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the rags

ring which they are immersed in clean water', which softens

into a mash or pulp'. Mary. But', Ma’, who does this work through its several stages'?

Ma. It is done mostly by women and children'; but for some of the heavier parts of the several operations', men are employed'.

The fine pulp', snow white', is next put into a copper vat of warın water', from which it is dipped by an iron sieve or mould'. Through this sieve, the thin and finer parts of the pulp passes back into the vat', leaving just enough behind to make a sheet of paper.

Jane. Then the moulds give the form and texture to paper', and the kind of rags', its quality

Ma. Just so'. The pulp in the moulds', is then turned out upon a cloth of thick felt'; then another sheet', and another cloth', until the pile is complete'. It is then preşsed', dried, sized', packed in quires and reams', and ready for market'. The whole process occupies three or four weeks'.

ARITHMETIC,--LESSON 47.

Reduction, A, has a pipe of wine, which he puts into pint, quart, and two quart bottles, and of each an equal number; how many bottles has he? Thus: 126=1P. & 126 X 43504qts. X2=1008pts. Then, 2qts. X2=4 pints.

1X2=2 do 1pt X1=1 do

7 pints in one of each of the bottles; and 1008:7=144 answer. A, must have 144 bottles of each kind or 432 in all.

Now, if you wish to know how often an equal number of several unequal things may be had in a given thing of the same name, work after A's rule. That is,

RULE. 1. Bring the several unequal things to the lowest given term among them; then bring the given thing of the same name to the same term.

2. Divide the greater by the lesser term, and the quotient will be the answer.

B, has £50, and wants to know how many shillings, ninepences, six-pences, four-pences, and pence, of each an equal number, may be had in it.

Ans. 375.

GRAMMAR.-LESSON 49.

Inflection of the verb walk.

Present Time.- Subjunctive Mood.
Singular Number.

Plural Number ist per. If I walk,

If we walk, 2d do If you walk,

If you walk, 3d do If he, &c. walks.

If they walk.
Imperfect Time.
Singular Number.

Plural Number. 1st per. If I walked,

If we walked, 2d do If you walked,

,

If you walked, 3d do If he, &c. walked.

If they walked. SPELLING.--LESSON 49. gel-ly gěl'lē gib-bous gib'būs głz-zard giz'zūre gen-der jěn'dır gib-bets jib'bits

glad-den glăd'da gen-et jen'nit gid-dy gid'de glad-ly glăd'le gen-tiles jen'tilz gig-gle gig'gl glad-ness glăd'něs gen-tle jěn't1 gild-er gildur glad-some glăd'sắm gent-ly jent'lē

gim-crack jim'krắk glan-ders glăn'dūrz gen-try jěn'trē gin-ger jin'jūr glass-man glas măn ger-man järmắn gin-gle jing

gl glass-y glăs'sē ger-min jer'mìn

gin-sing jin'sing glib-by glib'be ger-und jer'und gip-sy jip'sē glib-ness glib'nės ges-ture jěs'tshūre gir-der gir-dúr glis-ten glis'sn get-ter gět'túr gir-dle gěr'di glis ter glis'tur ghast-ful găst'fai girl-ish gěrl'ish glit-ter glit'tūr ghast-ly găst'lē

giv-er giv'ūr glos-sy glos'sē gib-bet gib'bit

READING.-LESSON 50. Nsary. Is parchment also made of rags, Ma?

.Va. Parchment is a kind of leather made of goat skins. After the hair is stripped off, the skin is put into lime water, the fleshy parts are taken off and the whole made flexible. Then it passes into the hands of the parchment maker, who shaves it thin, rubs its surface with pumice stone, and ren-. ders the parchment fit for market.

Vellum is a more delicate kind of parchment, made in a similar way from the skin of calves.

Jane. The skins of calves are also used to bind books, are .they not, Ma?

Ma. Yes; and sheep skins too; but when prepared for this purpose, the skins undergo a very different process; they are tanned.

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Jane. I know something of the operation; for I once went into a tan-yard with Pa, and he showed me how tanning was managed. The hair is first taken off by being steeped in lime water, and the skins are then scraped clean with a knife and pumice stone.

After this, it is spread in a vat, and covered with oak or hemlock bark, ground fine; and filled with water. This changes the skin to leather.

Ma. At the present day, the vats are filled with the warm liquor in which the bark has been steeped, which effects the same object in much less time. And after the tanning, the leather passes into the hands of the currier, who, by'scouring, greasing, waxing, sizing, and blacking, finishes it for the shoe maker, the saddler, &c.

Mary. But, Ma, I think Morocco leather, the most beautiful.

Ma. Morocco leather is made of the skins, both of sheep and goats, dressed in a similar way, only it is tanned with the leaves of the Sumach; a shrub of great beauty and useful

ness.

ARITHMETIC.-LESSON 51.

Reduction, The method of changing one currency to another. RULE. 2. Bring the given sum to its lowest name, or to any convenient name.

2. Divide that name, by as many of the same as equals one in the currency required. The quotient will be the answer. Thus: Bring £42 12, N. Y. currency, to Federal money.

£42X20+12=852s. --Ss.=$106.50 Obs. 1. The proof of this operation will furnish a rule by which Federal money, may be changed into any currency.

Rule. 1. Multiply the given sum in Federal money by the shillings which equal a dollar at the given place.

2. Divide the product by 20, and the quotient will be pounds, in the currency required. Thus: Change $106.50, to pounds, &c. N. Y, currency.

$106.50 X 8=852s+20= £42 - 12, Ans. OBS. 2. If there is a remainder, after dividing by 20, then multiply it by 12, for pence, and any further remainder by 4, for farthings.

GRAMMAR.-LESSON 52.

Exercises in Parsing. If I come I will help you. If you are good, you are happy. Mary will walk into the field unless it rains. Though a liar

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speaks the truth, he will hardly be believed. Moses must stay, if James goes. If they come, they may bring the books. You get no pay, unless you play. If he were to laugh, he would be known at once.

Obs. The Conjunctiun is frequently understood; the mood is nevertheless subjunctive. As: Were he to laugh, he would be known at once. Were I to act for you,

the
game

would be immediately up.

Questions on the 21st Chapter,

READING EXERCISES.

Les. 2. What is Mary's remark? Ma's reply? Jane's question? Ma's answer? Mary's objection? Ma's explanation? Mary's retraction? Ma's admonition?

Les. 6. Subject? Jane's question? Ma's reply? Mary's question? Ma's answer? Mary's intimation? Ma's reply? Jane's question? Ma's answer? Jane's inquiry Ma's answer? Jane's explanation?

Les. 10. Subject? Mary's objection? Ma's explanation? Jane's question! Ma's answer? Jane's inquiry? Ma's reply? Mary's observation? Jane's request? Ma's reply? Mary's remark?

Les. 14. Subject? Jane's question? Ma's answer? Jane's observation? Ma’s explanation? Jane's explanation? Ma's remark? Mary's observation? Ma’s remark? Mary's inquiry? Ma's answer?

Les. 18. Subject? Jane's question? Ma's answer? Jane's objection? Ma's reply? Jane's remark? Mary's remark! Ma's explanation?

Les. 22. Subject? Jane's remark? Ma's reply? Mary's remark? Ma's conclusion? Jane's remark? Ma's reply? Mary's answer? Jane's observation? Mary's remark?

Les. 26. Subject? Jane's wish? Ma's answer? Jane's remark? Ma's reply? Mary's question? Ma's answer? Jane's remark? Ma's remark?

Les. 30. Subject? Mary's wish? Ma's reply? Jane's remark? Ma's remark? Jane's remark? Mary's remark? Ma's remark?

Les. 34. Subject? Mary's remark? Ma's answer? Mary's question? Ma's answer? Jane's remark? Ma’s reply? Mary's remark? Ma's answer?

Les. 38. Subject? Mary's intimation? Ma's reply? Jane's inquiry? Ma's answer? Jane's wish? Mary's wish? Ma's reply? Jane's remark? Ma's reply?

Les. 42. Subject? Jane's remark? Ma’s answer? Jane's observation? Ma’s reply? Jane's remark? Mz's answer: Jane's promise! Ma's remark? Mary's reply? Ma’s reply? Mary's reply? Ma's reply:

Les. 46. Subject? Ma's question? Jane's reply? Mary's remark? Ma's reply? Jane's inquiry? Ma’s reply? Mary's remark? Ma’s explanation Mary's question? Ma’s answer? Jane's remark? Ma's reply?

Les. 50. Subject? Mary's question? Ma's answer? Jane's question? Ma's answer? Jane's explanation? Ma's remark? Mary's remark? Ma's reply?

ARITHMETICAL EXERCISES. Les. 3. What is Reduction? How many kinds? What is the rule? What the example? What of the note?

Les. 7. What the 2d rule? Example? Note?

Les. 11. What the 1st rule for reducing English and Federal money: What the 2d rule! The 3d rule and noter The 4th rule: The 5th ruler The 6th rule: The 7th rule? The Sth rule?

Les. 47. What is the 1st step in the rule given to reduce a given quantity to several unequal quantities of the same name and equal number? What the 2d step? Example? Illustration?

Les. 51. What is the 1st step in the 1st rule for changing one currency into another? What is the 2d? Ist Observation? What is the 1st step in tủe second rule? What is the second? 2d Observation?

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Les. 4. What is the 14th rule? Example? Obs. 1? Obs. 2? Examples?

Les. 8. What the 15th rule? Example? Illustration?

Les. 12. What the 16 rule? Example? fllustration? Obs. and example 1? Obs. and example 2?

Les. 16. What is mood? The note? The number and kinds of moods? What the Indicative mood? What is tense? Ilow many and what? Note, &c.?

Les. 20. Remark? Note 1st? What a regular verb? What an irregular verb? Note 2d, &c.?

Les. 24. How are participles formed? How many kinds? Ilow distinguished? What a simple tense? What a compound tense?

Les. 28. What of the 1st obs.? What of the 2d obs.?.

Les. 32. How is the perfect tense formed? How the pluperfect? What of solemn style, &c.?

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