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vous pas souvent visite à votre tante Louise ?—pas souvent. 14. Que vous êtes aimable d'être venu de si bonne beure ! 15. J'ai peur qu'elle ne soit malade.

EXERCISE 155. 1. They did it on purpose.

2. This is not ladylike. 3. He came at full speed. 4. We shall get up early to

5. She found it on the ground. 6. Go straight 7. We shall know it sooner or later. 8. We see her at most twice a year. 9. How far is it from London to Paris? 10. How long were you at school? 11. How long will you be abroad? 12 How long have you been learning mathematics ? 13. How far did you go to meet your friend? 14. It is long since I went (past. ind.) to an evening party. 15. I am afraid he will be (subj.) late. 16. How kind you are !

morrow. on.

PREPOSITIONS. A preposition is an invariable word which serves to mark the relation which some words have to each other. Examples : Je suis venu de Paris à Lon- I came from Paris to London dres par Rouen, Dieppe, et

through Rouen, Dieppe, Newhaven.

and Newhaven. “de, à, par," are prepositions.

en, in.

avec, with.

A list of the principal Prepositions : A, at, to, in, on.

durant, during. après, after. avant, before.

entre, between,

envers, to, towards. chez, at the house of.ut..s. environ, about. contre, against.

excepté, except. dans, in, into.

malgré, in spite of de, of, from, by.

nonobstant, notwithstanding. depuis, since.

outre, besides, derrière, behind.

par, by, through. devant, before.

parmi, among

pendant, during

sous, under. pour, for.

sur, un, upon, by. sans, without,

touchant, concerning. sauf, save.

vers, to, towards. selon, according to.

Principal expressions used as Prepositions. A cause de, on account of. Le long de, along. à côté de, by the side of. loin de, far from. à force de, by dint of. par rapport à, with regard to. à l'égard de, in respect to. près de, near. à travers, across.

vis-à-vis, opposite. au delà de, on the other side of. voici, here is, here are; this is, au lieu de, instead of.

these are. (a contraction of au moyen de, by means of. vois ici, see here.) auprès de, close to.

voilà, there is, there are ; thai autour de, round.

is, those are, (a contraction en deçà de, on this side of. of vois là, see there.) jusqu'à, to, till.

REMARKS ON PREPOSITIONS. 1. Prepositions must always be placed before their object : Examples : De quoi vous plaignez-vous ? What are you complaining of ? de qui parlent-ils ?

Whom are they talking about ? 2. Prepositions are generally repeated before every noun which they govern. Nous irons prochainement We shall go shortly to Ger

en Allemagne, en Suisse, many, Switzerland, and et en Italie.

Italy. il

passe son temps à manger, He spends his time in eating, à boire, à fumer, et à jouer. drinking, smoking, and

gambling. 3. How to translate the preposition “in” will be better understood by the following illustrations. He is in London.

Il est à Londres, he is in Paris.

il est à Paris. he is in England,

il est en Angleterre.

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he is in France.

il est en France. he is in Somersetshire. il est dans le comté de

Somerset. he is in the department of la il est dans le département de la Loire.

Loire. he is in the country.

il est à la campagne. he is in town.

il est à la ville. he is in the fields.

il est dans les champs. he will do this work a week. il fera ce travail dans une

semaine. he will do it in three days. il le fera en trois jours. I read that in to-day's paper. j'ai lu cela dans journal

d'aujourd'hui. come in the morning, but not venez dans la matinée, mais in the evening

non pas dans la soirée.

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“pour."

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4. How to translate the preposition “ for.” “For," meaning a period of time, is translated by "depuis" the duration it

"pendant” the end of it. I have not seen her for a Je ne l'ai pas vue depuis foxtnight.

quinze jours. they fought for two days. ils se battirent pendant deux

jours. I have work for a week. j'ai de l'ouvrage pour une se

maine. 6. How to translate the preposition before."

In speaking of time, or order," before” is expressed by “avant; in speaking of place, situation, it is expressed by devant.” J'arriverai avant lui. I shall arrive before him. je l'ai bien vue: car elle I saw her well : for she was était devant moi.

before me. 6. How to translate the preposition “ towards." When “ towards ” marks a direction, translate it by vers." When it marks a disposition of the mind

by “enverg."

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