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been deserted; and that the piece which did suchi fatal execution, was fired by a single remaining artillery-man, who immediately followed his comrades, and fled from the battery * That no other gun was discharged corroborates this intelligence.

To express the high sense entertained by his country of his services, Congress decreed him a monument, with an inscription sacred to bis memory, and expressive of “the veneration of the United Colonies for the late General Richard Montgomery, and the deep sense they entertain of the many signal and important services of that gallant officer, who, after a series of successes, amidst the most discouraging difficulties, fell at length in a gallant attack upon Quebec, the capital of Canada; and to transmit to future ages, as examples truly worthy of imitation, his patriotism, conduct, boldness of enterprise, insuperable «perseverance, and contempt of danger and death.”

The American army was no longer in a condition to continue the siege. At first they rere extremely alarmed, and about one hundred set out for Montreal. With difficulty Arnold retained the others; but they broke up their camp, and retired about three miles from the city, where, though inferior

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* This information was received from Colonc! IIcth, then a Lieutenant in Morgan's company, every individual of which, made distinguished exertions in this fatal attempt.

in numbers to the garrison, they kept it in a state of blockade, and in the course of the winter reduced it to great distress for wart of provisions. By preserving this bold countenance they retained the confidence of the Canadians, which saved their affairs for a time from total ruin.

Governor Carleton, who acquired, and deserved, great reputation by the fortitude discovered in defending Qucbec, and who only wished to preserve the place till the reinforcements he expected to receive in the spring should enable him to act offensively, very prudently determined not to hazard an attack with a garrison on which it was unsafe to rely; and Arnoid, on whom the command now devolved, remained undisturbed, except by occasional sorties made by small parties, which always retreated precipitately under their guns as soon as he advanced. Although badly wounded, be retained his courage and activity; and though deserted by those whose times of service had expired, so that his force was reduced at one time to about five hundred eifective men, and no longer supported by the Canadians, le discovered no disposition to sink under the weiglit of adverse fortune.

Congress had been sanguine in the hope of annexing Canada to the Union, and had authorized General Schuyler, on his taking the command in the Northern department, to raise a regiment in


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that province. On the first intelligence of the difficulties experienced by Montgomery in re-enlisting his men, three of their members were deputed a committee to the Nortliern army, with power to concert with General Schuyler the means of reinforcing it, and to offer two months' pay as a bounty to those who would re-enlist, to be received on obtaining possession of St. John's and Montreal. Unfortunately thic remedy was not applied in time, and tlie evil grew to such magnitude, that even Tyconderoga and Fort George were abandoned hy the troops which had garrisoned them, whose terms of service had expired before others could be recruited to take their places.

It was determined to keep up in Canada nine battalions for the ensuing campaign, including one to be raised in that province, and General Schuyler was directed to have constructed at Tyconderoga, a number of bateaux for the purpose of transporting the troops to the scene of action. He was also directed to have the St. Lawrence, above and below Quebec, explored, in order to fix on proper places to oppose, by armed boats, or otherwise, an enemy attempting to enter the country by that river. To complete the nine battalions voted for this service, one from Pennsylvania, and one from New Jersey, were ordered to march immediately to Albany; two others were to be formed of the troops already with Montgomery; and the remaining nwnber to


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be raised, one in Pennsylvania, and the others in New England and New York.

Whilst Congress were thus adopting means for the preservation of a colony believed to be already annexed to the union, the melancholy intelligence was received of the disaster of the thirty-first of December. The necessity of making great exertions now became apparent. It was resolved, that the utmost possible dispatch in forwarding reinforcements ought to be used, as well for the relief of their friends, as for the better security of the liberties, not only of that colony, but of all the United Colonies. Expresses were dispatched to expedite the battalions ordered from Pennsylvania and New Jersey, and the committee of safety in the former province was requested to obtain in Philadelphia a sufficient number of blankets to enable the men to inove in that inclement season. The Colonial Governments were urged to use all possible means for raising, as specily as possible, the battalions voted a few days before for Canada, and a bounty of six dollars, and two-thirds of a collar, was allowed to cach man who would enlist for that service, if furnished with a stand of arms, wliich was to remain his own property; and four dollars were offered to every persoy who would enlist without arms. The respective contentions, 100, were requested to collect all the specie they çould by any miçans obtain for the use of the Car

nadian army. These measures for reinforcing the Northern army were in some degree accelerated by having been anticipated by the Commander ih Chief *. · The service iir Canada was deemed of too much importance to be entrusted to Colonel, now Brigadier-General Arnold, or to General Wooster; and the health of General Schuyler would not admit of his proceeding to Quebec. General Lee, an officer standing high in the public opinion, was ordered to take the command of the army in that province. To remove the complaints respecting the want of heavy artillery, the government of New York was requested to supply him with cannon not exceeding twelve pieces, and one or more mortars, if to be had ; as also with balls, shells, and otlier necessaries for the siege or assault of Quebec. But before General Lee could enter on this service, the Opposite extreme of the union was so threatened by the enemy, that the destination of this officer was -changed, and he was ordered to take command in the southern department. Brigadier-General Thomas, lately created a Major-General, who had commanded with reputation at Roxbury, and con

* On the first intelligence received in the camp at Boston of the fate of Montgomery, General Washington, though extremely delicate respecting the assumption of power, without waiting for the orders of Congress, had immediately requested the New England governments to raise several regiments to re. inforce tbat army. This measure was approved by Congress. VOL. II.



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