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which explanation the preceding reasons are opposed. If we decide in favor of “MESSENGERS" or "spies," (the pages árTOI XATAOKÓNOI mentioned in the Epistle to the Galatians,) we are supported by the Hellenistic use of the word on many occasions, and the testimony of history. As the verse now stands, it will be difficult to give any other rational exposition of these words :-if it could be proved, that did tous 'Ayyénous did not exist in the original Epistle, no subject of discussion would remain ; but, as this is not the case, it rests with us to adopt that translation, which agrees with other parts of Scripture, and is not in itself destitute of probability.


NOTICE OF Supplementary pages to the Second Edition of an Intro

duction to the Critical Study and Knowledge of the Holy Scriptures. Octaco. London. Cadell.

A third edition has been demanded by the public, of Mr. Horne's laborious and valuable work. Theological literature must certainly be more highly valued at present, than it has hitherto been at any given period within the last century. Tbe voluminous and ponderous tomes of our ancient divines, which in our remembrance have been sold for little more than the price of waste paper, have been progressively increasing in value, till their cost is beyond the means of the student; and reprinting in a cheaper or more pleasing form has become a common, and in the majority of instances a very profitable speculation. The most decisive proof, however, that the public have begun to direct their attention more generally to these studies, is afforded by the reception which has been given to the labors of Mr. Horne. Though the sum of 3 guineas for each copy of his closely printed and valuable work, is a sum so small that we believe it has not remunerated the author, and will scarcely pay the expense of printing the 4 volumes; it is still to be considered a large sum to those persons who may fairly be supposed to be the priucipal purchasers of theological works. Divines, students, and young men, employ their time in these pur

suits much more than the busy or the active, or the still more numerous class of the indolent, the indifferent, and the wealthy, who are absorbed in the routine of the engagements imposed by society: but divines, students, and young men, are not frequently possessed of the most ample resources; and we may justly conclude, therefore, that not only these, but that many of the other and larger classes we have mentioned, are directing their views to nobler objects, and more liberal attainments, than have hitherto been thought essential or ornamental to their station in life. Unless this has been and is the cause of the increasing demand for works of theology, our students and divines are either more numerous, more wealthy, or more devoted to reading. In either case, there is abundant cause for congratulation,

With the publication of this supplement, Mr. Horne announces to his readers, that his work is fully completed. He observes in his advertisement." As the author has now introduced every article of information, which he has reason to believe is essential to the critical study of the Bible-or which has been suggested to him as desirable—he takes this opportunity of stating, that it is not his intention to print any further supplements or additions.”—It was necessary that some declaration to this effect should be made, or the purchasers of the introduction might have supposed that it would never have been completed. The Holy Scriptures will ever continue to exercise the sagacity, and employ the powers of the human mind; and it may be justly said in one sense, that no work which professes to treat of the Scriptures in general can be complete yet the labors of an individual must, for the satisfaction of his readers, have some assignable termination; and we cannot think that the new edition would have succeeded so well as the two former, if the idea had still prevailed, that to every subsequent edition there will be a supplement. It will be impossible that Mr. Horne should not proceed with his researches; and if he will submit bis further labors to the world, whenever he has collected sufficient materials for a volume, he will ever be received with the same indulgence and admiration.

The additions to the second edition contained in this supplement, though neither long nor numerous, are highly useful. They begin with referring to Dr. Ellis' celebrated treatise on the knowlege of divine things from Revelation, not from reason, or nature. Mr. Horne calls his work, with great justice, an elaborate treatise ;-he forgot to add that it is another, of many specimens, of the dull style and heavy sentence overcoming the patience of the most willing reader. Though one of the most

useful works, as far as the nature of the subject permits, its value is almost done away by the exceeding repulsiveness of its ill-digested language.

From the brief reference to Dr. Ellis at the commencement, Mr. Horne proceeds to insert (referring to their respective places in the second volume,) some very useful remarks on the Heathen Deities and the celebration of the mysteries—the cruel punishments, and infamous severity of the Romans towards their slaves—the opinions of the wisest and best of the heathens on the importance of truth, with the quotations from Whitby's note on Eph. iv. 25., which prove the very slight regard they paid to this virtue-some additional remarks to those in vol. 1. on the modes of quotation from the Old Testament, adopted by the writers of the New Testament. From this part of his subject, Mr. Horne goes on to quote from Bishop Marsh's Lectures, the curious circumstance which corroborates the truth of Acts, xxvii. 1. that among the Syrian soldiers in the pay of Rome, stationed at Cesarea, was one company of native Romans, or of Roman soldiers, dignified with the title of XEBAETH or Augustan : after this follow some curious remarks on this positionThe actions ascribed to Jesus Christ in the New Testament are of that description, that they COULD NOT have been recorded, if they had not been true. Then follows an account of the Synagogue of the Libertines, Acts vi. 9. ; and a brief statement of the actions attributed to Jesus by the Jews, which, together with the passages on the same subject in the work itself, gives us as much information on this point, as has been collected from the Talmuds, and the Toldoth Jesu. There is, we think, a slight inaccuracy in the note in p. 743. The Jews call Mary the daughter of Eli. Mr. Horne observes, that Joseph was the son of Eli, and accuses the Talmudical writer iu question of an error. Schcetgenius, it is true, has made the same remark: Hor. Heb. vol. ii. p. 702-3. “Josephus filius fuit Eli, Luc. iii. 23.; igitur notitiam aliquam confusam hic deprehendimus." The Talmudist certainly has deviated from truth in his narrative concerning our Lord, but not in this instance. He rather confirms the Gospel account; for we are much mistaken if the word na was not sometimes used to denote a daughter-in-law, as 12 is certainly used to describe almost every degree of relationship, except the parental.

The confirmation of the narrative of the invasion of Israel by Shalmaneser, recorded in the book of Kings, from the historical sculptures discovered by Sir R. K. Porter, and the brief discussion of the question whether the inscription supposed to have

been placed on the arch of Titus is authentic, next present themselves. Ilustrations of several passages of Scripture, from the use and intent of prophecy—the tyranny exercised over the Jews in the East, and the present state of Egypt–occupy but small space, but are very valuable; as are also the remarks on future rewards and punishments, the moral precepts of Christ, and the quotations from Jortin on the literary blessings conferred on the world by Christianity.

The principal additions to the second volume, are the enlarged accounts of many of the Mss. and editions of books already mentioned in the original work ; together with some additional matter. In p. 789 we meet with an interesting account of the copies of the law preserved among the Jews, and an excellent abridgment of Mr. Yates' description of the Cambridge roll. After a brief notice of the Codex Turicensis, Mr. Horne describes at greater length the Codex Argenteus, of which he has given his readers another and more perfect plate; requesting them to cancel the copy in the work itself. This part of the supplement is also enriched with some new fac-similes of a Codex descriptus of the Gothic version of Saint Paul's Epistles, discovered by Signor Maï in the Ambrosian library at Milan, of which, with many other Mss., a copious account is given; as there is also of the Codex Montfortianus.

The remaining additions to this volume relate to various editions of the Bible previously onnitted ; an account of the Otaheitean Gospel; a review of Mr. Pitman's edition of Lightfoot; with some extracts on the subject of the order of the events related by the several Evangelists, with observations on the comparisons of the Old Testament, and some remarks on various grammars and commentaries, and works not long since published. Mr. Horne indeed is not contented with bringing down his remarks to the latest publications in theology. Judging from the mode in which Mr. Townsend has arranged the Old Testament, Mr. Horne anticipates equal excellence in the work which Mr. T.

now preparing for the press, the arrangement of the New Testament on the same plan. The success of Mr. Townsend's arrangement of the Old Testament, may be considered as an additional proof of the increasing interest which is taken by the public in theological literature. It is a work which deserves

Mr. Horne's notice of Mr. Townsend's new work is in the text only of the third edition. It is not inserted in the Supplement.

The additions to Mr. Horne's third volume, refer to the geography of Palestine, and its present state; (by the bye, we may observe here, that, if Mr. . Bankes and Captain Mangles do not


publish their respective travels in that interesting region, they are insensible to the claims of their countrymen, and their own renown); with various illustrations of Scripture, deduced from the accounts of writers and travellers-of the Sacrifices, Prayers, attitudes in Prayer, and modes of divination, practised in the East; with others which we have not space to enumerate.

The additions to the fourth volume include the account of Mount Ararat from Sir R. K. Porter—the road between Jerusalem and Jericho, illustrative of the parable of the Samaritanthe plagues of Egypt, from Mr. Bryant—the remarks of Dr. Hales on the book of Job-Holden's illustrations of the book of Ecclesiastes, and additional observations to the already copious remarks on the disputed verse in St. John. The Supplement is concluded with an appendix, containing a concise dictionary of the prophetic or symbolical language of the Scriptures, which is an admirable compendium of the remarks of Sir Isaac Newton, Bishops Lowth and Hurd--and a short, though complete, key to the study of the prophecies. It was drawn up after a perusal of the Commentary of William Lowth, Jones' Key to the Language of Prophecy, Dr. Lancaster's Symbolical Alphabetical Dictionary, and Dr. Woodhouse's Notes to his Translation of the Apocalypse. It is, without any exception, the most useful tract we ever remember to have met with on the subject of prophecy. To this, at the end, is added a table of the order and dates of the books of the New Testament, and of the places where they are supposed to have been written, as established in the second part of this volume: a table which was much wanted.

We have thus arrived at the conclusion of this Encyclopedia of theological knowlege--Mr. Horne's Critical Introduction to the study of the Holy Scriptures. We congratulate the author on the success of his labors, and the termination of his toils. We again congratulate that portion of the public who interest themselves in these subjects—the student in theology-the more mature divine-the speculative, or the retired reader, who resolves to examine and to decide for his own satisfaction on the various interesting points on the evidences of Christianity-its doctrines—its history—its duties--its general importance. We anticipate the pleasure of hearing that many editions of this book will be demanded. We have spoken of it with this almost unqualified praise, from real admiration of the patience, talent, and research of the author; and are anxious to impress on the minds of every reader of this journal, our own sentiments of gratitude for the improvement and pleasure we have alike derived from the study of this valuable work.

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