in the neighbourhood of the city and of the camp, and at all intermediate places, is uniformly described by Homer as a plain. Though such minute objects as a fiy-tree, a myrtle, a beech-tree, a tumulus, deep sands, and trenches or hollows, are mentioned, there is no hill or eminence (except Batieia, a tumulus) once alluded to in the movements of the armies. This is easily accouuted for if Troy was at I, since the height on which it stood would be the first and only hill that occurred on the line of march ; but if Troy stood at X, at R, or at 0, the entire silence of Homer as to the bill of Issarlik, which the armies would constantly pass in their march, and which must have been of importance as a military post, and his regularly describing the ground with such inequalities of surface as a plain, are difficulties which we leave those to explain whose theories draw such consequences after them.
Troy stood on an eminence, as is clearly shown by the expressions ascending to it, and descending from it, Ilium beat by the winds, and by the precipices under the citadel (Il. III, 253. Xvi, 396. xv, 558, &c. Od. viii, 508). Issarlik is a hill about seven furlongs in length, by five in breadth, with a gentle ascent ou all sides but the north, where it presents a rocky front, of seventy feet in height, according to Mr. Turner. It is, in short, exactly such a hill as we should imagine a priori Troy occupied. The fact that a city of the same name existed on the spot, from a period reaching beyond the epochs of regular history, and that this city received visits and honors from kings and conquerors, on the supposition that it was the Ilium of the poet, are all circumstances strongly in favor of the hypothesis. Nor is there a single argument in favor of a more distant position, which cannot be easily answered.
In this outline of Mr. Maclaren's argument, the necessity of being concise has compelled us to leave out a multitude of details, and even some entire branches. He enters into a long discussion, to show that Strabo’s site of Troy is the bill O. By dissecting the passage relating to the course of Hector and Achilles, he endeavours to prove, in opposition to Chevalier and Heyné, that the fight was not before, but round and round the city. He has an elaborate argument to show that the two westmost tumuli at Sigeum, are the identical monuments mentioned by Homer. For these and for a fuller view of the reasoning we have abridged, and
for his objections to the sites proposed by Strabo, Chevalier, Dr. Clarke, and Major Rennell, we refer to the work itself. And we shall conclude this article by observing, that Mr. Maclaren's theory has brought us back very nearly to the spot fixed upon by Danville before the present controversies began.
EXPLANATION OF THE SKETCH. A The promontory of Sigeum in the Ægean Sea.
B The position of the Greek camp according to Mr. Maclaren. The three dots represent three tumuli, of which the westmost is supposed to be the tomb of Achilles.
C The promontory of Rhæteun in the Hellespont, with the reputed tomb of Ajax.
S The river Mendere of the present day—the Scamander, according to Mr. Maclaren. SFB its present course to the Hellespont ; SFE its ancient course.
M The river Dombrik of the present day—the ancient Simois. MEB its present course. VOL, XXVII.
NO, LIII. B
K The junction of the brook of Kalefat Osmak with the Mendere.
P The junction of the brook of Kimair.
T The brook of Rirke-joss, the Thymbrius of Mr. Maclaren. It once joined the Mendere at F, but is now carried by an artificial cut Q to the Ægean Sea.
L Chevalier's site of Troy, with the springs of bis Scamander, Y half a mile below.
R Major Rennell's site of Troy marked by an elliptical dotted line.
O Strabo's site of Troy according to Mr. Maclaren.
I The hill Issarlik, the site of Ilium Recens, and also of the Troy of Homer, according to Mr. Maclaren.
Dotted lines mark the present course of the sea-coast from B to C, and the present channels of the Mendere and Dombrik to their junction at B.
No. VI.-[Continued from No. LII. p. 365.]
Paradise Regained. Fabyan's Chronicle, Part vii. Chap. ccxxiv. (Expedition of William Rufus into Normandy.) “The master of the ship was afrayed, he sawe the wether so darcke and so clowdy, counsayled the kyng tooe tary tyl the wynd would blowe more favourably. But he comniaunded hym to make all the spede that he coulde upon hys lyfe, sayinge that he never heard that ever any kynge was drowned. And so he passed the sea and landed in Normandye.” Compare this with Cæsar's speech on a similar occasion.
The same work contains a story of a miracle, wrought in vindication of the title of an Archbishop of Canterbury. This personage is represented as having in the presence of William planted his pastoral staff in the ground, by way of a “testimony"