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scaffolding along the sides of the strects little value. They have no rider, but are are filled to crushing, with maskers, and placed each in a stall behind a rope, country folk in their gala dresses (by far which is dropped as soon as the moment the most grotesque that the carnival for starting arrives, when the animals produces). The centre of the Corso is seldom require to be put in motion by occupied by the carriages of princes, po- force. A number of tinfoil and paper tentates, the ambassadors of all nations, flags are stuck over their haunches; small and the municipality of Rome; and the pointed bodies are placed to operate as a two lives of carriages, moving in opposite spur; and the noise and the pain of directions on each side, are filled by these decorations serve to put the horse English peers, Irish commoners, Polish on its full speed, to which it is further counts, Spanish Grandees, German ba- urged by the shouting of the populace. rons, Scotch lairds, and French marquises; At the sound of the trumpet (the signal but, above all, by the hired jobs of the for starting), even at the approach of the badauds and pizzicaroli of Rome. These officer who gives the order, the animals form not the least curious and interesting exhibit their impatience to be off, and part of the procession, aud best represent they continue their race, or rather their ibe carnival, as it existed a century back. Aight, amidst the screams, plaudits, and In an open carriage sits, bolt upright, la vivats of the people of all ranks. This signora padrona, or mistress of the family, scene forms the last act of each day's her neck covered with rows of corałspectacle, when every one is obliged 10 pearl, or false gems; her white satin robe, quit his carnival habit; for it is only on and gaudy head-dress, left to "the pitiless one or two particular evenings that there pelting of the storm,” showered indiscri- is a masked carnival at the aliberte. minately from all the houses, and by the pedestrians, on the occupants of carriages,

Twelfth Day Table Diversion. in the form of sugar-plums, but in sub- John Nott, editor of the Cook and stance of plaster of Paris, or lime. Op- Confectioners' Dictionary, 1726, describposite to her sits her caro sposo, or ing himself as late cook to the dukes of husband, dressed as a grand sultan, or Somerset, Ormond, and Bation, and the Muscovite czar: while all the little signo- lords Lansdown and Ashburnham, prerini of the family, male and female, serves in that work, “some divertisehabited as harlequins, columbines, and ments” which were used in old times, on kings and queens, are crammed into the twelfth day and other festivals. His accarriage : even the coachman is supplied count is to this effect:with a dress, and appears in the character Ancient artists in cookery inform us of an elderly lady, or an Arcadian shep- that, in former days, when good househerdess; and the footman takes the guise keeping was in fashion amongst the of an English miss, or a French court English nobility, they used either to lady, and figures in a spencer and short begin or conclude their entertainments, petticoat, or, accoutred with a hoop and and divert their guests, with such pretty a fan, salutes the passers-by with “buon devices as these following, viz. : giour, messieurs.""

A castle made of paste-board, with At the ave maria, or fall of day, the can- gates, draw-bridges, battlements, and portnon again fire, as a signal to clear the cullises, all done over with paste, was set street for the horse course. All noise then upon the table in a large charger, with ceases; the carriages file off by the nearest salt laid round about it, as if it were the avenue; their owners scramble to their ground, in which were stuck egg-shells windows, balconies, chairs, or scaffolds ; full of rose, or other sweet waters, the while the pedestrians that have no such meat of the egg having been taken out hy resources, driven by the soldiery from the a great pin. Upon the battlements of the open street, are crowded on the footways, castle were planted kexes, covered over to suffocation. But no terror, no disciwith paste, in the form of cannons, and pline, can restrain their ardor to see the made to look like brass, by covering them first starting of the horses.

with dutch leaf-gold. These cannons being A temporary barrier, erected near the charged with gunpowder, and trains laid, Porta del Popolo, is the point from which so that you might fire as many of them as the race commences; another, on the you pleased, at one touch; this castle was Piazza di Venezia, is the termination of set at one end of the table. the course. The horses are small and of Then, in the middle of the table, they would set a stag, made of paste, but hol- banquet would be brought in, the music low, and filled with claret wine, and a sound, and the particulars of each person's broad farrow stuck in his side ; this was surprise and adventures furnish matter also set in a large charger, with a ground for diverting discourse. made of salt, having egg-shells of perfumed waters stuck in it, as before.

Subtilties. Then, at the other end of the table, they

The art of confectionery was anciently would have a ship made of pasteboard, employed in all solemn feasts, with the and covered all over with paste, with most profuse delicacy. After each course masts, sails, flags, and streamers; and was a “subtilty.” Subtilties were reguns made of kexes, covered with paste presentations of castles, giants, saints, and charged with gunpowder, with a

knights, ladies and beasts, all raised in train, as in the castle. This, being placed pastry ; upon which legends and coat in a large charger, was set upright in, as armor were painted in their proper colors. it were, a sea of salt, in which were also At the festival, on the coronation of stuck egg-shells full of perfumed waters. Henry VI., in 1429, there was “a subtilty

Then, betwixt the stag and castle, and of St. Edward, aud St. Louis, armed, and the stag and ship, were placed two pies upon either, his coat armor; holding made of coarse paste, filled with bran, and between them a figure of king Henry, washed over with saffron and the yolks of standing also in his coat armor; and an eggs : when these were baked, the bran incription passing from both, saying, was taken out, a hole was cut in the bot- • Beholde twoe perfecte kynges vnder one tom of each, and live birds put into one coate armoure.” and frogs into the other; then the holes

WALSALL DOLE. were closed up with paste, and the lids

[Communicated by S. D.] neatly cut up, so that they might be easily taken off by the funnels, and adorned with

The following account of a penny dole, gilded laurels.

given formerly on twelfth day, at Walsall, These being thus prepared, and placed in Staffordshire, is derived from “ An in order on the table, one of the ladies abstract of the title of the town of Wal. was persuaded to draw the arrow out of sall, in Stafford, to valuable estates at the body of the stag, which being done, Bascott, &c., in the county of Warwick, the claret wine issued forth like blood from with remarks by James Cottrell, 1818." a wound, and caused admiration in the In 1453 Thomas Moseley made a spectators; which being over, after a little feoffment of certain estates, io William pause, all the guns on one side of the Lyle and William Maggot, and their castle were, by a train, discharged against heirs, in trust, for the use of the town of the ship; and afterwards, the guns of one

Walsall; but John Lyle, son of William side of the ship were discharged against Lyle, to whom these estates would have the castle ; then, having turned the descended, instead of applying the prochargers, the other sides were fired off, as

duce of the estates for the use of the in a battle: this causing a great smell of town, kept them, and denied that the powder, the ladies or gentlemen took up property. was in trust, pretending it to be the egg-shells of perfumed water and

his own inheritance; but the inhabitants threw them at one another. This pleasant of Walsall not choosing to be so cheated, disorder being pretty well laughed over,

some of them went to Moxhal, and drove and the two great pies still remaining away Lyle's cattle, which unjustifiable act untouched, some one or other would have he did not resent, because he was liable the curiosity to see what was in them, to be brought to account for the trust and, on lifting up the lid of one pie, out

estate in his hands. At length a suit was would jump the frogs, which would make commenced by the town against Lyle, the ladies skip and scamper; and, on

and the estates in question were adjudged lifting up the lid of the other, out would for the use of the town of Walsall. Åcfly the birds, which would naturally fly at cordingly, in 1515, John Lyle of Moxhal, the light, and so put out the candles. near Coleshill, Warwickshire, suffered a And so, with the leaping of the frogs below, recovery, whereby these estates passed to and the flying of the birds above, would Richard Hunt, and John Ford, and they, cause a surprising and diverting hurly- in 1516, made a feoffment of the land, to burly amongst the guests, in the dark. After which the candles being lighted, the * Fabyan-Dallaway's Heraldic Inq. 182.

divers inhabitants of the town of Walsall, England a power of gathering from every in trust, and so it continues in the hand "fyer householder,' in every parish, one of trustees to this day. In 1539 the first penny, which were called Peter pence ; mention appears to have been made therefore I am inclined to think this reliof the penny dole. On the twelfth gious fraternity were the beginners of this eve, being the anniversary for the souls of penny, dole, which would enable them Thomas Moseley, and Margaret his wife, immediately to pay their Peter Pence or, the bellman went about with his bell, perhaps they might stop, it in the same exciting all to kneel down and pray for manner as the bellman does the lord of the souls of Thomas Moseley, and Mar- the manor's penny." garet, his wife; Thomas Moseley never The dole is now discontinued ; and gave this dole, either by feoffment or will; twelve alms-houses, were built with the but, because he had been so good a bene- money in the hands of the corporation. factor, in giving his lands, &c., in War- The current tradition is, that Thomas wickshire, the town, by way of gratitude, Moseley, passing through Walsall, on yearly distributed a general dole of one twelfth eve, saw a child crying for bread, penny each, to young and old, rich and where others were feasting, and, struck by poor; strangers, as well as townspeople; the circumstance, made over the estates and this was the origin of the dole. at Barcott, &c., to the town of Walsall, on

“ It would be a good thing,” says Mr. condition that every year one penny should Cottrell, the author of the Abstract, “ if be given each person on that day, so that this dole was given up, and the rents of no one might witness a like sadness. these valuable estates, which are now considerable, were all applied to charitable purposes. The masters of the guild of St. John the Baptist, in Walsall, a reli. gious fraternity, with laws and orders January 6.-Day breaks . 5 57 made among themselves, by royal licence,

Sun rises.

1 appear at this time to have been the trus

3 59 tees; for they received the rents of these

Twilight ends 6 3 estates, and kept court at Barcott. King The weather either very cold or very John granted to every arch-deacon in wet.

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CHRISTMAS OUT OF TOWN.
For many a winter in Billiter Lane
My wife, Mrs. Brown, was ne'er heard to complain :
At Christmas the family met there to dine
On beef and plum-pudding, and turkey, and chine;
Our bark has now taken a contrary heel,
My wife has found out that the sea is genteel;

To Brighton we duly go scampering down-
For nobody now spends his Christmas in town.

In Billiter Lane, at this mirth-moving time,
The lamp-lighter brought us his annual rhyme;
The tricks of Grimaldi were sure to be seen ;
We carved a twelfth-cake, and we drew king and queen :
Now we lodge on the Steine, in a bow-windowed box,
That beckons up stairs every zephyr that knocks;

The Sun hides his head, and the elements frown

Still, nobody now spends his Christmas in town.
At Brighton I'm stuck up in Lucombe's Loo-shop,
Or walk upon bricks, till I'm ready to drop;
Throw stones at an anchor,-look out for a skiff,
Or view the chain pier from the top of the cliff;
Till winds from all quarters oblige me to halt,
With sand in my eyes, and my mouth full of salt :

Yet, still, I am suffering with folks of renown-
For nobody now spends his Christmas in town.

The wind gallops in at the full of the moon,
And puffs up the carpet like Sadler's balloon :
My drawing-room rug is besprinkled with soot,
And there is not a lock in the house that will shut.
At Mahomet's steam bath I lean on my cane,
And mutter in secret," Ah, Billiter Lane!”

But would not express what I think for a crown

For nobody now. spends his Christmas in town.
The duke and the earl are not cronies of mine ;
His majesty never invites me to dine;
The marquess don't speak when we meet on the pier ;
Which makes me suspect that I'm nobody here :
If that be the case,—why then welcome again
Twelfth-cake and snap-dragon in Billiter Lane;

Next winter I'll prove to my dear Mrs. Brown
That NOBODY now spends his Christmas in town.

January 7.

wherein they exercise their youth, consist

ing of a Dance with Swords in the followST. DISTAFF's Day.

ing manner. First, with swords sheathed The day after Epiphany or Twelfth day and erect in their hands, they dance in a was called St. Distaff's day by country triple round: then with their drawn swords people, because, the Christmas holidays held erect as before : afterwards, extending having ended, good housewives resumed them from hand to hand, they lay bold of the distaff and their other industrious em

each other's hilts and points, and, while ployments.

they are wheeling more moderately round

and changing their order, throw them. Plough MONDAY

selves into the figure of a hexagon, which Is the first Monday after Twelfth Day, they call a rose: but, presently raising and when agricultural laborers were accustom- drawing back their 'swords, they undo ed to draw about a plough and solicit that figure, in order to form with them å money with guisings, and dancing with four-square rose, that they may rebound swords, preparatory to beginning to plough

over the head of each other. Lastly, they after the Christmas holidays. In a very few dance rapidly backwards, and, vehemently places they still drag the plough, but with- rattling the sides of their swords together, out the sword dance, or any mumming.

conclude their sport. Pipes, or songs "From “ A Briefe Relation of the Glean- (sometimes both), direct the measure, ings of the Idiotismes and Absurdities of which, at first, is slow, but, increasing Miles Corbet esquire, Councellor at Law, afterwards, becomes a very quick one toRecorder and Burgess for Great Yaré wards the conclusion.* Olaus Magnus mouth,

;"* it appears, that the Monday adds of this dance that “It is scarcely to after Twelfth Day is called “ Plowlick be understood, but by those that look on, Monday by the Husbandmen in Norfolk, how gamely and decent it is, when at because on that day they doe first begin one word, or one commanding, the whole to plough." Among the Ancients the armed multitude is directed to fall to

Compitalia were Feasts instituted, some fight: and clergymen may exercise themsay, by Tarquinius Priscus, in the month selves, and mingle themselves amongst of January, and celebrated by servants others at this sport, because it is all alone, when their ploughing was over.” + guided by most wise reason." +

Olaus Magnus calls this a kind of GymSword Dance.

nastic rite; in which the ignorant were sucThere is a curious account of the Sword cessively instructed by those who were Dance in Olaus Magnus's History of the

skilled in it: and thus it must have been Northern Nations. He says that the preserved and handed down to us.“ I have Northern Goths and Swedes have a sport

* By Anth. Roiley 1646, 4to.
+ Sheridan's Persius, 1739, p. 67.

* Brand.
† See also Strutt's Sports 8 vo. p. 214.

been" says Mr. Brand "a frequent spec

January 8. tator of this dance, which is now, or was very lately, performed with few or no al. On the 8th of January, 1668, Mr. terations in Northumberland and the ads Evelyn says, in his diary," I saw deep joining counties: one difference however and prodigious gaming at the groom is observable in our Northern sword porter's; vast heaps of gold squandered dancers, that, when the Swords are form- away in a vain and profuse manner. This ed into a figure, they lay them down I looked on as a horrid vice, and unsuitupon the ground and dance round them.' able in a Christian court." To what has

been stated previously, concerning this A YORKSHIRE PLOUGH-DAY.

play at the groom-porter's, may be added, It is the custom in the North Riding of that the groom-porter is still an officer of Yorkshire, when a new tenant enters on a the court, and that lady Mary Wortley farm, for his neighbours to give him what Montague, in one of her Town Eclogues is called a plough-day ; that is the use of (Thursday) thus mentions the practice : all their ploughs, and the labor of all At the groom-porter's batter'd bullies play, their ploughmen and plough horses, on a Some dukes at Mary-bone bowl-time away. fixed day, to prepare the ground for sowing the grain. The following provision

The Groom Porter. for a plough-day was actually made for Chamberlayne says,

6. The office of such an occasion by a farmer's wife near groom-porter is to see the king's lodging Guesborough in 1808.

furnished with tables, chairs, stools, firing; Twelve bushels of wheat were ground, to provide cards, dice, &c.; to decide and made into seventeen white loaves and disputes arising at cards, dice, bowlings, fifty-one dumplings. In the dumplings &c. * were forty-two pounds of currants, and Henry Fitzalan, earl of Arundel, lord fourteen pounds of raisins. Seven pounds chamberlain to Henry VIII. from 1526 of sugar, with a proportionate quantity of to 1530, compiled a book of directions for vinegar and melted butter, composed the the service of the king's chambers, and sauce for the dumplings.

the duties of the officers, in which is set One hundred and ninety-six pounds of forth “ the roome and service belonging beef, with a farther quantity which the

to a groome-porter to do," to the following farmer's wife had not received the account effect :- First, a groom-porter ought to of when she related the circumstance, suc- bring ladders for the hanging of the king's ceeded the dumplings, and to this was ad- chambers (with tapestry, &c.] To bring ded two large hams, and fourteen pounds in tables, forms, tressels, and stools, strand of peas, made into puddings.

for beds, rushes for strewing the floors), Three large Cheshire cheeses, and two and all other such necessaries belonging home-made ones weighing twenty eight to the chambers, as the gentleman-usher pounds each, concluded this mighty repast, shall command: he is also to bring to the which was washed down with ninety-nine chamber door, and have ready there, all gallons of ale, and two of rum.

manner; of fuel, as wood and coals; and At this ploughing there were about to have always ready, torches, sises, and eighty ploughs.

other lights for the king's chambers; he is H. N.

further to see that the keeper sweep and clean the floors, walls, windows, and roofs

of all dirt and cobwebs, before any of the January 7.—Day breaks . 5 57

king's staff come within the said chambers:

wherefore he hath his feet Sun rises

8 0 - sets

4 0

The groom-porter's is referred to as a Twilight ends. 6 3

place of excessive play, in the statutes of Groundsel in Aower, and more or less, chamber of Henry VIII., in the seventeenth

Eltham, for the government of the privydaily, throughout the year.

year of his reign, 1525, or 6. One of these ordinances directs that the privy

chamber shall be “ kept honestly" in the . This account, extracted from Miss Hut. ton's “ Oakward Hall" is obligingly communi. cated by a known and 'greatly respected cor- * Present state of G. Britain, 1735. respondent who authenticates the fact.

† Autiq. Rep. iii. 201.

h. m.

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