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Je le vis à Paris la semaine I saw him in Paris last week.

dernière. la bataille dûra deux jours.

the battle lasted two days. 3.The past indefinite is used when you speak of an action as having taken place, without specifying where and when, or of an action which has happened at a time not entirely past : this tense is very much used in the colloquial style. Il a beaucoup voyagé. He has travelled much. Je me suis levé ce matin I rose this morning later than plus tard

que

d'habitude. usual. 28.—The auxiliary or emphatic verb “to do” has no correspondent in French; the only auxiliaries being "avoir and être."

29.—The simplest form of asking a question is by placing the nominative pronoun after the verb : Voyez-vous ?

Do you see? m'avez-vous appelé ?

did
you

call me ? 30.—But when the nominative is a noun, the noun is placed first and a pronoun of the same gender and number is put after the verb: Votre fille est-elle mariée ? Is your daughter married ? deux garçons sont-ils

are your two boys still in a encore en pension.

boarding school? 31.–To mark surprise or doubt the interrogation is often made by “est-ce que ? " Est-ce

que

madame votre Is your mother gone ? mère est partie ? est-ce que nous vous shall we not see you this verrons pas ce soir ?

evening? 32.—When an affirmative answer is wanted, the term is : n'est-ce pas que? N'est-ce pas que vous êtes Are you not pleased with me

content de moi aujour- to-day? d'hui ?

VOS

ne

me

n'est-ce pas que vous

ferez cette faveur ?

will you not do me this favour ?

33.—Passive verbs are very seldom used in French : they are translated in the following manner : I was told so.

On me l'a dit. we were very well treated. on nous traita très bien. she is very much loved by sa mère l'aime beaucoup. her mother.

le thé'se vend maintenant chez tea is sold now at the bakers'. les boulangers. he is to be pitied.

il est à plaindre, 34.-Great familarity alone can authorise the use of “ tu, toi, ton, ta” &c.

35.—When “to have,” or “to get" are followed by a past participle, they are expressed by “faire," and the past participle is turned into an infinitive : He has had a house built. Il a fait bâtir une maison. you will get punished. vous vous ferez punir. where do you get your shoes ou faites-vous faire made?

souliers ? 36.-" Could have, might have, ought to have" should be translated thus : If she could have

Si elle avait pu venir plus tôt sooner, we were safe.

nous étions saurés. he might have come also. il aurait pu venir aussi. they ought to have spoken of ils auraient en parler.

it.

37.—The verbs “avoir, peur, craindre, appréhender, prendre garde, empêcher,” used affirmatively; the conjunctions " de crainte que, de peur que, à moins que”; and the adverb “than," used as a term of comparison, require “ne after them. J'ai peur qu'il ne le fasse. I am afraid he will do it. J'empêcherai qu'elle n'y aille. I shall prevent her from going

(there).

VOS

come

à moins que vous ne le vouliez. unless you wish it. il boit davantage qu'il ne

he drinks more than he eats. mange. il est beaucoup plus grand he is much taller than he was.

qu'il n'était.

38—When two verbs govern the same object, if one of them requires a preposition, an objective pronoun must be used : Ils assiégèrent la forteresse, They besieged and took the

et s'en emparèrent en fortress in less than two moins de deux mois.

months. 39—The present tense of the verb "to wish,” followed by another verb, is expressed by the conditional, and the verb which comes after is put in the imperfect or pluperfect of subjunctive: Je souhaiterais qu'il pût venir.

I wish he could come. Je souhaiterais que vous I wish you had seen him, or, l'eussiez vu.

it. 40.—“Quand, lorsque, aussitôt que,” require the following verb to be put in the future, whenever a future is implied : I will pay you when you like. Je vous paierai quand vous

voudrez. as soon as you have done, aussitôt que vous aurez fini,

venez me trouver, 41.—The verb “penser, to think,” when used in the sense of “ to remeniber,” requires "à" after it : it takes “de” when it is used in the sense of “to have an opinion": Pensez à moi.

Think of me. que pensez-vous de cela ?

what do you think of that ? 42.—The verbs “oser, cesser, pouvoir, savoir,” used negatively, drop more elegantly the second part of the negation :

come to me.

use

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Je n'ose le faire.

I do not dare to do it. vous ne cessez de causer.

you

do not cease talking. Je ne puis le dire.

I cannot tell it. il ne sait que faire.

he does not know what to do. Je ne saurais le permettre. I cannot allow it. 43.-If by “to return

you mean “ to go back again,” use retourner”: if you mean “to come back” of revenir if y

you mean "to come home again,” use " rentrer” Il demeure à Liverpool, et il He lives at Liverpool, and he retourne demain.

will return to-morrow. Je vais en Irlande, et je 1 go to Ireland, and I shall

reviendrai le mois prochain. return next month. J'ai peur qu'il ne pleuve; I am afraid it will rain ; let rentrons.

us return. 44.—"To keep” is expressed by three different verbs as shown in the following examples : Keep this for my sake. Gardez ceci pour l'amour de

moi. she keeps a boarding-school. elle tient une pension. he keeps a carriage.

il a voiture, 45.—“To know," meaning “mental knowledge, information ” is translated by “savoir": but “to know," meaning “ to be acquainted with, to know by sight," is expressed by “connaître" : Do you know your lesson ?

Savez-vous votre leçon ? I did not know that your Je ne savais pas que votre père father was gone.

fût parti. I know your partner.

Je connais votre associé. do you

know this country? connaissez-vous ce pays-ci ? 46.—“To sleep," meaning “to spend the night," is translated by “coucher" We slept at Calais, on Nous couchâmes à Calais, à

return from the continent. notre retour du continent.

But “to sleep,” meaning “ to take some rest,” should be expressed by "dormir" : I always sleep very well. Je dors toujours très bien.

our

47—When a verb governs “de” (see government of verbs), express the personal pronoun referring to an inanimate object by “en,” and do the same for some or any, when used alone in reference to something before mentioned : Je m'en débarrasserai, I shall get rid of it. souvenez-vous-en.

remember it. donnez-m'en.

give me some. ne m'en apportez pas.

do not bring me any. But, when personal pronouns are used for real persons, "de" is kept with disjunctive. J'ai beaucoup à me plaindre I have much to complain of d'elle,

her. ils se sont souvenus de moi. they have remembered me.

48.—The same as before is observed, when a verb governs “à,” except that “y” is used instead of “en,” and “à” kept instead of “de.” Je viens de recevoir une I have just received a letter :

lettre : j'y répondrai de- I shall answer it to-morrow.

main. Je connais ces Messieurs : je I know these gentlemen: I m'adresserai à eux.

shall apply to them. 49.—“Will you have, would you have? I will have, I would have” are rendered thus in the colloquial style : Will you have some bread? Voulez-vous du pain ? I will have some.

J'en veux bien. would you have a little more voudriez-vous un peu plus de meat?

viande ? I should like it.

J'en voudrais bien. 50.—The word 16 so,” whether understood or not in English, must be expressed in French by “le” : Are you certain of that, Sir ? Etes-vous certain de cela I think I am.

Monsieur ? Je le suis. Are you related, ladies, we Etes-vous parentes, mesdames?

nous le sommes.

are.

с

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