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drank a glass of beer or wine in (de) my life. 6. Mr. J. has been re-elected by (à) a great majority. 7. Do not laugh so loud: it is most improper. 8. She laughed very heartily. 9. Did he convince you at last of his good intentions? 10. Can you tell me what you have resolved to do? 11. Living as you live, you will never live long. 12. My mother has sewn the whole day. 13. If you wish to please (à) your parents, pursue your studies with ardour. 14. Men do not live now so long as formerly. 15. We read that there had been (il y a eu) men who have lived some hundred years.

PASSIVE VERBS. All active or transitive verbs may become passive by taking before their participle the verb "être" in all its moods and tenses.

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Masculine Form.

IMPERFECT.

Feminine Form.

INTERROGATIVELY:

INTERROGATIVELY WITH

NEGATION :
Was I loved ?

Was I not loved ? étais-je aimé ?

N'étais-je pas

aimée? PAST DEFINITE,

AFFIRMATIVELY:

NEGATIVELY:
I was loved.

I was not loved.
Je fus aimé

Je ne fus

pas

aimée. PAST INDEFINITE. INTERROGATIVELY :

INTERROGATIVELY WITH

NEGATION.
Hare I been loved ?

Have I not been loved ? Ai-je été aimé ?

N'ai-je pas été aimée ?

PAST ANTERIOR.

AFFIRMATIVELY:

I had been loved. J'eus été aimé.

NEGATIVELY :
I had not been loved.
Je n'eus pas été aimée.

PLUPERFECT.

INTERROGATIVELY:

INTERROGATIVELY WITH

NEGATION:
Had I been loved ?

Had I not been loved ?
Avais-je été aimé ?

N'avais-je pas été aimée?

FIRST FUTURE.
AFFIRMATIVELY:

NEGATIVELY:
I shall be loved.

I shall not be loved.
Je serai aimé.

Je ne serai pas aimée.

SECOND FUTURE.

INTERROGATIVELY:

INTERROGATIVELY WITH

NEGATION. Shall I have been loved ? Shall I not have been loved ? aurai-je été aimé ?

n'aurai-je pas été aimée ? CONDITIONAL.

PRESENT.

AFFIRMATIVELY :

I should be loved. Je serais aimé.

NEGATIVELY:
I should not be loved.
Je ne serais

pas

aimée.

Masculine Form.

PAST.

Feminine Form.

INTERROGATIVELY:

INTERROGATIVELY WITH

NEGATION. Should I have been loved ? Should I not have been loved ? Aurais-je été aimé ?

N'aurais-je pas été aimée ? IMPERATIVE MOOD,

AFFIRMATIVELY:

NEGATIVELY:
Be loved

Be not loved.
Sois aimé

Ne sois pas aimée qu'il soit aimé

qu'elle ne soit pas aimée soyons aimés

ne soyons pas aimées soyez aimés

ne soyez pas aimées qu'ils soient aimés.

qu'elles ne soient pas aimées. SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD.

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That I might have been loved. That I might not have been

loved. que j'eusse été aimé.

que je n'eusse pas été aimée.

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PRESENT :

PARTICIPLES.
Masculine Form.

Feminine Form.
Being loved.

Not being loved. étant aimé.

N'étant pas aimée.

PAST:

Having been loved. Ayant été aimé.

Not having been loved.
N'ayant pas été aimée.

FUTURE:

About to be loved.

Not about to be loved. Devant être aimé.

Ne devant pas être aimée. REMARK.—1. When the form of the sentence is indefinite, the voice, which is passive in English, is turned into active, in French : We have been told so.

On nous l'a dit. 2.-If the nominative be an inanimate object, the following turn is often used : Meat is sold very dear now. La viande se vend très cher

maintenant.

EXERCISE 140. 1. Ce Monsieur est aimé et respecté de toute la ville. 2. Est-il vrai que vous ayez été sévèrement réprimandé? 3. Elle était très mal traitée chez sa tante. 4. Avezvous été avertis à temps? 5. Nous aimons tous à être flattés. 6. François premier, roi de France, fut blessé et fait prisonnier à la bataille de Pavie. 7. J'aurais voulu que ces dames eussent été mieux reçues : mais nous avons été surpris par leur arrivée inattendue. 8. Nous sommes vaincus, je l'avoue : mais nous ne sommes pas conquis. 9. On m'a volé ma montre. 10. On le suspecte d'être un espion. 11. Le vin se vend très bon marché dans le midi de la France. 12. Dans beaucoup de villes de France, le thé ne se trouve que chez les pharmaciens.

EXERCISE 141. 1. I was treated by them with great kindness. 2. Her education has been sadly neglected by her guardian. 3. We are expected to-day. 4. She has been abandoned in her misfortune by all her friends. 5. A good boy is loved by every body. 6. Have these young ladies been invited? 7. Happiness is not to be purchased. 8. If you are asked where I am, say that I shall not be long out. 9. He has been hanged after having been convicted of high treason. 10. How that done? 11. French is spoken here. 12. You have been told so twice. 13. It has been done several times. 14. Children are often punished for the faults of their parents.

NEUTER VERBS. Neuter or intransitive verbs are conjugated like transitive verbs. With a few exceptions, which have been already pointed out, their compound tenses are formed with the verb “avoir.”

REFLECTIVE VERBS. Reflective verbs are so called, because, in those verbs, the person who is the agent, is also the object. Besides, they differ from the other verbs, by requiring an objective pronoun of the same gender, number, and person as the agent, and by having their compound tenses formed with the auxiliary "être.”

Reflective verbs are very much used in the French language.

The reflective verbs of the most common occurrence are :

CONJUGATION : S'abandonner, to give way.

se baigner, to bathe. s'abonner, to subscribe. se blesser, to hurt o'.s self. s'accoutumer, to uccustom o'.s se débarrasser, to get rid of. self.

se cacher, to hide o'.s self. s'adonner, to be addicted. s'échauffer, to get warm. s'adresser, to apply.

se consoler, to console o's. self. s'amuser, to amuse o.'s self. se coucher, to go to bed. s'apprêter, to get ready. se courber, to stoop. s'arrêter, to stop.

se dépêcher, to make haste.

FIRST

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