« ZurückWeiter »
Jane. Ma.' I remember to have eaten some ginger preserves', when Captain Riley arrived here from India, and we visited his ship! It was a part of his cabin stores'; and I do not think I ever tasted a greater delicacy'.
Proportion, or the Rule of Ihree. NOTE 1. This rule is nothing more than the application of the two grand operative principles in arithmetic, to the solution of certain usetul problems or practical questions. It is called proportion, because there is an actual relative proportion existing between the given terms; and it is called the Rule of Threa, because three terms are always given or implieil, in each ques. tion by which a fourth term or answer is found. It is sometim s called the Golden Rule, in consequence of its great truth, utility, aod atınost universal application. This rule consists of two parts: Single proportion and Double proportion.
Single Proportion. In Single Proportion, three terms are always given in each proposition by which a fourth term is discovered.
Of the three given terms, two are of the nature of a supposition, and the other of a demand.
The term which makes the demand, is always of the same name and kind with the answer or fourth term.
Thus: Suppose 6 apples cost 9 cents, then what is the cost of 12 apples? The characters which imply proportion, are these; : and they may be read, Thus: as 6 apples : is to 12 apples :: so is 9 cts : 18 cts.
NOTE 2. It has been common to arrange the given terms in proportion in sueh a way as to require two distinot no les of stating questions, and also two modes of working them. One is termed the Rule of Three Direct, and the oher, the Rule of Three laverse These useless distinctions may be avoidell, and tue perplexity anil labour greatly abridged, by wdopting one general rule and making all propositions concur with the Rule of Three Direct
GRAMMAR. LESSON 12.
Indicative Mood.-Present Time.
Plural Number. 1st per. I have loved apples, We have loved apples, 2d do You have loved apples, You have loved apples, 3d do He has loved apples. They have loved apples.
Pluperfect Time. 1st per. I had loved apples, We had loved apples, 2d do You had loved apples, You had loved apples. 3d do She had loved apples. They had loved apples.
First Future Time. 1st per. I will love apples, We will love apples, 2d do You will love apples, You will love apples, 3d do It will love apples. They will love apples,
Second Future Time, 1st per. I shall have loved ap- We shall have loved apples,
ples, 2d do You will have loved You will have loved apples,
apples, 3d do She will have loved They will have loved apples.
apples. Note. The Second Future Tense refers to an act that will take place, at or belore the time of another future action, as, She will bave lived apples before she is o age.
SPELLING.--LESSON 13. scrab-ble skrăb'bl sel-vage sěl'vidje sham-ble shăm'bl scram-ble skră m'bl sen-ate sěn'năt sham-rock shăm'rok scrib-ble skrib'bl sense-less sěnse'lės sharp-er shărp úr scriv-ner skriv'nŭr sen-tence sěn'těnse shat-ter shăt'tur scrub-by skrūb'bē sen-try sěn'trē shek-el shek'kl scud-dle skud'dl
ser-aph sěr'răf shell-duck shel'dūk scuf-fle skuf'A ser-mon sěr'mun
shell-y shělle sculk-er skúlkur
ser-vice sěrvis shel-ter shěl'tur scull-cap skūl'kăp ser-vile sēr'vil
shiel-vy shělvē scul-ler skul'lur ses-sion sěsh'un shep-herd shep'purd scull-ion skúl'yūn set-tle sět'tl'
. shin-gle shing'gli sculp-tor skúlp'tūr' sev-en sěv'vn ship-boy ship'bòė scup-per skūp'pür sev-er sěv'vŭr ship-wreck ship'rěk scur-ril skurril sex-tant sēks'tă nt shiv-er shỉy'ur scur-vy skūr'vē sex-tile sěks'til shov-el shủy'v] scut-tle skut'il
sex-ton seks'tün shrill-ness shril'něs sec-ond sēkskúnd shab-by shăb'bē shrill-y shrille sec-tion sěk'shún shacli-le shăk'kl shriy-el shriv'vi sec-tor sěk'tūr shad-ow shăd'do
shrub-by shrub'be sedg-y sědj'é shag-gy shăg'ge shud-der shůd'dūr sel-dom sěl'dūm shal-lop shallup shuf-Me shuf'f sel-ler sěl'iūr
shal-low shăl lo READING.-LESSON 14.
Licorice and Cork. Mary. Ma. the next article in the list', is Licorice'; will you speak of that now'?
Ma. Licorice is the juice of a plant called by that name', which is cultivated in several parts of Europe'; especially in Yorkshire', England', and in some parts of Spain. This shrub is planted by slips in April', or May'; at the age of
three years', it is fit for use! From the long yellow roots', washed clean', is expressed a juice', which is boiled to a syrup', and formed into cakes' and rolls', ready for market'.
Jane. In Spain', Ma', grows another tree that is very useful'; it is mentioned in Don Quixotte'.
Mary: Ma', sister means the Cork Tree'; we have it in
Ma. Yes'; the Cork tree is indiginous'; that is', a native of the southern parts of Europe and Asia. It is a species of the Oak'; and a very handsome tree'. The bark', which is renewed annually', that is', yearly', is the useful part', but it is not gathered for the purpose of making corks until the tree is fifteen or twenty years old.
Jane. Then', I suppose', the bark of the tree comes off in large round pieces'.
Ma. It does'. and to make these flat', they are piled up with the hollow side down', in damp places', and pressed with heavy weights. They are subsequently dried', packed', and shipped to every part of the world'. The business of cutting corks of various sizes for common use', is very simple'; though it requires the finest edge tools'.
Single Proportion. Rule. 1. Put that term which is of the same name and kind with that of the answer, in the 3d place for a multiplier.
2. Then, if, from the nature of the question, the fourth term or answer, must be more than the 3d term; place the larger of the two remaining terms in the 2d place for a multiplicand, and the other, in the 1st place for a divisor.
3. Multiply the 2d and 3d, terms together, and divide the product by the 1st, and the quotient will be the true answer, Thus: If 6 apples cost 9 cents, what will 12 apples cost? 2
1 As 6 : 12 : : 9 : 18 Th 12X9=108:-6=18. Ans. NOTE In this question, 9 cents, is of the same name and kind with the answer, and stands in the 3d place; the answer must be more than the 3d term, becalise, 12 apples will, at the same rate, cost more than 6; therefore 12 occupies the 2d place, and the remaining term, 6, the 1st place. Then 12 multiplied by 9, equa s 108; which, divided by 6, gives 18 cents, the answer, in the same name and kind with the 3u term.
When, from the nature of the question, the fourth term or answer must be less than the third term, then the smaller of
the two remaining terms must bave the second place, and the Jarger, the first place.
Thus: If 18 cents buy 12 apples, how many apples will 9 cents buy?
i 4 As 18 : 9 : : 12 : 6, Then, 9X12=108-1835 Ans. Nore. Here the answer is in apples, and the 3d term is in apples, and because 9 cents, at an equal rate, will buy less than 18 cents, the answer will be less than the 3d term; therefore 9, the smaller of the remaining terms, takes the 2d place, and 18, the larger, the 1st place. Hence, it is evidet from both statements, that a large multiplier, and small divisor produces a large quotient; while a small multiplier, and a large divisor yields a small quotient. All questions in Single Proportion may be stated and worked in one or the other of the above modes.
GRAMMAR. LESSON 16.
Plural Number. 1st per. If I love apples,
If we love apples, 2d do If you love apples, If you love apples, 3d do If he loves apples.
If they love apples.
Imperfect Time. 1st per. If I loved apples, If we loved apples, 2d do If you loved apples, If you loved apples, 30 do If she loved apples. If they loved apples.
Present Ti me. - Second Form, 1 st per. If I love apples,
If we love apples, 2d do If you love apples, If you love apples, 3d do If it love apples.
If they love apples. SPELLING.-LESSON 17. shut-ter shūt'tūr syr-up sūr'rūp
slip-per slip půr shut-tle shūt't1
sis-ter sis'tūr slip-py slip'pe sick-en sik'kn six-teen siks'tēēn slug-gard slūgʻgurd sick-ly sik'le six-ty siks'të
slum-ber slúm'búr sick-ness sikʼnės skep-tick skep tik smat-ter smăt'tūr sift-er sift'ur skill-less skilles smelt-er smělt'ur silk-en silk’kn skil.et skillit smerk-y směrk'e silk-y silkē
skin-ner skin'nur smith-y smith'è sil-ly sil'lē
skin-ny skin'ne smit-ten smit'tn sil-ver sil'vůr skip-per skip'păr smoth-er smúth-úr sim-mer sim'ùr skir-mish skirmish smugʻgle sınŭgsl sim per sim'pūr slab-ber slăb'búr smut-ty smõtte sim-ple simpl slab-by slăb'be snaf-fle snăffi sim-ply sim'plē slack-en slăk'kn
sin-ew sin'nū slack-ly slăk'le
snap-per snăp'pur sing-er singsúr slack-ness slăk'něs snatch-er snătsh'ūr sing-le sing'g! slan-der slăn'dūr snip-per snip'pūr sing-ly sing'gle slant-ly slănt'lē sniv-el sniv'vi sin-less sin'lės slen-der slēn'dūr snuf-fers snuf fürz sin-ner sin'nur slid-den slid'dn snuf-fle snuf'A sip-pit sip'pit sling-er sling'ur sock-et sök'ket sir-rah sir'ră slip-knot slip'not
Wool, fc. Mary. In speaking of the materials which form our dress', we forgot to mention wool'; it comes next in order upon our list.
Jane. I expect Mamma can tell us something very interesting on this subject'. I will, therefore, lay by my brush', and give attention!
Ma. The various operations by which wool', which you know is the hair or covering of sheep', is converted into cloth', are so different' and so complex', às not to be easily understood from verbal description', and not very easily described'.
Mary. What is the meaning of complex', Mal
Ma. Complex, means whatever has many parts involved in each other'; or what is not simple'.
Jane. Our best wool, I expect', is imported from Spain'; and the second best’, from England', is it not, Ma'?
Ma. Yes'; but we raise large quantities of excellent wool in our own country'. I will now mention some of the operations through which the wool passes into cloth'. After shearing', it is cleansed' and dried'; it is then beaten', and all the dirt picked out'. It is next oiled', carded', and spun'; then slightly sized' and delivered to the weaver in skeins! He spools and warps the yarn into a web', and then winds it upon the beam of his loom'. He afterwards weaves it by throwing the woof in the shuttle across the web', which produces cloth'. The thread of the woof should be one third larger than that
of the warp:
Mary. Ma', do explain warp and woof to us'; my ideas are confused.
Ma. Warp means the threads that extend lengthwise of the cloth or loom', and woof, those which run across the warp, and are thrown in by means of the shuttle! The cloth is sent to the dressing mills', where it is coloured, purified, fulled,