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A Fragment.

June 17, 1816. duct of my intended journey. It was my secret wish In the year 17-, having for some time determined that he might be prevailed on to accompany me : it was on a journey through countries not hitherto much fre- also a probable hope, founded upon the shadowy rest. quented by travellers, I set out, accompanied by a friend lessness which I had observed in him, and to which the whom I shall designate by the name of Augustus Dar- animation which he appeared to feel on such subjects, vell. He was a few years my elder, and a man of con and his apparent indifference to all by which he was siderable fortune and ancient family-advantages which more immediately surrounded, gave fresh strength. an extensive capacity prevented him alike from under- This wish I first hinted, and then expressed : bis answer, valuing or ovecrating. Some peculiar circumstances in though I had partly expected it, gave me all the pleahis private history had rendered him to me an object sure of surprise--he consented; and, after the requisite of attention, of interest, and even of regard, which arrangements, we commenced our voyages. After journeither the reserve of his manners, nor occasional indi. neying through various countries of the south of Europe, cations of an inquietude at times nearly approaching to our attention was turned towards the East, according alienation of mind, could extinguish.

to our original destination; and it was in my progress I was yet young in life, which I had begun early; through those regions that the incident occurred upon but my intimacy with him was of a recent date: we had which will turn what I may have to relate. been educated at the same schools and university, but The constitution of Darvell, which must, from his his progress through these had preceded mine, and he appearance, bave been in early life more than usually had been deeply initiated into what is called the world, robust, had been for some time gradually giving way, while I was yet in my noviciate. While thus engaged, I without the intervention of any apparent disease : he had heard much both of his past and present life; and, had neither cough nor hectic, yet he became daily although in these accounts there were many and irre. more enfeebled : bis habits were temperate, and be concilable contradictions, I could still gather from the neither declined nor complained of fatigue, yet he was whole that he was a being of no common order, and evidently wasting away: lie became inore and more one who, whatever pains he might take to avoid re- silent and sleepless, and at length so seriously altered, mark, would still be remarkable. I had cultivated his that my alarm grew proportionate to what I conceived acquaintance subsequently, and endeavoured to obtain to be his danger. his friendship, but this last appeared to be unattainable; We bad determined, on our arrival at Smyroa, on whatever affections hie might have possessed seemed an excursion to the ruins of Ephesus and Sardis, from now, some to have been extinguished, and others to be which I endeavoured to dissuade him, in his present concentred : that his feelings were acute, I had suffi- state of indisposition—but in vain: there appeared to be cient opportunities of observing; for, although he could an oppression on bis mind, and a solemnity in tais magcontrol, he could not altogether disguise them: still be ver, wbich ill corresponded with luis eagerness to proceed had a power of giving to one passion the appearance of on what I regarded as a mere party of pleasure, lide another, in such a manner that it was difficult to define suited 10 a valetudinarian; but I opposed him no longer the nature of what was working within lim; and the -and in a few days we set off together, accompanied expressions of his features would vary so rapidly, though only by a serrugec and a single janizary. slightly, that it was useless to trace them to their sources. We had passed half-way towards the remains of Epbe Il was evident that lie was a prey to some cureless dis- sus, leaving behind us the more fertile environs of quiet; but whether it arose from ambition, love, re-Smyrna, and were entering upon that wild and temorse, grief, from one or all of these, or merely from nantless track through the marshes and defiles which a morbid temperament akin to disease, I could not dis- lead to the few buts yet lingering over the broken cocover: there were circumstances alleged which might lumns of Diana- the rootless walls of expelled Christiahave justified the application to each of these causes; nily, and the still more recent but complete desolation of but, as I have before said, these were so contradictory abandoned mosques—when the sudden and rapid illand contradicted, that none could be fixed upon with ness of my companion obliged us to halt at a Turkish accuracy. Where there is mystery, it is generally sup- cemetery, the turbaned tombstones of which were the posed that there must also be evil : I know not low this sole indication that human life had ever been a sojourner may be, but in him there certainly was the one, though in this wilderness. The only caravansera we had sera I could not ascertain the extent of the other—and felt' was left some hours behind us; not a vestige of a 100 loth, as far as regarded liimself, to believe in its exist-'or even cottage, was within sight or hope, and this a city ence. My advances were reecived with sufficient cold- of the dead» appeared to be the sole refuge for my unness; but I was young, and not easily discouraged, and fortunate friend, who seemed on the verge of becomia; at length succeeded in obtaining to a certain degree, the last of its inhabitants. that common place intercourse and moderate confidence In this situation, I looked round for a place where le of common and every-day concerns, created and ce might most conveniently repose:-

- contrary to the usual mented by similarity of pursuit and frequency of meer aspect of Vahometan burial grounds, the cypresse: ing, wliich is called jutimacy, or friendship, according were in this few in number, and these thinly scattered to the ideas of lum who uses those words to express them. over its extent: the tombstones were mosuy fallen, and

Darvell had already travelled extensively, and to him worn with age: upon one of the most considerable of! I had applied for information with regard to the con. these, and beneath one of the most spreading tress

Darvell supported himself, in a half-reclining posture, « Why?» with great difficulty. He asked for water. I had some « You will see.» doubts of our being able to fiod any, and prepared to go a The ninth day of the month, you say ?» in search of it with hesitating despondency--but lie « The ninth.» desired me to remain; and turning to Suleiman, our As I observed that the present was the ninth day of the janizary, who stood by us smoking with great tranquil month, his countenance changed, and he paused. As he lity, he said, « Suleiman, verbana su,» (i. e. bring some sate, evidently becoming more feeble, a stork, with a water,) and went on describing the spot where it was to snake in her beak, perched upon a tombstone near us; be found with great minuteness, at a small well for and, without devouring her prey, appeared to be stedcamels, a few hundred yards to the right: the janizary fastly regarding us. I know not what impelled me to obeyed. I said to Darvell, « How did you know this ?» drive it away, but the attempt was useless; she made a

- He replied, « From our situation ; you must perceive few circles in the air, and returned exactly to the same that this place was once inhabited, and could not have spot. Darvell pointed to it, and smiled : he spoke-1 been so without springs : I have also been here before. » know not whether to himself or to me-but the words

« You have been here before !-How came you never were only, « 'T is well!» to mention this to me? and what could you be doing in « What is well? what do you mean?» a place where no one would remain a moment longer « No matter : you must bury me here this evening, than they could help it?»

and exactly where that bird is now perched. You know To this question I received no answer. In the mean the rest of my injunctions.» time, Suleiman returned with the water, leaving the ser He then proceeded to give me several directions as to rugee and the horses at the fountain. The quenching of the manner in which his death might be best concealed. his thirst had the appearance of reviving him for a mo- After these were finished, he exclaimed, « You perceive ment; and I conceived hopes of his being able to pro- that bird ? » ceed, or at least to return, and I urged the attempt. He « Certainly.» was silent-and appeared to be collecting his spirits for « And the serpent writhing in her beak ?» an effort to speak. He began.

« Doubtless : there is nothing uncommon in it; it is « This is the end of my journey, and of my life-1 her natural prey. But it is odd that she does not devour came here to die: but i have a request to make, a it.» command-for such my last words must be. - You will He smiled in a ghastly manner, and said, faintly, « It observe it?»

is not yet time !» As he spoke, the stork flew away. « Most certainly; but have better hopes.»

My eyes followed it for a moment; it could hardly be « I have no hopes, nor wishes, but this conceal my longer than ten might be counted. I felt Darvell's death from every human being.»

weight, as it were, increase upon my shoulder, and, « I hope there will be no occasion; that you will returning to look upon his face, perceived that he was cover, and -->

dead ! « Peace! it must be so : promise this.»

I was shocked with the sudden certainty which could « I do,»

not be mistaken-his countenance in a few minutes « Swear it by all that»-—He here dictated an oath became nearly black. I should have attributed so rapid of great solemnity.

a change to poison, had I not been aware that he had « There is no occasion for this I will observe your no opportunity of receiving it unperceived. The day request ;-and to doubt me is--»

was declining, the body was rapidly altering, and « It cannot be helped --- you must swear. » nothing remained but to fulfil his request. With the

I took the oath : it appeared to relieve him. He re- aid of Suleiman's ataghan and my own sabre, we scooped moved a seal-ring from his finger, on which were some a shallow grave upon the spot which Darvell had indiArabic characters, and presented it to me. He pro- cated: the earth easily gave way, having already received ceeded

some Mahometan tenant. We dug as deeply as the « On the ninth day of the month, at noon precisely time permitted us, and throwing the dry earth upon all (what month you please, but this must be the day), you that remained of the singular being so lately departed, must fling this ring into the salt springs which run into we cut a few sods of greener turf from the less withered the Bay of Eleusis: the day after, at the same hour, you soil around us, and laid them upon his sepulchre. must repair to the ruins of the temple of Ceres, and Between astonishment and grief, I was tearless. wait one hour.»

Parliamentary Speeches.

DEBATE ON TUE FRAME-WORK BLL, IN THE HOUSE My Lords—The subject now submitted to your lordOF LORDS, FEBRUARY 27, 1812.

ships for the first time, though new to the House, is by

no means new to the country. I believe it had occuThe order of the day for the second reading of this pied the serious thoughts of all descriptions of persons, bill being read.

long before its introduction to the notice of that legisLORD BYRON rose, and (for the first time) addressed lature, whose interference alone could be of real sertheir lordships, as follows:

vice. As a person in some degree connected with the

suffering county, though a stranger not only to this chinery, in that state of our commerce which the coun. llouse in general, but to almost every individual whose try once boasted, might have been beneficial to the attention I presume to solicit, I must claim some por- master without being detrimental to the servant; yet tion of your lordships' indulgence wliilst I offer a few in the present situation of our manufactures, rotting in observations on a question in which I confess myself | warebouses, without a prospect of exportation, with deeply interested.

the demand for work and workmen equally diminished, To enter into any detail of the riots would be super- frames of this description tend materially to aggravate fluous : the House is already aware that every outrage the distress and discontent of the disappointed sufferers. short of actual bloodshed has been perpetrated, and But the real cause of these distresses and consequent that the proprietors of the frames obnoxious to the disturbances lies deeper. When we are told that these rioters, and all persoas supposed to be connected men are leagued together, not only for the destruction with them, have been liable to insalt and violence. of their own comfort, but of their very means of subDuring the short time I recently passed in Nottingham-sistence, can we forget that it is the bitter policy, the shire, not twelve hours elapsed without some fresh nct destructive warfare of the last eighteen years, which of violence; and on the day I left the county, I was in- has destroyed their comfort, your comfort, all men's formed that forty frames had been broken the preceding comfort ? that policy which, originating with a great evening, -as usual, without resistance and without de-statesmen now no more,» has survived the dead to betection.

come a curse ou the living, unto the third and fourth Such was then the state of that county, and such I gcneration ! These men never destroyed their Jooms have reason to believe it to be at this moment. But till they were become useless, worse than useless; till whilst these outrages must be admitted to exist to an they were become actual impediments to their exertions alarming extent, it cannot be denied that they have in obtaining their daily bread. Can you, then, wonder arisen from circumstances of the most unparalleled bat, in times like these, when bankruptcy, convicted distress. The perseverance of these miserable meo in fraud, and imputed felony, are found in a station poi their proceedings, tends to prove that nothing but abso- far beneath that of your lord ships, the lowest, though lule want could have driven a large, and once honest once most useful portion of the people, should forget and industrious, body of the people, into the commission their duty in their distresses, and become only less of excesses so bazardous to themselves, their familie's, guilty in one of their representatives? But while the and the community. At the time to which I allude, exalted offender can find means to baftle the law, new the town and countey were buriliened with large detach-capital punishmeots must be devised, new snares of ments of the military; the police was in motion; the cati must be spread for the wretched mechanic, who magistrates assembled; yet all the movements, civil and is famisbed into guilt. These men were willing to dig, military, had led 10-nothing. Not a single instance but the spade was in other hands : they were not had occurred of the apprehension of any real delinquent ashamed to beg, but there was none to relieve them : actually taken in the fact, against whom there existed their own means of subsistence were cut off, all other legal evidence sufficient for conviction. But the police, employments pre-occupied, and their excesses, however however useless, were no means idle: several noto

to be deplored and condemned, can hardly be subject of rious delinquents had been detected; men, liable to surprise. conviction, on the clearest evidence, of the capital crime Tuas been stated, that the persons in the temporary of poverty; men who had been nefariously guilty of possession of frames connive at their destruction; if lawfully begetting several children, whom, thanks to this be proved upon inquiry, it were necessary that such | the times! they were unable to maintain. Considerable material accessories to the crime should be principals i injury has been done to the proprietors of the improved in the punishment. But I did hope, that any measure frames. These machines were to them an advantage, proposed by his majesty's government, for your loalinasmuch as they superseded the necessity of employing ships' decision, would have had couciliation for its basis; a number of workmen, who were left in consequence or, if that were liopeless, that some previous inquiry, | to starve. By the adoption of one species of frame in soine deliberation would have been deemed requisite : particular, one man performed the work of many, and not that we should have been called at once willithe superfluous labourers were thrown out of employ- oui examination, and without cause, to pass sentences ment. Yet it is to be observed, that the work thus by wholesale, and sign death-warrants blindfold. But cxecuted was inferior in quality; not murketable as admitting that these men had no cause of complaint ; liome, and mcrcly hurried over with a view to exporta- that the grievances of them and their employers were tion. It was called, in the cant of the trade, by the alike groundless; that they deserved the worst; what name of « spider - work.» The rejected workmien, in inefficiency, what imbecility has been cvinced in the the blindness of their ignorinec, instead of rejoicing at method chosen to reduce them! Why were the military these improvements in arts so beneficial to mankind, called out to be made a mockery of, if they were to be conceived themselves to be sacrificed to inaprovements called out at all? As far as the difference of seasons in mechanism. In the foolislıness of their hearts they would permit, they have mereiy parodied the summer imagined, that the maintenance and well-doing of the campaigo of Major Sturgeon; and, indeed, the whole industrious poor were objects of greater consequence proceedings, civil and military, seemed on the model of than the enrichment of a few individuals by any im- ihose of the Mayor and Corporation of Garrati.-Such provemeut, in the implements of traile, wbich threw narchings and counter-marchings! from Nottingham the workmen out of employment, and rendered the 1o Bullwell, from Bullwell to Banford, from Banford to

1 labourer unworthy of his lirr. And it must be con- Mansueld! and when at length the detachments arrivedi fessed, that although the adoptiou of the colarged ma- al their destinations, in all « the pride, pomp, and cir

curastance of glorious war,» they came just in time to such objects demand it. I have traversed the seat of witness the mischief which had been done, and ascertain war in the Peninsula, I have been in some of the most the escape of the perpetrators; to collect the « spolia oppressed provinces of Turkey, but never under the opiman in the fragments of broken frames, and return most despotic of infidel governments did I beliold to their quarters amidst the derision of old women, and such squalid wretchedness as I have seen since my rethe bootings of children. Now, though in a free country, wrn, in the very lieart of a Christian country. And it were to be wished, that our military should never be too what are your remedies ? After months of inaction, formidable, at least to ourselves, I cannot see the policy of and months of action worse than inactivity, at length placing them in situations where they can only be made comes forth the grand specific, the never-failing nosridiculous. As the sword is the worst argument that can be trum of all state-physicians, from the days of Draco to used, so should it be the last. In this instance it has the present time. After feeling the pulse and shaking been the first; but providentially as yet only in the the head over the patient, prescribing the usual course scabbard. The present measure will, indeed, pluck it of warm water and bleeding, the warm water of your from the sheath; yet had proper meetings been held in maukish police, and the lancets of your military, these the earlier stages of these riots,-had the grievances of convulsions must terminate in death, the sure conthese men and their masters (for they also had their summation of the prescriptions of all political Sangragrievances) been fairly weighed and justly examined, 1 dos. Setting aside the palpable injustice, and the do think that means might have beca devised to restore certain inefficiency of the bill, are there not capital these workmen to their avocations, and tranquillity to punishments sufficient in your statutes ? Is there not the county. At present the county suffers from the blood enough upon your penal code, that more must be double infliction of an idle military and a starving poured forth to ascend to Heaven and testify against population. In what state of apathy have we been you? How will you carry the bill into effect? Can plunged so long, that now for the first time the House you commit a whole county to their own prison ? itas been officially apprised of these disturbances! AN Will you erect a gibbel in every field, and hang up men this has been transacting within 130 miles of London, like scarecrows? or will you proceed (as you must to and yet we, « good easy men, have deemed full sure bring this measure into effect) by decimation ? place our greatness was a-ripening, and have sat down to the country under martial law? depopulate and lay enjoy our foreign triumphs in the midst of domestic waste all around you ? and restore Sherwood Forest calamity. But all the cities you have taken, all the as an acceptable gift to the crown, in its former condiarmies which have retreated before your leaders, are tion of a royal chase and an asylum for outlaws ? Are but paltry subjects of self-congratulation, if your land these the remedies for a starving and desperate popudivides against itself, and your dragoons and your lace? Will the famished wretch who has braved your executioners must be let loose against your fellow-citi. bayonets be appalled by your gibbets? When death zens.—You call these men a mob, desperate, dangerous, is a relief, and the only relief it appears that you will and ignorant; and seem to thiok bat the only way to afford him, will he be dragooned into tranquillity ? quiet the « Bellua multorum capitum» is to lop off a Will that which could not be effected by your grenafew of its superfluous heads. But even a mob may diers be accomplished by your executioners ? If you be better reduced to reason by a niixture of concilia- proceed by the forms of law, where is your evidence ? tion and firmness, than by additional irritation and re- Those who have refused to impeach their accomplices, doubled penalties. Are we aware of our obligations when transportation only was the punishment, will to a mob! It is the mob that labour in your fields, and hardly be tempted to witness against them when death serve in your houses,--that man your navy, and recruit is the penalty. With all due deference to the noble your army,--that have enabled you to defy all the lords opposite, I think a little investigation, some preworld, and can also defy you when neglect and ca- vious inquiry, would induce even them to change their lamity have driven them to despair. You may call the purpose. That most favourite state mcasure, so marpeople a mob; but do not forget, that a mob too often vellously efficacious in many and recent instances, speaks the sentiments of the people. And bere temporising, would not be without its advantages in must remark, with what alacrity you are accustomed this

. Wben a proposal is made to emancipate or reto fly to the succour of your distressed allies, leaving lieve, you hesitate, you deliberate for years, you tempothe distressed of your own country to the care of Pro- rize and tamper with the minds of men; but a deathvidence or--the parish. When the Portuguese suffered bill must be passed off hand, without a thought of the under the retreat of the French, every arm was stretch- consequences. Sure I am, from what I have heard, ed out, every hand was opened, from the rich man's and from what I have seen, that to pass the Bill largess to the widow's mile, all was bestowed to enable under all the existing circumstances without inquiry, them to rebuild their villages and replenish their gra- without deliberatioa, would only be to add injustice naries. And at this moment, when thousands of mis- to irritation, and barbarity to neglect. The framers Guided but most unfortunate fellow-countrymen are of such a Bill must be content to inherit the honours struggling with the extremes of hardships and hunger, of that Athenian lawgiver, whose edicts were said as your charity began abroad it should end at home. to be written not in ink but in blood. But suppose A much less sum, a tithe of the bounty bestowed on it passed ; suppose one of tbese men, as I have seen Portugal, even if those men (which I cannot admit them,-meagre with famine, sullen with despair, carewithout inquiry) could not have been restored to their less of a life which your Lordships are perhaps about employments, would have reudered unnecessary the to value at something less than the price of a stockingtender mercics of the bayonet and the gibbet. But frame--suppose this man surrounded by the chilJoubtless our friends have too many foreign claims to dreo for whom he is unable to procure bread at adınit a prospect of domestic relief ; though never did the hazard of his existence, about to be torn for ever

from a family which he lately supported in peaceful in-| The interval of a century has not weakced the force dustry, and which it is not his fault that he can no of the remark. It is indeed time that we should leave longer so support-suppose this man, and there are off these petty cavils ou frivolous points, these Lilliten thousand such from whom you may select your putian soplistries, whether our « eges are best broken victims, dragged into court, to be tried for this new at the broad or narrow end.» offence by this new law; still, there are two things The opponents of the Catholics may be divided into wanting to convict and condemn him ; and these are, two classes ; those who assert that the Catholics have in my opinion,-iwelve Butchers for a Jury, and a Jef. 100 much already, and those who allege that the lower feries for a Judge!

orders, at least, have nothing more to require. We are told by the former, that the Catholics never will be

contented: by the latter, that they are already too happy. DEBATE ON THE EARL OF DONOUGUMORE'S The last paradox is sufficiently refuted by the present,

MOTION FOR A COMMITTEE ON TUE ROMAN as by all past petitions; it might as well be said, that CATUOLIC CLAIMS, APRIL 21, 1812.

the negroes did not desire to be emancipated, but this My Lords— The question before the llouse has been livered them out of the house of bondage without any

is an unfortunate comparison, for you have already deso frequently, fully, and ably discussed, and never

petition on their part, but many from their task-masters perhaps more ably than on this night, that it would be difficult to adduce new arguments for or against it. this

, I pity the Catholic peasantry for not having the

to a contrary effect; and for myself, when I consider But will each discussion difliculties have been remov

good fortune to be born black. But the Catholics are ed, objections have been canvassed and refuted, and some contented, or at least ought to be, as we are told : I shall of the former opponents of Catholic Emancipation have therefere proceed to touch on a few of those cireumat length conceded to the expediency of relieving the stances which so marvellously contribute to their erpetitioners. In conceding thus much, however, a new cceding contentment. They are not allowed the free objection is started; it is not the time, say they, or it is

exercise of their religion in the regular army; the Caan improper time, or there is time enough yet. In some tholic soldier cannot absent himself from the service of degree I concur with those who say it is not the time the Protestant clergyman, and, unless he is quartered in exactly; that time is passed; better had it been for Ireland, or in Spain, where can he find eligible opporthe country, that the Catholics possessed at this moment their proportion of our privileges, that their pobles tholic claplains to the Irish militia regiments was con

tunities of attending his own? The permission of Caheld their due weight in our councils, than that we

ceded as a special favour, and not till after years of should be assembled to discuss their claims. It had in

remonstrance, although an act, passed in 1793, estadeed been better

blished it as a right. But are the Catholics properly Non tempore tali

protected in Ireland? Can the Church purchase a rool Cogere concilium cum muros obsidet hostis.

of land wbereon to erect a chapel ? No; all the places The enemy is without, and distress within. It is too late of worship are built on leases of trust or sufferance from to cavil on doctrinal points, when we must unite in de- the laity, easily broken and often betrayed. The moment fence of things more important than the mere ceremo- any irregular wish, any casual caprice of the benevolent nies of religion. It is indeed singular, that we are called landlord meets with opposition, the doors are barred together to deliberate, not on the God we adore, for in against the congregation. This has happened continually: that we are agreed; not about the king we obey, for to but in no instance more glaringly, than at the town of him we are loyal; but how far a difference in the ce Newtown-Barry, in the county of Wexford. The Catholics, remonials of worship, low for believing, not too little, enjoying no regular chapel, as a temporary expedient, but too much (the worst that can be imputed to the hired iwo barns, which, being thrown into one, served! Catholics), how far too much devotion to their God, may for public worship. At this time, there was quartered incapacitate our fellow-subjects from effcctually serving opposite to the spot an officer, whose mind appears to their king.

have been deeply imbued with those prejudices which Much has been said, within and without doors, of the Protestant petitions, now on the table, prove to Church and State, and although those venerable words have been fortunately eradicated from the more rational have been too often prostituted to the most despica- portion of the people; and when the Catholics were ble of party purposes, we cannot hear them too often : assembled on the Sabbath as usual, in peace and goodall, I presume, are the advocates of Church and State, will towards men, for the worship of their God and the Church of Christ, and the State of Great Britain ; yours, they found the chapel door closed, and were but not a state of exclusion and despotism, vot an in- told that if they did not immediately retire and they tolerant church, not a church militant, wbich renders were told this by a yeoman officer and a magistrate), itself liable to the very objection urged against the the riot act should be read, and the assembly dispered Romish communion, and in a greater degree, for the at the point of the bayonet! This was complained of to Catholic merely withholds ils spiritual benediction the middle-man of government, the Secretary at the and even that is doubtful!; but our church, or rather Castle in 1806, and the answer was (in lieu of redress', our churchimen, not only refuse to the Catholic their that he would cause a letter to be written to the colonel, spiritual grace, but all temporal blessings whatsoever. 10 preveut, if possible, the recurrence of similar disIt was an observation of the great Lord Peterborough, lurbances. Upon this fact, no very great stress need be made within these walls, or within the walls where the laid; but it tends to prove that while the Catholie church Lord, then assembled, that he was for a « parliamentary bas not power to purchase land for ils chapels to standi king and in parliamentary constiention, but not ampon, the laws for its protection are of no avail. In the purliamentary God and parliamentary religion.» meantime, the Catholies are at the merey of every

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