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or two may be found in · Hobhouse's Imitations,' a publication by the present Meniber for Westminster, which appeared shortly after he took his first degree. But it was in Latin prose composition where Matthews chiefly excelled ; and although a man of reading by no means extensive, yet such was the accuracy of his judgment and the delicacy of his taste, that he not only avoided errors which others were sure to fall into, but siezed on beauties and peculiarities of style, that others were as sure to miss. The following letter was sent by him to his friend G. B., as a specimen of the matter and manner which ought to be adopted by a Candidate for a fellowship when writing to the Seniority, previous to the examination.

Etsi satis intelligo, vir clarissime, hujusmodi verba necessaria, scriptori onerosa, legenti quoque molestissima esse solere, quæ coacta, et quasi vi expressa, neque liberum aliquid præ se ferunt, neque sincerum ; nec nescius sum quam difficile sit in re tam vulgata novi aliquid afferre; cum tamen 'majorum instituto positum est ut ii, qui in toga candida sese vobis objiciunt, consilii sui rationem antea per literas notam faciant ; neque Me quicquam inusitati facere, et Te in bonam partem accepturum speravi, si quæ me spes et quæ studia ad discrimen certaminis adeo periculosi subeundum impulerint, brevissime qua potero timideque proponam.

Ferme quinquennium est, vir clarissime, ex quo, ut parva magnis comparem, simile quid aggressus, inter scholares adscitus sum. Cum vero hunc quasi primum honoris gradum vestris suffragiis attigerim, quis est qui studium meum reprehendat, si tanta benevolentia non prorsus indignus videri cupiam ; si quæ adolescentiæ meæ altrix fuit, eandem provectiori quoque ætati perfugium velim; si arctiore quodam vinculo vobis obligari, et in ordinem vestrum cooptari contendam?

A qua contentione cum me prope desperantem tantum non omuia dehortantur, detrectarem penitus et refugerem, nisi quod, cum tot tantique mihi officiant, non est cur magnopere victus doleam, et quod vel ipsum contendisse videtur aliquid babere tum in me honoris tum in vos pietatis. Spero igitur fore ut te indulgentiæ tuæ non pænituerit, si, in hoc doctrinæ domicilium admissus, habeam qua studia ea quibus semper delectatus fui colam et promuveam. Quod autem ad competitores meos attinet, ingenio majores habebis omnes, scientiæ vero et bonarum literarum amantiorem neminem.

Spes hasce et sollicitudines meas, vir clarissime, non est quod verbis prolixioribus exponam. Id facere præstaret, ut, cum vos extremum alloquendi detur mihi facultas, pro egregiis vestris in me beneficiis grates agam, nisi me sedibus his Musarum amoenissimis optimisque meis patronis janı nunc in æteruum valedicturum

et vires et verba deficerent. Quicquid ad mentis gratissimæ sensus exprimendos valeat, quicquid ex vehementissimo animi affectu profluat, id omne dictum putes. Utcunque mihi res eveniet, quæcunque fortuna in posterum obtigerit, me vita citius deseret quam vestrum Collegüque vestri memoria et veneratio.

A LIST Of the earliest printed editions of the Whole and Parts

of the Hebrew BIBLE, from A. D. 1475 to A. D. 1495; collected from the works of De Rossi, Dr. Kennicott, and other Collators and Compilers.

1

A. D. No.
1475 1. Pentateuchus cum Commentario R. Sal. Jarchi
Fol. min. Calabriæ.

1475 1477 2. Psalterium cum Commentario R. David Kimchi Fol. min.

1477 1477 3. Job cum Commentario R. Levi Gersonidis, 4to. 1477 1480 4. Psalterium sine Punctis circa

1480 1480 5. Psalterium sine Punctis, cum Indice, sine anno et loco, sed a

1477-1480 1480 6. Pentateuchus cum Commentario R. Levi Gersonidis Fol. Mantuæ cir.

1480 1480 7. Pentateuchus cum Commentario R. M. Nachmavidis Fol.

cir.

1480 1480 8. Pentateuchus cum Commentario R. Sal. Jarchi

4to.
ante

1480 1480 9. Isaias ac Jeremias cum Commentario R. David Kimchi Fol. Ulyssipon.

1480 1480 10. Daniel cum Commentario Rab. David Kimchi, 4to.

1480 1482 11. Pentateuchus cum Targum Onkelosi et Comment. R. Sal. Jarchi Fol. Bonon.

1482 1483 12. Megilloth, seu Canticum Canticorum, Ecclesias

tes, Threni, Ruth, et Esther cum Commenta-
riis Fol. Bonon.

1483 1485 13. Josuæ, Judices, Libri Samuelis ac Regum, cum

Commentario R. D. Kimchi Soncini. 1485 1486 14. Prophetæ maj. et minores cum Commentario

R. Dav. Kimchi Fol. Soncini. 1486 1487 15. Pentateuchus cum Commentario R. Sal. Jarchi Fol. Soncini.

1487 1487 16. Psalterium cum Commentario R. Dav. Kimchi Fol, min. Neapoli.

1487

1487

1487

1 488

1488

1489

1490

1490

1490

A. D. No.
1487 17. Job. v Megilloth, Daniel, Esdras, Nehemias, et

Paralipomena, cum Commentario R. Sal. Jar-
chi

Fol. Neapoli.
1487 18. Proverbia cum Commentario R. I. Filii Salomo-

nis

Fol. Neapoli. 1488 19. BIBLIA HEBRAICA integra cum Punctis Fol.

Soncini. 1488 20. Pentateuchus cum Commentario R. A. Aben Ezræ

Fol. min. Neapoli. 1489 21. Pentateuchus cum Commentario R. M. Nachma

nidis Fol. Ulyssipon. 1490 22. Pentateuchus cum Commentario R. Mosis Nach

manidis Fol. min. Neapoli. 1490 23. Pentateuchus, sine Punctis, cum Targum Onke

losi et Commentario R. Sal. Jarchi Iscor. 1490 24. Pentateuchus cum V. Megilloth et Haphtaroth,

sine Punctis 4to. Iscor. 1490 25. Psalterium, Job, et Proverbia Fol. min. Nea

poli. 1491 26. Pentateuchus cum Targum Onkelosi et Con

mentario Rab. Sal. Jarchi Fol. min. Ulys

sipon. 1491 27. Pentateucbus cum V. Megilloth, et Haphtaroth.

4to. Brixæ. 1492 28. Proverbia cum Targum et Commentariis Fol.

Leiriæ. 1492 29. Isaias ac Jeremias, cum Commentario R. Dav.

Kimchi Fol. Ulyssipon. 1493 30. Pentateuchus cum V. Megilloth et Haphtaroth

4to. Brixæ. 1493 31. Psalterium 16mo. Brixæ. 1494 32. BIBLIA HEBRAICA integra cum Punctis Fol.

Neapoli. 1494 33. BIBLIA HEBRAICA integra cum Punctis 8vo.

Brixæ.

1490

1491

1491

1492

1492

1493 1493

1494

1494

By a careful inspection of this list, it will be seen how rapid must have been the progress of printing, to have produced such early examples of Typography, as the announcement of the books in this list plainly declares. The searchers into the history of printing are generally too little acquainted with the mysteries of the typographic art, duly to appreciate the notices of these monuments of skill and ingenuity; the admiration is not so much that Hebrew printing was practised so early as A. D. 1475, but that Hebrew printing had by this time so far obtained, that indeed it had atlained to an eminent degree of perfection, as the list

shows “ cum Punctis.” It is particularly desirable to trace Hebrew printing to a source still further back than 1475. We have still to look for editions without points and commentaries, I mean editions of the plain text, such as those of the psalms sine Punctis marked No. 4. and 5.

The period when the first Printers in Italy introduced the Roman letter, and when the Classic authors first made their

appearance in that letter and character, in which they are to this day seen and admired, was the period when printing found a new epoch in the page of history. The printing with the Roman types first conimenced at Rome about the year 1467, when the old Gothic letter began gradually to go out of use. In ten years from this date, the foundries of Italy had established printing in the chiefest cities, Bononia, Milan, Mantua, Naples, Venice, Padua, and Verona. Calabria, a province in the kingdom of Naples, produced the earliest impression of the Hebrew Pentateuch at present known.

In 1488, the same year, when the first Hebrew edition of the whole Bible was printed, a fine edition of HOMER was printed at Florence, so that in the language of Mr. Maittaire, printing seems to bave attained its acmè of perfection after having exhibited most beautiful specimens of Latin, Greek, and Hebrew. By this time, printing had spread in the chief cities in Germany, France, Switzerland, and the Low Countries. Next to the famous cities of Harlaem and Mentz, were Strasburg, Augsburgh, Nuremburgh, Cologn, Spires, Ratisbonne, Rutlingen, and Ulm. In France; at Paris, Louvaine, Boulogne, Lyons, Geneva, Antwerp, Basil, and other places. From the year 1467 which I consider an epoch in the history of printing, to 1488, when it attained to a maturity, it had established itself in forty-six cities of Europe. England shared in these glories of the press, and Oxford, St. Albans, and London, produce examples of it in the years 1478, 1479, 1481, and 1485. iu wbich Oxford carries the honor of the first press; but this I must reserve for a future communication on the progress of printing in England.

Y.

AFRICAN FRAGMENTS.

BY JAMES GREY JACKSON,

No. III.—[Continued from No. XLVIII, p. 250.]

“ Arise, take up thy bed, and walk.” St. John v, 8. Tge bed, in Eastern countries, is generally the outer garment, not a mattress : the Arabs, or descendants of Ishmael the son of Abraham, use their Hayk, Daira, Silham or cloak as a będ: any. garment spread out, is a bed in the Oriental acceptation of the word.

“ Then they hasted, and took every man his garment, and put it under him.” 2 Kings ix. 13.

This custom of sitting on their garments has been practised from time immemorial by the Oriental nations, and is at this day a prevailing custom. When the Arab travels, if rain falls he strips hiniself, rolls his clothes up in a ball and sits on thein, till the rain ceases; he then dresses himself again, and proceeds on his journey in dry garments : in long journies, through desert countries, where no shelter is to be had, the wisdom of such economy as this must be evident to every one.

“I pray thee, let us detain thee until we shall have made ready a kid for thee.” Gen. xviii. 5. and Judges xiii. 15.

This custom is constantly practised among the Arabs to this day; also among the Shellubs, inhabitants of the Atlas mountains south of the city of Marocco. Travelling from Santa Cruz to Mogodor, with my Moorish friend, L'Hage Seyd bu Zurwal, we came to a castellated habitation belonging to a friend of my conductor; he invited us to rest and refresh ourselves; we consented, and the goat-herd was sent to take a young kid for us ; which was killed, and roasted immediately, before the vital heat was out of it; this custom of cooking animal food immediately after the extinction of the vital principle, prevails throughout the country, in the plains, as well as among the mountains. Accordingly we found the kid remarkably tender and delicate ; we experienced a hospitable and kind reception, and remained with our host two or three hours, discussing and comparing the manyers and customs of our respective countries.

“ Butter and honey shall he eat.” Isaiah vii. 15.

“Make ready quickly three measures of fine meal, knead it, and make cakes upon the hearth.” Gen. xviii. 6.

“ Rest yourselves under the tree.” Gen. xviii. 4. VOL. XXVII. CI. Jl.

NO. LIII. H

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