Abbildungen der Seite

Les. 8. Describe the demonstrative adjective pronoun. Describe the indefinite adjective pronoun. What the obs.

Les. 12. What the 9th rule? Example? Illustration? Obs.?

Les. 16. What the ICth rule? Example? Illustration? Observation?

Les. 24. Describe relative pronouns. Describe the Interrogative pronouns.

Les. 28. What is the 11th rule? Example? Illustration?

Les. 32. What the 12th rule? Example? Illustration? Observation?

Les. 36. What of the observation? How is which, applied? How is that applied? How is what applied?

Les. 40. What of conjunctions? How many kinds? What examples? Which the copulative conjunctions? What of the disjunctive conjunctions? What examples? Which the disjunctive conjunctions?

Les. 44. What the 13th rule? Examples? Illustration? Observation?

Les. 48. Describe the Interjection? Application? Note?


Dialogue between Jane, Mary, and their Mother.

Loaf Sugar, Sc. Mary. In describing the process of making sugar', you said the juice of the cane was boiled'.

Mo. Yes', it is first mixed however with lime and pot ash, which causes the oily parts to separate in the form of a thick scum, which is skimmed off the syrup'. The juice is boiled, until completely cleansed from all its impurities', and then it is sugared off"; that is, boiled down to a thick consistency', which', when cool has a course sandy grit'; this we call brown sugar'.

Jane. And from the brown sugar', the loaf sugar is manufactured'; is it not ma'?

Ma. Yes'; It is again melted, however, and again clarified with bullock's blood', or the white of eggs', and then formed into loaves for market'.

Mary. Bullock's blood, ma'! how filthy!

Ma. And yet you will continue to be fond of sweetmeais'! The blood', from its gummy qualities', being well stirred into the syrup, cleaves to every impurity and then rises with it to the surface where it is removed', and the syrup left pure'.

Mary. O! that is different from what I thought.

Ma. I beg', my child', that you will guard against an es pression of your views, until you are perfectly acquainted with the subject in question, in all its parts, and under all its aspects!


Reduction. Der. Reduction exhibits a method by which numbers and quantities are changed from one name to another, without effecting their absolute value.

Reduction is of two kinds, that by which high names are brought to low names, cailed Reduction Descending, and that by which low names are brought to high names, called Reduction Ascending

The two kinds are respectively the precise converse of each other, and mutually prove each other.

RULE 1. When a high name is to be brought into a lower, then multiply the highest term by as many of the next lower, as will make one in that higher, and bring the next lower into the product; and so on until all the terms are respectively brought in.

Thus: (1) Bring £27-6-4 into pence. £27-6-4

20 of the next lower equals one of the 20 highest pounds.

546 shillings. 12 of the next lower equals one of that 12 higher, shillings,

Ans. 6556 pence, Note, The sum, 1 27-6-4 is changed or reduced to 6556 pence, and both terms express the same absolute value, for 127 6. 4, equals 6556 pence; and 6558 pence equals 127-6-4.


Exercises in Parsing. Rule 14. When nouns, or pronouns, of the singular number, are connected by a copulative conjunction, expressed or mplied, then the verbs, nouns, and pronouns, which follow in connexion, must be in the plural number.

Thus: Jane and Mary, who love their parents, are obedient girls. Wheat and barley grow in the middle States of the Union. They both find a market in our sea ports, on the coast.

Obs. 1. When a distributive adjective pronoun is attacheil to each subject, then, the verbs, nouns, and pronouns, in connexion, must be in the singular number.

As: Every man and every boy was at work. Every day and each hour brings the living nearer the dead.

Obs. 2. When nouns or pronouns of the singular number are connected by a disjunctive conjunction, expressed'or implied, then the verbs, nouns, and pronouns, in connexion must be in ihe singular number.

As: Jane or Mary, who loves her parents is an obedient girl. Wheat or barley grows in yonder field; it is ripe and fit to cut. John or James, who owns the field is the reaper; by the sweat of his brow he earns his bread.


-LESSON 5. con-serve kõn'sěrv cop-ped kopʼpěd cov-et kūv'ět con-sort kõn'sòrt

cop-per kop'pur con-stant kõn'stă nt cop-y kop'pē

coy-ey kŭy'vē

cough-er kolúr con-strue kõn'trô cor-al kõr'ăl

cov-in kõv'in con-sul kõn'sůl cos-tal kös'tăl coup-le küp'pl con-tact kõn'tăkt cos-tard kos'tărd coup-let küp'lēt con-test kõn'těst cos-tive kos'tiy cour-age kur'ridje con-trast kon'trăst cost-fy kost'lē cour-ant kūr'rănt

con-trite kõn'trite cot-lānd köť lănd cous'in kuz'in con-vent könovẽnt cot-tage kottage coz-en köz'zn con-vex kõn'věks cotton bắt/tn crab-bed krăb'běd con-vict kon'vikt cov-er kuy'ūv

crack-er krăk'úr con-voy kõn'vôē cov.ert kŭy'ŭrt crack-le kråk'k] cop-land köp lănd



Molasses, Sugar Candy, Barley Sugar, Rum, Distillation, f-c.

Jane. Is not molasses', Ma', the coarse remains of the syrup?

Ma. Treacle, or molasses, is made from the remains of the syrup', and the drainings of the brown sugar. And there is kind called


baker's molasses', which is made from the remains of loaf sugar'.

Mary. And sugar candy, Mamma', of what is that made?

Ma. Sugar candy is merely common brown sugar', clarified, crossed by strong threads', and placed in a stovel The stove is then heated to a high degree', by the warmth of which the sugar is crystalized or made transparent', and fixed to the threads!

Mary. Yes'; I have often seen threads attached to the sugar candy';' but barley sugar is a different preparation, I suppose'.

Ma. Barley sugar takes its name from the circumstance of its having been formerly boiled in a decoction of barley'; but now pure water is used', and it renders the sugar much clearer! A little lemon peel is sometimes added to the syrup, and it is then formed into twisted sticks for market!

Jane. Ma, I think I have been told that rum is made of molasses!

Ma. Rumis a spirit, distilled from molasses', or the coarser parts of brown sugar!

Jane. Distilled', Ma', what does that mean?

Ma. Distillation is a chemical process'. Heat separates the light parts from the heavy', which are received on a cold body', condensed and restored to a liquid again. I will ex<plain it to you when we make rose water!

Jane. I think I know now' Mai You filled a vessel full of rose leaves and water', last season, and placed it over the fire'. The light parts flew off in steam to the upper part of the vessel where it was condensed', and collected into large drops which fell from the tube of the vessel into the bottle. I remember the whole process well, for I took particular notice.


Reduction. Rule. 2. When a low name is to be brought into a high one, then divide the low name, by as many of itself as will make one of the next higher name; and so on through all the terms required. Thus: (2) Bring 6556 pence into pounds and parts.

12) 6556

2,0)54,6 +4 pence.

£27+6 shillings.

£27 - 6 - 4 Ans. Note. I first divide the lower name 6556 pence, by 12, because 12 of that low er pence, will make one of the next hig shillings; and I divide secondly, by 20 (cutting off the 6, and the cypher, agreeably to a former rule,) because 20 of that lower shillings, make one of the next higher pounds. Thus I arrive at the answer and obtain a proof of the first sum in reduction.

(3) Reduce £32 - 5 6 3 into farthings, and back for the proof. 32X20+5=6458; X 12+6=6546d; X4+3=26137qrs. ans. 26187:4=6546 +3qr; 6546;-12=645+6d; 645-20=32 +5, or £32 - 5 - 6 - 3 proof.

(4) Reduce $346. 36 7 into mills and back for proof. 346 X 10+3=3463 dimes;X 10+6=34636 cts;X 10+7= 346367 mills, Ans. 346367-10=34636+.7m; 34636-10=3463+6cts; 3463; 10=346-3 dimes, Answer, or $346. 36 proof.


Exercises in Parsing. Rule. 15. When nouns or pronouns are used in apposition, then they must be put in the same case. As: Pride; the vice of fools, destroyed his prospects. In this example, Pride, is a noun cominon, third person, singular number, made masculine gender, by way of figure, and the subject of the verb destroyed; the, is a definite article, referring to the noun vice, in limitation; vice, is noun common, third person, singular number, figuratively masculine gender, and the subject of the verb destroyed; in apposition to the noun pride, Rule 13; of, is a preposition, referring to the noun fools; fools, is a noun conmon, third person, singular number, of one or the other gender, and in the objective case after the preposition of, Rule Sth; destroyed is a transitive verb, 3d person, singular number, and

« ZurückWeiter »