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and crimson ; who, when the king passed, In order to make due mention of the sent forth a great quantity of small birds, subject of the present engraving, all as a sacrifice agreeable to God, some of notice of other processions, and scenes which alighted on the king's breast and of uncommon splendor, must be omitted. shoulders, and others fluttered around Arriving then at the coronation progress him: the prophets then sang the psalm, of James I., Mr. Nichols says, “The Cantate Domino canticum novum, &c. king left the tower between the hours of The tower of the Conduit at the entrance eleven and twelve, mounted on a white of Cheap was hung with green, and jennet, under a rich canopy, sustained by ornamented with escutcheons. Here sat eight gentlemen of the Privy Chamber, twelve old men, having the names of the instead of the Barons of the Cinque apostles written on their foreheads, to- Ports. His notice was first directed to gether with the twelve kings, martyrs, three hundred children of Christ's Hosand confessors of England; these also pital, placed on a scaffold at the Church chaunted at the king's approach, and sent of Allhallows, Barking." He next came forth upon him round leaves of silver to the first arch, which was at Fenchurch, mixed with wafers, and offered wine from and is decribed in Mr. Nichols's work. the pipes of the conduit

, imitating Mel- Proceeding onwards towards Cornhill the chisedek's reception of Abraham, when cavalcade reached the edifice represented be returned from his victory over the four by the engraving at the head of this article, kings. The Cross of Cheap was con- and which occurs to be spoken of in Mr. cealed by a noble castle, constructed of Nichols's words : “ The second Pageant timber, and covered with linen, painted was erected in Gracechurch-street, by the to resemble squared blocks of white Italian merchants.* Its ground plan was marble, and green and crimson jasper; a square ornamented with four great the arms of St. George adorned the sum- columns; in the midst of which was cut mit, those of the king and the emperor one arch, twenty-seven feet in height. were raised on halberds, and the lower Above the arch was represented king turrets had the arms of the royal family Henry the Seventh, seated, approached and great peers of the realm. From a by king James, on horseback (as he was stage in front came forth a chorus of usually seen), to receive the sceptre from virgins with timbrel and dance, as to an- his ancestor. Between the columns were other David coming from the slaughter of also four allegorical paintings. On the Goliah; their song of congratulation was, roof, on a pedestal, stood a female figure, “Welcome, Henry the Fifte, King of holding a crown, which she seemed to Englond and of Fraunce:" throughout stoop to bestow upon the king. At the the building there was dispersed a mul- four corners, were erected figures with titude of boys, representing the heavenly trumpets ; and over the gateway, on one host, who showered on the king small side, were palm trees, and on the other a coins resembling gold, and thiew boughs vine, with angels.” This is the arch deof laurel, and sang, accompanied by picted in the print. organs, Te Deum laudamus. The tower But, upon the same spot, in Graceof the conduit at the west end of Cheap church-street, a Pageant of far greater was surrounded with pavilions, and in splendor had been erected a century each pavilion was a virgin, and each vir- before, in 1501, to welcome the entry of gin held a cup, and these virgins blew forth the princess Katherine of Spain, on ocfrom their cups golden leaves on the king: casion of her approaching marriage with the tower was covered with a canopy Arthur prince of Wales. In the middle resembling the sky and clouds; and the four corners of the celestial canopy were supported by angels, and on the summit * This custom, that Arches of Triumph

an archangel of brilliant gold. should be erected by foreign merchants, preUnder the canopy, on a throne, was a re

vailed also on the Continent. At a public splendent image representing the sun,

entry into Lisbon, in 1729, on the marriage shining above all things, and around it of the prince of Brazil, when there were were angels singing, and playing all kinds streets, each of the nations of strangers was

twenty-four Triumphal Arches in the several of musical instruments. On the king leav- obliged to erect one. “The English arch ing this pageant he passed on to his devo- will be the finest, and will cost at least 20,000 tions at St. Paul's, and thence he departed crusadoes; the Hamburghers about 15,000.” to his palace at Westminster.

-Whitehall Evening Post, Feb, 22, 1728-9.


of Gracechurch-street“ where the water here of the other gorgeous Pageants set out runneth into the channel," was fixed a by the corporation for the entertainment foundation of stone of three or four of the princess, and the royal and noble feet high, having a passage for the current personages accompanying her progress: of water as usual : on which foundation nor can even a glance be taken at any of was constructed a castle, formed of timber, the numerous splendid Processions and but covered with canvas painted to resem- Pageants described in Mr. Nichols's interble masonry. Within a man's height from esting publication. the stone work, were battlements ornament- Enquirers concerning accounts of " Lord ed with these badges; 1, a red rose with Mayors' Shows" may be gladdened by a white one within it, surmounted by a knowing that in Mr. Nichols's “ London crown of gold; 2, three blue garters, with Pageants" there is a thorough clue to the posey of the order, also crowned ; 3, a their pursuits. The work contains a golden fleur-de-lis; and 4, a portcullis with “ Bibliographical list of Lord Mayors' iwo chains, surmounted by a crown. In Pageants," from the mayoralty of sir some parts also were clouds, with beams Woolston Dixie in 1585; with particulars of gold, in a blue firmament; in other of some of earlier date, and notices of places white harts; and in others pea- others belonging to our own times; not cocks displayed. Above the first battle- omitting the mayoralty show of Mr. ment was a great gate, with folding leaves, Alderman Lucas in 1827, when the giants full of great bars of iron with nails, and walked. over the gate a large portcullis, having in every joint a red rose; over this gate, on the stone work, were the King's arms, sup

OLD TRIUMPHAL Song. ported on the right side by a red dragon, dreadful, and on the left by a white grey- My mind to me a kingdom is ; hound; and a yard from these arms on Such perfect joy therein I find, every side was a great red rose of half a That it excels all other bliss yard in breadth. Above this gate was an

Which God or nature hath assign'd: other course of battlements and badges, like Though much I want that most would have, the former. Beneath, in the opening, stood

Yet still my mind forbids to crave. a Knight, arned cap-a-pié, named Policy. No princely port, nor wealthy store, The building stretched on each side into

No force to win a victory ; the adjoining windows and shops, with

No wily wit to salve a sore ; two other portcullises embattlemented, and

No shape to win a loving eye : ornamented with numberless repetitions of To none of these I yield as thrall;

For why? my mind despise them all. the badges and royal insignia already described ; and at each corner of this middle I see that plenty surfeits oft, story and great tower was a turret, decked

And hasty climbers soonest fall ;

I see that such as are aloft with roses, greyhounds, portcullises, and

Mishap doth threaten most of all. St. George's crosses of white and red, each

These get with toil, and keep with fear : turret having at top seven sides, and on

Such cares my mind can never bear. each side a pinnacle and a vane. Above

I press to bear no haughty sway; all this great story was another somewhat

I wish no more than may suffice; smaller, leaded above, and painted on its

I do no more than well I may ; four sides like rag and flint stones, with

Look, what I want my mind supplies : hollow crosses, windows, and gunholes, Lo, thus I triumph like a king, and on the top great vanes with the King's My mind content with any thing. arms, and at the summit of the whole a

I laugh not at another's loss ; red dreadful dragon holding a staff of iron,

Nor grudge not at another's gain; and on it a great crown of gold. In this

No worldly waves my mind can toss; upper story was another large door where

I brook what is another's bane; in stood a knight with a head-piece, called I fear no foc, nor fawn on friend; Nobleness; and on his right hand a bishop I loathe not life, nor dread my end. who was named Virtue.

The Knights

My wealth is health, and perfect ease; and the Bishop all delivered long poetical

And conscience clear my chief defence : addresses. The horseways and passages I never seek by bribes to please ; were under the wings of this Pageant, Nor by desert to give offence : which was called the Castle of Portculleys. Thus do I live; thus will I die : The prescribed limits restrain all notice Would all did so, as well as I!

September 9.

usages were formerly more general all September 9, 1759, died, at the age of being become by time, necessity, or avarice,

over England than they are at present, eighty-six, Thomas Bradbury, an eminent complex, confined, and altered. They dissenting minister, whose meeting-house,

are commonly insisted upon by the reapin New-street, Shoe-lane, was lawlessly

ers as customary things, and a part of destroyed by Sacheverel's mob. te

their due for their toils of harvest, and preached many years, in New-court, complied with by their masters, perhaps Carey-street, Lincoln's Inn-fields, where he was succeeded by Mr. Winter, whose clination.

more through regard of interest than in

For, should they refuse them brother married one of Mr. Bradbury's the pleasures of this much-expected time, daughters. Mr. Bradbury was a man of this festal night, the youth especially, of superior abilities, and real piety with- both sexes, would decline serving him for out bigotry. Mr. Granger saw a friendly the future, and employ their labors for letter from archbishop, Wake to him, part others, who would promise them the rustic of a correspondence between the metro- joys of the harvest supper, mirth, and politan and this patriarch of the dissenters, music, dance, and song.”. He has other which was creditable to their respective observations to the following effect. These views of each other. The principles of feasts appear to be the relics of Pagan the revolution, which called the house of Hanover to the throne, were warmly

or Jewish ceremonies, and carry in them

more meaning, and are of higher antiquity espoused, and firmly maintained, by Mr. than is generally apprehended. We hear in Bradbury, both privately and in public. different counties, and often in the same He was of a merry disposition; a social, county, of mel-supper, churn-supper, harvest pleasant companion, more famed for mirth

supper, hurvest home, feast of ingathering. than harangues, and had a good ear for 8c. The antiquity of the custom appears music, with a fine strong voice. He was

from Exod. xxiii.16. “The feast of harvest, supposed to sing “ The Roast beel of old

the first fruits of thy labors, which thou England” better than any other man.

kast sown in the field.” The Jews cele. “Such," says the Rev. Mr. Noble, “ was

brated the feast of harvest, by precept; • brave old Tom Bradbury, a good and, prior to this, Gen. vi. 3, "Cain preacher, and a facetious companion.' brought of the fruit of the ground, and It is not the cheerful man that disturbs offering to the Lord.” the state, nor often the rich; but the sour,

Yet the offering of the first-fruits, it disappointed, needy man. Bradbury was happy in his temper, rich in the gifts of may well be supposed, was not peculiar

to the Jews. Calimachus affirms that fortune, and possessed the esteem of a

these primitæ were sent by the people of wide circle of friends. A perfect toleration would be an act of prudence as well Delos, and by the Hyperboreans in par

every nation to the temple of Apollo, in as humanity; and, while the establishment ticular, the most distant that enjoy the is not invaded, it will always be advan- happiness of corn and harvest. Herotageous; for

dotus also mentions this annual custom of Conscience is a thing, we know,

the Hyperboreans, remarking, that those Like to a inastiff dog, Which, if tied up, so fierce will grow,

of Delos talk of “Holy things tied up in He'll bite his very clog."

a sheaf of wheat, conveyed from the Hyperboreans." The Jews, by command of

their law, offered also a sheaf, Lev. xxiii. September 9.—Day breaks 3 27

10, “ And shall reap the harvest thereof, Sun rises.

5 29

then ye shall bring a sheaf, the first fruits 6 31

of your harvest, unto the priest." This Twilight ends 8 33

may be looked upon as equivalent to a The nights and mornings become sen

proof; for, as the offering and the feast sibly colder, and are often frosty.

appear to have been always and intimately connected, in countries affording records,

so it is more than probable they were September 10.

connected too in countries which had none, HARVEST-SUPPER- The Mel-suppeR- or none that survived to our times. KERN-SUPPER-SHOUTING THE Cuurn, There seems great reason 10 conclude,

The learned and ill-fated Eugene Aram that this feast, which was once sacred to says, “ These rural entertainments and Apollo, was constantly maintained, when

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The Irish

a far less valuable circumstance, i. e. customary to produce in a churn a great shouting the churn, is observed to this quantity of cream, and to circulate it by day by the reapers, and from so old an dishfuls to each of the rustic company, who æra; for we read of this acclamation, (Isa. ate it with bread. Though this custom bas xvi. 9,] “ For the shouting for thy summer been disused in many places, or is agreefruits, and for thy harvest is fallen.” And ably commuted for by ale, yet it survives again, verse 10,“ And in the vineyards still about Whitby and Scarborough, in there shall be no singing, neither shall the east, and round about Guisburn, &c., there be shouting." Hence then, or in Craven, in the west. But, perhaps a from some of the Phænician colonies, is century or two more will put an end to our traditionary “shouting the, and both the things and name shall die. Bread or cakes composed part of the Vicarious ale is now more approved, and Hebrew offering, [Levit. xxiii

. 13,) and the tankard almost every where politely a cake thrown upon the head of the victim preferred to the churn. was part of a Greek offering to Apollo, Churn, in our provincial pronunciation whose worship was formerly celebrated in kern, is the Hebrew kern or kerin, from Britain, where the May-pole yet continues its being circular, like most horns; and one remain of it. This they adorned it is the Latin corona, named so either with garlands on May-day, to welcome from its radii, resembling horns, as on the approach of Apollo, or the sun, some very ancient coins, or from its extowards the north, and to signify that the circling the head; so a ring of people s flowers were the product of his presence called coronu. Also the Celtic koren, keret and influence. But, upon the progress of corn, which continues according to its old christianity, Apollo lost his divinity, and pronunciation in Cornwall, &c., and out the adoration of his deity subsided. Yet modern word horn is no more than this; so permanent is custom, that this rite of the ancient hard sound of k in corn being the harvest-supper, together with that of softened into the aspirate h, as has been the May-pole, have been preserved in done in numberless instances. Britain; and what had been anciently Celtæ also call a round stone clough crene offered to the god, the reapers prudently when the variation is merely dialectic

, eat up themselves. At last, the use of the Hence, too, our crane berries, i. e. round meal of new corn was neglected, and the berries, from the Celtic adjective crene, supper, so far as meal was concerned, was round. made indifferently of old or new corn, as These particulars are derived, as before most agreeable to the founder.

stated, from a dissertation by Eugene The usage itself accounts for the name Aram, who, after an ingenious defence, of mel-supper. Mel signifies meal, and the was clearly convicted of a murder he had instrument also called with us a mell, committed sixteen years before his trial, wherewith corn was anciently reduced tv and suffered death for the crime. meal, in a mortar. Provisions of meal or of corn in furmity, &c., composed by far

“LARGESS." the greatest part of these old country entertainments, perfectly conformably to the

[For the Year Book.] simplicity of early times and persons. It is, or lately 'was, a custom in HertAnd as the harvest was concluded with fordshire, for the men employed in getting preparatious of meal, ready for the mell, in the corn, to meet in companies on the this came to mean the last of all things; morning next after the “ Harvest-home, as, when a horse comes last in a race, for the purpose of perambulating the they often say in the north “ he has got neighbourhood of their work, to “ beg a the mell.

fow-largess," as they term it. Each party The other names of this country fes- is headed by a “lord o'th' harvest," who tivity sufficiently explain themselves, is generally spokesman for the rest. They except churn-supper.

This is entirely solicit from all persons respectably attired, different from the mel-supper; but they whom they may happen 10 meet; but generally happen so near together that they are more urgent in their requests al they are frequently confounded.


the dwellings of persons to whom their churn-supper was always provided when masters or then selves have been cusall was shorn, but the mel-supper after all tomers during the past year. In most was got in. It was called the churn supper instances “ largess” is very liberally be. because, from immemorial times, it was stowed, both in money and in kind; and

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the total sum collected is equitably From side to side, in which, with desperate divided at the close of the day, when

knife, The laughing hinds rejoice ;".

They deep incision make, and talk the while And

Of England's glory, ne'er to be defaced,

While hence they borrow vigour. The grateful farmer pays accepted thanks With joy unfeigned.”

During the day it was the business of E. H. B.

the “ Lord" to collect from the neighbours

and friends of the farm what is called HARVEST-HOME.—“ LARGESS." “ Largess money.” At night, when (For the Year Book.]

Now twelve o'clock was drawing nigh,

And all in merry cue; The sounds of rustic rejoicing, at the close of harvest, fall pleasantly upon the

I knocked the cask, “ oh, oh !” says I,

We've almost conquer'd you. ear, and are affecting to the feelings of a kind-hearted traveller : he knows that

'Twas near upon as light as noon ; pleasure prevails among the toil-worn

A largess, on the hill, laborers of a good-natured farmer.

They shouted to the full round moon ;

I think 1 hear them still.
Here, once a year, distinction lowers its crest,
The master, servant, and the merry guest,

Upon the breaking up of the “ Hor-
Are equal all ; and round the happy ring
The reaper's eyes exulting glances fing;

key," the husbandmen of the farm assemAnd, warmed with gratitude, he quits his

ble upon some near eminence, or conspiplace,

cuons place, and lustily call out “ Holla, With sun-burnt hands, and ale-enlivened face, holla, holla,— Largess.” The “ Holla Refills the jug his honored host to tend, they repeat quick, reserving all their To serve at once the master and the friend ; strength for the word “ Largess," and on Proud thus to meet his smiles, to sbare his this word they dwell till their voice is tale,

exhausted. On a clear still night the His nuts, his conversation, and his ale. shout of “ largess” may be heard at a great

Bloomfield. distance, and the lengthened sound is In some parts of Suffolk and Essex, the shout as often as they have received

very peculiar and pleasing. They repeat after the Harvest-home feast, there still remains the old custom of Hallooing merriment, which the “ brown October”

“ largess," and then, with some parting Largess.”. At the beginning of the reaping often makes obstreporous, they close an a leader is appointed. He is generally the best of the reapers, and called the evening, the anticipation of which had lord; and, when the labor of the harvest cheered the old, and delighted the young, is over, he and the husband men are borne throughout the toils of harvest. home upon the last load of grain. Their duced the custom by a poem called the

Bloomfield has very pleasantly introwives and children, and immediate friends, follow in procession, carrying the imple- of “ Wild flowers,” from which the above

“ Horkey-night,” in his beautiful garland ments used during the harvest, with green boughs, a sheaf of wheat, and, per- refer readers fond of nature, “ though in

two verses are extracted, and to which I haps

, a fag or two made of handkerchiefs, simple guise.” The custom is fast sinking; and such other rude demonstrations of it only lingers among a few farmers who rejoicing as fancy may suggest, or convenience ofler. With light hearts and

are old fashioned enough to bestow their smiling faces, and cheerful shouts, they the welkin ring with the shout of grati

“ Largess” freely, and who love to hear proceed merrily along to the farmer's

tude. house, where a good substantial supper is

W. Doowruh. provided for them, and to which are generally invited the neighbouring farmers. This is called the “ Horkey,” or Harvesthome. There

3 30

September 10.-Day breaks . —first the fuelled chimney blazes wide ; The tankards foam ; and the strong table

Sun rises

5 31

6 29 groans Beneath the smoking sirloin, stretched im.

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Twilight ends 8 30 Officinal saffron blows.


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