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General state of affairs. Poland. Russia. Retrospective view of the war, and its consequences considered. Cession of Holstein. Revolt in the Crimea. Insurrection in the government of Oremberg. Ottoman empire. Preparations by the new Grand Signior for carrying on the war

. Great Germanic powers. Revival of obsolete claims. State of the empire. Abolition of the Jesuits. Commercial failures. Dearths,




THOUGH the year 1773, year, neither does the danger of

has not been productive extending those calamities seem to of

many great or splendid be increased. Those great armies actions

, it has possessed a kind of in Germany and the North, which negative merit, in not being at seemed to threaten destruction to tended with all the evil which it each other, or to the rest of manportended. The ilames of war are kivd, havé held their swords quietly still restrained to those states with in their hands, and are now so long whom they began : and if the pro- accustomed to behold each other. bability of peace does not appear without emotion, that they almost Breater than at the beginning of the torget their natural animosities ;


Vol. XVI.

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while their masters have' endea This has been sufficiently shewn voured by negociation and new since the conclusion of those treaarrangements, to obviate the fatal ties, by the late conduct of the Prusconsequences of their collision. sians with regard to Dantzick. And

It must however be acknowledg- though the other two partitioning ed, that those heavy clouds which" powers have not yet taken any steps overhung the political horizon are of the same nature, there is little far from being dispersed, and that room to doubt that in proper time whenever they burst it must be with and season they will follow the exa dreadful violence, The extraor- ample. Indeed the measures they dinary power and uncommon ac have all taken for a continual intertivity of some of the continental ference in the affairs and government princes, the jealousy of others, and of Poland, sufficiently explain the the ambition of all, are ill calcu- nature of their future designs. lated for the preservation of the Distracted and torn as this unpublic tranquillity. Nations are happy country continues, it has now become soldiers, and must find not during this year presented those employment. Like the ancient shocking scenes of calamity, which Marauders of the Northern Hive, had long made it a spectacle, as their countries are become too nar much of horror as of compassion. row for the support of so many

The vast armies with which it was ariked men.

The present state of covered, having rendered all opquiet, or rather of inaction, is more position impracticable, the preto be attributed to mutual distrust tences for 'cruelty were taken away; and apprehension, and a sagacious and the multitude of spectators, caution, that waits for favourable composed of different nations, and circumstances or accidents, than to under different commands, being a love of peace, or regard for justice. a mutual check upon the enormi

The state of Poland is still unde- ties of each other, the rage for blood termined. A diet indeed has been dwindled into regular oppression. held, delegates appointed, and trea- Upon the whole, the condition of eat fre ries of cession and dismemberment Poland is not worse than it has been; ratified; and yet it would be difficult nor are the possibilities fewer, in its sites o to shew that any thing has been favour, really concluded. On one side, the The fortune of Russia has not at losers are obliged to submit to an all been predominant this year

with inevitable present necessity, still respect to the war. Their enemies hoping that some unexpected inter- become daily more habituated to vention of fortune may enable arms, and have been beaten into them to reclaim their rights ; on order and discipline. Distance and the other, the demands of the armed situation were also much against claimants, seem to increase with them; and they have been taught by their acquisitions and the facility of experience the difficulties of a Bul- depen obtaining them. Thus they both garian campaign; a service, which he continue in their former situations; can scarcely be carried on with a the one having obtained no addi- probability of success, without the tional security in his new, nor the assistance of such a fleet, as can other in his old possessions. maintain a superiority on the Black


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Sez. The rebellion in the Crimea, whether the new acquisitions in and apprehensions of danger nearer Poland, or the influence gained in

home, prevented, however, some of that country by the court of Petersd

the exertions that might otherwise burg, be equivalent to the loss, ex75 have been made in the war upon the

pence, and danger of such a war.

These will be found, upon examiale

I still remains to be seen, whe- nation, to be very inadequate to ther it was a wise policy in Russia, such a price. If Poland still con

to attempt increasing the bulk of tinued to be, what it long was, a Dey that vast empire, by adding new great and powerful nation, under

conquests to those boundless and ille the conduct of illustrious princes, rent cultivated regions which she already and guarded by a nobility famous the

possesses ; and which are perhaps for their prowess and military vir

at present too large for the grasp tues, such an extension of frontier un of any single government. It may would be a matter of real moment, has possibly hereafter be thought, that and carry with it great additional

the immense waste of treasure and security. In the present instance nich blod, which has been so lavishly these circumstances are totally

squandered in this pursuit, would changed. Russia had nothing to ich have been much better applied to apprehend from Poland, and much was the great purposes of population to gain by it. She has now obopo and internal improvement; and tained a large accession of territory pre.

that the glare of fruitless victories, in Lithuania, of the same nature, L'ay; are a poor recompence for the dis- with respect to soil and climate,

orders excited by the consequent and much in the same state as to and pressions of the people, and the cultivation, with those wide exeing real weakness that must ensue, from tended, but , half desart countries,

so long and so violent an exer which she had already possessed in Houdtion,

that quarter; and which will still It was evident from the nature require the time and labour of

ages no and situation of the countries, and to be peopled and cultivated. Both


consequences of former wars the old and the new possessions pro7 is with the Turks, that conquests in duce the same commodities, have Moldaria

, Wallachia, or Bessara- the same wants, require the same Dt at bia, and victories on the Pruth or degrees of improvement, and are

were not likely to be incapable of being of any use or attended with much benefit to Rus. assistance to each other, tu dia . The gaining of a port upon

With respect to frontier, for the the Black-Sea, was indeed an ob- neighbourhood of the peaceable, en set of the utmost importance; but indolent, and impotent Pole, Russia

a nature as to be attended has now extended her boundaries by almost with insuperable difficulties; into contact with those of her jea

both from the fatal aspect which it lous, watchful, and enterprising Ech must bear to the Ottoman empire, rivals; and has thereby laid the

and the jealousy which it must ex foundation (if the present systein he cite in several of the European continues) for such endless alter

cation and disputes, as must keep ck It still remains to be enquired, Germany and the North in a con

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count, on any future advantages leveringen 4] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1773. tinual state of warfare and confu, which Nature has placed between sion. The wisest and most bene- those empires, their distance, situvolent statesman could not have ation, and vast extent, the extreme wished for a happier barrier than difference of climate, and in the Poland, to prevent the clashing of manners, customs, and religions of the German and Muscovite em the inhabitants, are insuperable pires; nor 'could the demon of disbars to their coalescing ; and rencord have thrown out bitterer secds der it as impossible for Petersburg of contention, than it is now likely to rule the Ottoman empire, as to produce

would be for Constantinople to go. As to the obtaining or preserva vern the Russian.' ing of an influence in Poland, her The war in the Mediterranean late measures have been attended has this year been attended with with as little advantage in that re little honour, and with no other spect as in any other. Russia be advantage than what proceeded fore, solely guided and directed the from the taking of prizes. As a

uns councils of that country, nor could war of this nature is always very she have been deprived of the great' prejudicial to commerce, and bas security and advantage which she in this case been particularly so to derived from that unbounded in the French merchants, it has given Auence, but by the most mistaken much ụmbrage to the two great conduct and falsest policy. She branches of the house of Bourbon. 3 be now divides her authority with the And as the death of Ali Bey, and this other members of the triumvirate, the return of Egypt to its duty, has punt who will be sufficiently careful that cut off one of the principal sources she does not retain more than her of advantage that could be expected ind i share; nor will her dividend in a from it, and that the passage of the foundu future partition of the remains of Dardanelles seems no longer to be that republic, be in any degree thought practicable, it may still be an equivalent for the advantages a matter not unworthy of conside- ribe T which she has foregone, in losing ration, how much farther it may be com that supreme influence and di- consistent with prudence, to irritate Hol Fection by which she guided the the resentment of those princess whole.

and whether any advantages now Those schemes which were trum. to be expected from a continuance mom, peted throughout Europe, of to. of the war in the Levant, are equitally conquering and subverting valent to the risque of a rupture 'trina the Ottoman empire, however they with France and Spain. This fleet, table might have been held out to flatter however, has been lately reinforced, come the imaginations of the people, or and it is said will be rendered for latent

, to answer purposes in negociations. midable in the ensuing summer: for loans, could not have been se The cession of the Dutchy of Delim riously adopted by any statesman. Holstein to Denmark, is to be Cranby If the practicability of such an considered in no other light than the copsie event were even admitted, it could as a sacrifice to the present war, answer no good purpose, and would is therefore to be brought-as a dis- Shekie probably be highly pernicious to Russia. The eternal boundaries that Russia may obtain by it. At the lo

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the same time, nothing can be a this cession removes a bone of endclearer demonstration of the appre- less contention from between those

bensions which the latter had con- states. Teme

oxired, with respect to the designs The despotism of the Russian the

of a tear northern neighbour, than government, cati only secure obens of

the great price which she has upon dience, while the rods and the axes rable

bis occasion paid for the friendship are immediately before the eyes of of the former,

the people; but as soon as distance, burg

It was one of the most favourite or any other circumstance, screens

and darling projects with Peter the them from the immediate exertion no gan Great, to obtain, at any expence, of power, all discipline, order, and

and by any means, a German prin- submission are at an end, and those cipality

, with a vote in the diet of who were immediately before its with

the empire. The watchful and most abject slaves, become at once other

prudent jealousy, with which even the most arrogant contemners of eeded

his nearest allies regarded this de- all laws and obligations. To this As 8

sign, prevented its accomplishment. untoward disposition (which, where very They readily joined him in strip- religion does not rivet the chains,

ping Sweden of its plumes, and is the inseparable attendant of des

adorned themselves with a part of potism) the Russians owe a new given them; but prudently declined the war, which has this year brokea

honour of his becoming a nearer out in the Crimea'; where the Don Thon |

neighbour. This object, of which Cossacks, with others of their suby he was disappointed in himself, he jects, having revolted, and joined however wished to obtain for his with the Tartars, and those few sucessors, and it accordingly ir Turks who were left in the coun.

duenced his conduct in the marri. try, have become so formidable as of the

ages of his children, in consequence nearly to master the whole, and to be

of which, the late unfortunate em- thus have rendered abortive, all peror, Peter the Third, united in their former successes in that pehis

own person the dutchies of ninsula. Sleswick and Holstein, with the

A rebellion of a more dangerous empire of Russia.

nature has lately broken out in the Such is the vanity of human de borders of the kingdom of Casan,

signs and wisdom, that this object, owing, it is said, to the extraorhapa of so much care and solicitude, dinary impositions laid on for the que though his original paternal inhe- support of the war, and the contiritance

, venerable for its antiquity, nual draughts of men carried off tech and of some consideration for its for the supply of the armies. For

value and extent, is relinquished this purpose, notwithstanding the by the'present successor without any great improvements in knowledge

equivalent ; Delmenhorst, and the and science which have taken place Es conaty of Oldenburgh, being in no in Russia, it was not yet thought

degree to be considered as such. It too late, to raise a new Demetrius must however be acknowledged, from the dead. A Cossack, whose that these dutchies are of infinitely name is Pugatscheff, has assumed greater consequence and value to the name and character of the late Denmark than to Russia; and that unfortunate Emperor Peter. the

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