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1.-A Substantive, or any part of speech used substantively, taken in a general, determinate, or partitive sense, requires before it the article “le, la, les," or, “ du, de la, đes,” according to the case ; and this article must be repeated before each substantive : Le fer et l'acier sont plus Iron and steel are more useful utiles


l'or et l'argent. than gold and silver. la vie de l'homme est courte. the life of man is short. nous avons eu pour dîner de we had for dinner soup, fish, la soupe, du poisson, de

meat, and pears. la viande et des poires. Except only names of persons, towns, or when an apostrophe is made : Jean et Jacques.

John and James. Paris et Londres.

Paris and London. Soldats, suivez-moi.

Soldiers, follow me. 2.—The English possessive case must have its natural construction in French : My father's house.

la maison de mon père. Edward's book.

le livre d'Edouard. Regent Street.

la rue du régent.


3.—When two nouns come together one of which limits the other, the noun which is placed first in English is always placed second in French, and connected with the first by “de, à,” or a definite article, agreeably to the sense in which it is used : Une montre d'or.

A gold watch. un pont de fer.

an iron bridge. les gardes à cheval.

the horse-guards. un moulin à café.

a coffee-mill. le marché au poisson. the fish-market. un pâté aux pigeons. a pigeon-pie.

4.-"A, an, per," is translated by the definite article before nouns of weight, measure, or quantity, and by

par” before nouns of time or distance : 20 centimes l'once.

2d. an ounce. un franc le mètre.

10d. a yard. deux francs la douzaine. 2 francs a dozen. cinq francs par jour. 5 francs per day. 50 centimes par lieue. 5d. per league.

5—There are only two genders in French : the masculine and the feminine :

6.-In translating the English word "country,” never use indiscriminately "pays," or "campagne." Take these two illustrations as models : L'Italie est un beau pays. Italy is a fine country. J'aime mieux la campagne I like the country better than

the town. 7.-The word "time," denoting any period, is expressed by' temps": Il est temps d'aller se It is time to go to bed.


But when it is expresses the repetition of an action, it is translated by " fois”: Je vous pardonne cette fois; I forgive you this time ; but,

mais, si vous le faites une if you do it another time,

que la ville.

autre fois, je ne vous par

I will not forgive you. donnerai pas.

8.—The word “mouth” is translated by“ bouche ”in speaking of men, horses, mules, asses, and camels; by "gueule” in speaking of other animals; and by "embouchure,” in speaking of rivers : Cet enfant a une très jolie This child has a very pretty bouche.

mouth. Qu'est-ce que ce chien a dans What has this dog got in his la gueule ?

mouth.? La Seine a son embouchure The Seine has its mouth in the

dans l'océan Atlantique, Atlantic Ocear, at le Havreau Havre-de-grâce.

de-gráce. 9.—The words “year, day, morning, evening,” are translated by "an, jour, matin, soir," when a period of time is meant:

Cela est arrivé, il y a au

That oocurred fifty years ago moins cinquante ans.

at least. Quel jour viendrez-vous nous What day will you come and see voir ?

us ? Passez chez moi demain Callupur me tomorrow morning.

Je la verrai ce soir.

I shall see her to-night.
But, if a duration of time is meant, use

" année, journée, matinée, soirée." Je vous souhaite une bonne I wish you a happy new year.

année, Venez

passer la journée Come and spend the day with us. Vous le trouverez chez lui You will find him at home in

dans le courant de la the course of the morning, or matinée, ou de la soirée. of the evening.

10.- When the whole time of the night is meant, translate night by “nuit”: when the first part of it only is meant, the word "soir is used : so we say:" “ bon

avec nous.

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