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Still, as no precise rule can be laid down to direct when “de, à,” or no preposition at all is to be used, we shall offer now, for the sake of the students, three lists of the verbs of common occurrence concerning this important matter.

1. A list of verbs of common occurrence which require after them the preposition “de” before another verb in the infinitive :

presser, to

Accuser, to accuse. appréhender, to apprehend. blâmer, to blame. cesser, to cease. commander, to command. conjurer, to entreat. conseiller, to advise. convaincre, to convince. convenir, to agree. craindre, to fear. défendre, to forbid. désespérer, to despair. désirer, to desire. détourner, to deter. différer, to delay. dire, to tell. dispenser, to dispense. dissuader, to dissuade. écrire, to write. empêcher, to prevent. enjoindre, to enjoin. entreprendre, to undertake. essayer, to try. éviter, to avoid. excuser, to excuse. exempter, to exempt. feindre, to feign. finir, to finish. gronder, to scold. jurer, to swear. mander, to send word.

manquer, to fail.
menacer, to threaten.
mériter, to deserve.
négliger, to neglect.
offrir, to offer.
omettre, to omit.
ordonner, to order.
oublier, to forget.
pardonner, to forgive.
permettre, to allow.
persuader, to persuade.
plaindre, to pity.
prendre garde, to take care,
prescrire, to prescribe.

press.
prier, to pray, to beg.
promettre, to promise.
proposer,

to

propose. recommander, to recommend. refuser, to refuse. regretter, to regret. remercier, to thank. reprocher to reproach. résoudre, to resolve. rougir, to blush. sommer, to summon. souhaiter, to wish. soupçonner, to suspect. suffire, to suffice. suggérer, to suggest. supplier, to beseech.

tâcher, to try.

se proposer, to intend.

se plaindre, to complain. s'abstenir, to abstain.

se réjouir, to rejoice. se dépêcher, to make haste. se repentir, to repent. se dispenser, to dispense. se résoudre, to resolve. s'efforcer, to endeavour. se ressouvenir, to recollect. s'empresser, to hasten. se souvenir, to remember. se flatter, to flatter one's self. se soucier, to care. se garder, to refrain.

se vanter, to boast. se hâter, to hasten.

2. A list of verbs of common occurrence which require after them the preposition “à” before another verb in the infinitive. Admettre, to admit.

exposer, to expose. aider, to help.

forcer, to compel. aimer, to like.

gagner, to gain. apprendre, to learn.

hésiter, to hesitate. aspirer, to aspire.

inciter, to instigate. autoriser, to authorixe. inviter, to invite. avoir, to have.

parvenir, to succeed. chercher, to seek.

penser, to think : to mind. condamner, to sentence, perdre, to lose. condescendre, to condescend. persister, to persist. consister, to consist.

porter, to induce. contraindre, to compel. préparer, to prepare. contribuer, to contribute. renoncer, to renounce. demander, to ask.

réussir, to succeed. dépenser, to spend.

tarder, to delay. destiner, to destine.

tendre, to tend. disposer, to dispose,

travailler, to work. donner, to give. employer, to employ.

s'abaisser, to stoop. encourager, to encourage. s'accoutumer, to be accustomed. engager, to induce.

se déterminer, to be deteren hardir, to embolden.

mined. enseigner, to teach.

s'engager, to engage. être, to be.

s'exposer, to expose o.'s self. exercer, to train up.

s'opiniâtrer, to persist obexhorter, to exhort.

stinately. 3. A list of verbs which require no preposition after them before another verb in the infinitive.

Aimer mieux, to like better.
aller, to go.
assurer, to assure.
compter, to intend.
croire, to believe.
daigner, to deign.
déclarer, to deciare.
devoir, to be.
entendre, to hear.
espérer, to hope.
faire, to make.
falloir, must, to be necessary.
laisser, to let.
oser, to dare.

paraître, to appear.
penser, to think.
pouvoir, to be able.
prétendre, to pretend.
reconnaître, to acknowledge.
regarder, to look.
savoir, to know : can.
sembler, to seem.
valoir mieux, to be better.
venir, to come.
voir, to see.
vouloir, to be willing : to like.

s'imaginer, to imagine.

Venez me voir. allez lui parler.

Come and see me.
go and speak to him.

EXERCISE 170. 1. I regret to tell you, for the second time, not to fail to do it. 2. Forgive me for having forgotten to inform you of it. 3. He wrote to invite me to go and pass a week with him. 4. Mind to send for me if your god-mother comes to see you. 5. If you are willing to follow my advice, you will succeed in getting the place you are wishing for. 6. Always endeavour to please your parents. 7. Have you learned swimming ? I can swim. 8. I am authorized to tell you that the thing cannot be done. 9. Make haste and finish your exercise. 10. We intend going out to night: would you like to accom

11. He has broken his word : I cannot trust hiin 12. What has induced you to take so rash a decision ?

EXERCISE 171. 1. Allow me to tell you frankly that I do not approve of the plan you intend pursuing. 2. She will not dare do it. 3. I really give up trying to make you understand that it would have been much better not to have begun so soon. 4. Why did you delay so long in answering my letter? When will you come and see us ? 6. What have you gained by refusing to help them? 7. If you cannot assure me that the weather will be fine, I like better to remain at home. 8.

pany us?

now.

Why would she hesitate any longer to tell her mother the whole truth? 9. I thank you for having compelled him to lead a better life. 10. She will never condescend to ask him to forgive her. 11. I hope to be able to be useful to them again, though I have to complain of their conduct towards

12. He seems to be much older than he is.

me.

EXERCISE 172. 1. Do not fail to deliver my message. 2. Say what you (future)like, I am determined to undertake this journey. 3. Is it not better to finish at once this unpleasant business ? 4. He boasts of having passed first in his examination. 5. If you persist in telling me the same story which I know not to be true, you will compel me to tell you to hold your tongue. 6. I shall do my best to dissuade her from going away in (par) such a weather. 7. Do not hope to persuade him: he will persist obstinately in telling you that he has made up his mind. 8. They deserved to be punished, because they have spent all their money in playing at cards. 9. Help him in getting out of the trap in which he has been caught. 10. She seems to have understood at last the true meaning of your words. 11. Deign to receive my apologies. 12. It ought to be the care of those who wish to pass their last days without anxiety to remember the laws of their Creator in the time of their youth.

VERBS IN

THEIR RELATION TO EACH OTHER IN THE

SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD.

1. When is the subjunctive mood to be used ? 2. How is the subjunctive mood to be used ?

When is the subjunctive mood to be used ! FIRSTLY.-If we speak of an action the event of which is uncertain, and this is generally the case when the first verb is either negative or interrogative, the second verb is placed in the subjunctive mood :

Je ne pense que mon père I do not think my father will revienne ce soir.

come back this evening. croyez-vous qu'il soit parti ? do you believe he is

gone

? Remark: however, when we know positively that a thing is or will be, the indicative is used :Savez-vous qu'il est marié ? Do you know that he is

married ? ne vous ai-je pas dit que je Did I not tell you that I shall partirai demain ?

set out to-morrow ? SECONDLY.-The subjunctive mood is required after all adjectives and verbs expressing will, wish, command, fear, joy, grief, doubt, or denoting any passion or emotiou :Je suis bien aise que vous I am very glad that you are

here. je suis fâché que vous vous I am sorry that you have hurt

yourself. je veux que vous le fassiez. I wish you to do it. je désire que vous réussissiez. I wish that you may succeed. j'avais ordonné qu'on le

I had ordered it to be got ready. préparât. j'avais peur qu'il ne vint pas. I was afraid he would not

soyez ici.

soyez blessé.

come.

que j'y

go there.

THIRDLY. — The subjunctive is to be used after the following expressions : Il est à propos

It is proper il est temps

it is time il est nécessaire

it is necessary

that I should il est juste

aille.

it is just il est possible

it is possible il est impossible

it is impossible il faut

it is necessary il importe qu'il en it matters

that it il est honteux soit ainsi.

it is shameful should be so. c'est dommage

it is a pity. c'est le meilleur homme que he is the best man I know.

je eonnaisse.

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