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upper surface of his whole body, and the have plenty of fresh water, wholesome superior brightness of his red breast is a food, and sometimes a little saffron or sure token.

liquorice in his water, which will cheer The robin is about six inches long; the him, make him long winded, and help tail two and a half, and the bill a little him in his song. more than half an inch.

Old robins, when caught and confined Breeding time is about the end of in a cage, regret the loss of liberty, freApril, or beginning of May. The female quently will not sing, and die from conbailds in a barn or out-house; some- finement. A young robin usually sings times in a bank or hedge; and likewise in a few days. One reared from the nest in the woods. Her nest is of coarse ma- may be taught to pipe and whistle finely, terials; the outside of dry green moss, but his natural song is more delightful, intermixed with coarse wool, small sticks, and, while in his native freedom, most destraws, dried leaves, peelings from young lightful.* trees, and other dried stuff; with a few horse-hairs withinside: its hollow is small, scarcely an inch in depth, and

FEBRUARY. about three wide: the complete nest The snow has left the cottage top ; weighs about eleven drams. She usually The tbatch-moss grows in brighter green; lays five or six eggs; sometimes not more And eaves in quick succession drop, than four, but never fewer; they are of a Where grinning icicles have been ; cream color, sprinkled all over with fine Pit-patting with a pleasant noise reddish-yellow spots, which at the large In tubs set by the cottage door; end are so thick, that they appear almost While ducks and geese, with happy joys, all in one.

Plunge in the yard-pond, brimming o'er. Hatching generally takes place about The sun peeps through the window-pane ; the beginning of May. Young ones for Which children mark with laughing eye : caging are taken at ten or twelve days old; And in the wet street steal again, if they are left longer, they are apt to

To tell each other Spring is nigh : mope. They should be kept warm in a

Then, as young hope the past recals, little basket, with hay at the bottom, and

In playing groups they often draw, fed with the wood-lark's meat, or as young

To build beside the sunny walls nightingales are reared. Their meat

Their spring time huts of sticks or straw. should be minced very small, and given And oft in pleasure's dreams they hie but little at a time. When they are

Round homesteads by the village side, grown strong enough for the cage, it Scratching the bedgerow mosses by, should be like the nightingale's or wood

Where painted pooty shells abide ; lark's, but rather closer wired, and with Mistaking oft the ivy spray moss at the bottom. In all respects they And wond'ring, in their search for play,

For leaves that come with budding Spring, are to be kept and ordered like the night

Why birds delay to build and sing. ingale. When old enough to feed themselves, they may be tried with the wood- The mavis thrush with wild delight, lark's meat, which some robins like better Upon the orchard's dripping tree,

Mutters, to see the day so bright, than the nightingale's. The robin is very subject to cramp and And oft Dame stops her buzzing wheel

Fragments of young Hope's poesy : giddiness; for cramp give them a meal

To hear the robin's note once more, worm now and then ; for the giddiness Who tootles while he pecks his meal six or seven earwigs in a week. They From sweet-briar hips beside the door. greedily eat many kinds of insects which

Clare's Shepherd's Calendar. probably might be effectually given to relieve sickness, could they be conveniently

h. m. procured, such as young smoothcater- February 1. Day breaks 5 30 pillars; but a robin will not touch a

Sun rises

7 27 hairy one; also ants, and some sorts of

4 33 spiders : but no insect is more innocent,

Twilight ends. 6 30 or agrees better with birds in general, than the meal-worm. The earwig is not, February, appears.

The snow-drop, called the fair maid of perhaps, so good. Yet the best way to prevent diseases in the robin is to keep him clean and warm, to let him always

* Albin.

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February 2.

schoolmaster; and they acknowledge the

honor with a fond salute: both then reCANDLEMAS Day.

ceive a glass of purch, and pledge their This day is so called, because in the worthy master. They next drink " long papal church a mass was celebrated, and life and happy days to their loyal subcandles were consecrated, for the church jects,” and are afterwards placed on an processions.

elevated seat, previously prepared, and To denote the custom and the day, a called the throne. After the enthronehand holding a torch was marked on the ment, the schoolmaster gives each scholar old Danish calendars.*

a glass of punch and a biscuit, and they all drink “long life, and a prosperous and

happy reign to their most gracious soCANDLEMAS IN SCOTLAND. vereigns,” at the same time making (For the Year Book.]

obeisance with their best bows. As long

as the whiskey holds out, these testimoAt every school in the South of Scot- nials of loyalty and attachment are reland, the boys and girls look forward with peated. The young ones get full of mirth as great anxiety for Candlemas Day as and glee, and, after receiving their master's the children of merry England for their thanks for their kindness, they are finally Christmas holidays. It is an entire day dismissed with merry hearts, to relate of relaxation, play, and festivity. On their adventures at home. the evening preceding Candlemas Day, It is a custom with many old country the school-master gives notice that to- people in Scotland to prognosticate the morrow is their annual festival. The weather of the coming season according formal announcement is received 'with to this master prognostication :joy, and they hasten home to their fathers for their donations to the schoolmaster, If Can'lemas is fair and clear, called “ Candlemas bleeze," that all may There'll be twa winters in the year. be ready on the morrow. On the morrow all is anxious bustle and conjecture. On the truth of this distich they cave Who is to be king? Who is to be queen ? no doubt. Should Candlemas day pass It is the only day in the year in which over without a shower of rain, or a fall of they hurry to school with earger pleasure. snow, their spirits droop: they conclude The master receives the "Candlemas upon severe weather before spring is bleeze" from each pupil with condescend- over, and they reckon upon heavy snow ing and familiar kindness. Some bring storms before the following Christmas; sixpence, some a shilling, and others -if such is the case, ruin is inevitable! more, according to the circumstances of On the contrary, if Candlemas day is their parents.

With the “bleeze" the showery and tempestuous, they anticimaster purchases a few bottles of whiskey, pate a fine summer, genial suns in which is converted into punch, and thisautumn, and plenty of refreshment for with a quantity of biscuits, is for the en- man and beast. I have seen a farmer of tertainment of his youthful guests. The the “Old School,” rubbing his hands surplus of cash, after defraying all ex- with glee during the dismal battling of penses, he retains as a present to himself. the elements without, while the wind enThis, therefore, being in lieu of a “Christ- tered within through the crevices of the mass box,” may be termed a “ Candle- doors and casements of the latticed winmas box.” The boy that brings the most dow, while his little children at the loud " bleeze" is crowned king; and, on the blasts that roared round the roof, ran for same ground, the girl with the largest protection between the knees of their portion of “ bleeze” is crowned queen, as father, or hid their face in the lap of their distinctions of the highest honor for the mother. When the young ones were put most liberal gifts. To those illustrious to bed, the two old folks would set on personages the other youths in the school

the side of the Ingle Neuk, talking o'th' pay homage for the remainder of the fes- days o' langsine," when they were bairns tival.

themselves, and confirming each other's The king and queen are installed by belief in the old prognostication. Any each being introduced to the other by the one acquainted with the habits of the

Scotch shepherds and peasantry will auFosbroke's British Monachism, 60.

thenticate these facts as to Candlemas day.

T. B.

The blessing of the candles by the under his feet a dog and a bitch, who are pope was seen by Laily Morgan at Rome biting each other furiously, which signify in 1820. The ceremony takes place in the contention of the humid and the dry, the beautiful chapel of the Quirinal, in which the operation of the "

magnum where the pope himself officiates, and opus” almost entirely consists. The fourth blesses, and distributes with his own figure is laughing at all around him, and hands, a candle to every person in the thus represents those ignorant sophists body of the church; each guing indi- who scoff at the hermetic science. vidually and kneeling at the throne to re- Below these large figures is that of a ceive it. The ceremony commences with bishop, in an attitude of contemplation,

he cardinals; then follow the bishops, representing William of Paris, a learned prelati, canons, priors, abbots, priests, adept. On one of the pillars which separate &c., down to the sacristans and meanest - the several doors is another bishop, officers of the church. When the last of who is thrusting his crosier into the these has gotten his candle, the poor con- throat of a dragon. The monster seems servatori, the representatives of the Roman making an effort to get out of a bath, senate and people, receive theirs. This in which is the head of a king with a ceremony over, the candles are lighted, triple crown. This bishop represents the the pope is mounted in his chair and philosophical alchymist, and his crosier carried in procession, with hymns chant. the hermetic art. The mercurial substance ing, round the antichapel; the throne is is denoted by the dragon escaping from stripped of its splendid hangings; the his bath, as the sublimated mercury pope and cardinals take off their gold escapes from its vase. The crowned head and erimson dresses, put on their ordinary is sulphur, composed of three substances, robes, and the usual mass of the morning namely, the ethereal spirit, the nitrous is sung. The blessing of the candles salt, and the alkali. takes place in all the parish churches.* Near one of the doors, on the right, are

the five wise virgins holding out a cup, in

which they receive something poured fronı SYMBOLS OF THE HERMETIC SCIENCE.

above by a hand that comes out of a cloud.

These represent the true philosophical On the porticoes of the church of Notre chemists, the friends of nature, who reDame, at Paris, there are sculptured cer- ceive from heaven the ingredients proper tain figures, which the adepts have for making gold. On the left are five deemed hieroglyphical of their art.

foolish virgins, holding their cup turned Golineau de Montluisant, a gentleman down towards the ground. These are of the Pays de Chartres, an amateur of symbols of the innumerable multitude of the hermetic science, explains these figures ignorant pretend-rs. in the following manner. The Almighty There are many other figures, which Father, stretching out his arms, and our adept makes use of, in order to bolding an angel in each of his hands, explain all the secrets of alchymny. But represents the Creator, who derives from those who examine this portal with other nothing the sulphur, and the mercury of eyes find nothing in the figures relating life represented by the two angels. On to the philosopher's stone. The person the left side of one of the three doors are treading under his feet a dragon is the four human figures of natural size; the conqueror of Satan. The other figures first has under his feet a flying dragon, represent David, Solomon, Melchisedec, biting its own tail. This dragon repre- the Sibyls, &c. A large statue of stone, sents the philosopher's stone, con posed which formerly was situated at the entrance of two substances, the fixed and the vola- of the Parvis Notre Dame, and which was tile. The throat of the dragon denotes taken for a statue of Mercury, was prothe “ fixed salt,” which devours the “ vo- bably the principal cause of the first latile," of which the slippery tale of the explanation. Bui, however that may have animal is a symbol. The second figure been, it is certain that students and retreads upon a lion, whose head is turned puted adepts in the science of transmutatowards heaven. This lion is nothing but tion and the pabulum of life have regarded the “spirit of salt,” which has a tendency these sculptures as hieroglyphics of the to return to its sphere. The third has great mystery.*

Lady Morgan's Italy.

History of Paris, i. 8.

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This is the representation of an old incidents in the play and the romance are finely carved oak chair in the possession the same; –“ that Shakspeare long preof a gentleman to whom it was presented served his attachment to the Arcadia by the possessor of Penshurst, ihe vene- is evident from his · King Lear;' where rable seat of the Sidney family, in the the episode of Gloster and his sons is county of Kent. The height of the chair plainly copied from the first edition of is three feet eleven inches; its width one the Arcudia." foot ten inches. From tradition at Pens- By admirers, then, of the character of hurst, it was the chair of Sir Philip Sir Philip Sidney, who was the ornaSidney-“the delight and admiration of ment of the university,” and “was also the age of Elizabeth"-in which he cus- the ornament of the court;" who “aptomarily sat, and perhaps wrote “ the best peared with equal advantage in a field of pastoral romance, and one of the most battle or in a tournament; in a private popular books of its age," the celebrated conversation among his friends, or in a " Arcadia," a work so much read and ad- public character as an ambassador ;" the mired by the ladies at court, in the reign print of his chair will be looked on with of the “ virgin queen,” that it passed interest. Through fourteen editions, and laid Shakspeare under obligations to it for his The chair of Shakspeare, the illustrious play of “ Pericles." This name, it is con- contemporary of Sidney and the admirer of tended, Shakspeare derived from “Py- the “ Arcadia," is alleged to have passed rocles," the hero of the “ Arcadia.” Many into foreign exile from his house at Strat

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ford. In the corner of the kitchen where it speaking these ever memorable words • stood, it had for many years received nearly “This man's necessity is still greater than as many adorers as the shrine of the Lady mine." * of Loretto. This relic was obtained in July 1790, by the princess Czartoryska, who made a journey to Stratford in order Would I had fall’n upon those happier days, to obtain intelligence relative to Shak. That poets celebrate ; those golden times, speare; and, being told he had often sat And those Arcadian scenes, that Maro sings, in this chair, she placed herself in it, and And SIDNEY, warbler of poetic prose. expressed an ardent wish to become its Nymphs were Dianas then, and swains had

hearts, purchaser ; but, being informed that it was not to be sold at any price, she quitted From courts dismiss'd, found shelter in the the place with regret, and left a handsome The footsteps of simplicity impress'd gratuity to old Mrs. Hart, a descendant Upon the yielding herbage (so they sing), from Shakspeare, and the possessor of his Then were not effac'd : then speech profane, house. About four months after, the And manners profligate, were rarely found; anxiety of the princess could no longer be Observ'd as prodigies, and soon reclaim'd. withheld, and her secretary was de

Cowper. spatched express, as the fit agent, to purchase this treasure at any rate : the sum of twenty guineas was the price fixed on February 2. Day breaks 5 29 and the secretary and chair, with a proper

Sun rises.

7 25 certificate of its authenticity on stamped


4 35 paper, set off in a chaise for London.* The

Twilight ends 6 31 chair of Sidney is no longer at Penshurst ; but its possessor, a scholar and a gentle- flower in the house.

Hyacinth, narcissi, and Van Thol tulips Inan, prizes it beyond money-estimation as a dignified relic of antiquity. As an early work of art it is a very curious spe

February 3. cimen of ancient taste.


The time of keeping Shrovetide, Lent, Sir Philip Sidney was born at Penshurst, Whitsuntide, and certain days connected November 29, 1554. His great produc- with these periods, is governed by the day tion, the “ Arcadia,” combines the high- on which Easter may fall; and as, actoned spirit of gallantry, heroism, and cording to the rule stated on March 22, courtesy, of the ancient chivalric romance, Easter may fall upon that day, so Shrove with the utmost purity in morals, and all Tuesday, being always the seventh Tuesday the traditionary simplicity and innocence before Easter, may fall on the 3rd of Feof rural life. His « Defence of Poesie," bruary. To many explanations and ac-a surprising and masterly production, counts concerning Shrovetide in the for the age in which it was written,-is Every-Day Book, the following partian evidence of his critical knowledge; and culars are additions :his poetical pieces testify his elegant taste, In Mr. Brand's “ Observations on Poand capability for greater works in the pular Antiquities,” he cites and says to “ divine art.” He died at thirty-two years ihis purport :of age, on the 17th of October, 1586, in The luxury and intemperance that coasequence of a wound he roceived in a usually prevailed at this season desperate engagement near Zutphen, upon vestiges of the Romish carnival, which which occasion he manifested a noble Moresin derives from the times of gensympathy towards a humble fellow-sufferer tilism, and introduces Aubanus as saying in the conflict. As Sidney was returning “Men eat and drink and abandon themfrom the field of battle, pale. languid, ahd selves to every kind of sportive foolery, thirsty with excess of bleeding, he asked as if resolved to have their fill of pleafor water. It was brought, and had ap- sure before they were to die, and, as it proached his lips, when he instantly were, forego every sort of delight." resigned it to a dying soldier, whose Selden corroborates this view of the subghastly countenance attracted his notice, ject by saying, “What the church debars


Dr. Drake's Shakspcare and his Times.

* Dr. Drake's Shakspeare and his Times.

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